Effects of ON channel blockade with 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB) on brightness and contrast perception in monkeys.


:Four experiments were performed to assess the effects of ON channel blockade with the glutamate analog 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB) on brightness and contrast perception in monkeys. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that stimuli brighter than background (incremental stimuli) appear less bright following ON channel blockade. This decrease in brightness is not enough to account for the previously observed threshold increase for detection of incremental stimuli following APB administration (Schiller et al., 1986; Dolan & Schiller, 1989). Experiment 2 examines the role of the ON and OFF channels in the interaction between local contrast and apparent brightness. The phenomenon of simultaneous contrast was examined under normal conditions and following APB administration. We find that even following ON channel blockade, the brightness of a stimulus is determined primarily by its contrast with its immediate background. This indicates that the lateral processes involved in simultaneous contrast can operate even when one channel has been compromised. In Experiment 3, we examined the role of the ON channel in detection of stimuli that appear by virtue of changes in background vs. foreground luminance. We find that the ON channel selectively conveys information pertaining not only to the temporal nature that defines the stimulus as incremental but also to the spatial features that define it as incremental. In Experiment 4, we test the hypothesis that incremental and decremental temporal luminance ramps are differentially processed by the ON and OFF channels to a higher degree than are step-luminance changes. We find that the detection of incremental ramps is no more affected than is the detection of incremental steps following APB administration.


Vis Neurosci


Visual neuroscience


Dolan RP,Schiller PH




Has Abstract


1994-01-01 00:00:00














  • Cone bipolar cells and cone synapses in the primate retina.

    abstract::Primate retinal bipolar cells synapsing with two adjacent cones (2C bipolars) are further described. Their synaptic contacts are either as the central (invaginating) component of the cone triads or as basal (flat) contacts on the membrane of the cone pedicle base. Correspondingly, their axons end either in the b (inne...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boycott BB,Hopkins JM

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

  • Computation of motion direction by quail retinal ganglion cells that have a nonconcentric receptive field.

    abstract::One type of retinal ganglion cells prefers object motion in a particular direction. Neuronal mechanisms for the computation of motion direction are still unknown. We quantitatively mapped excitatory and inhibitory regions of receptive fields for directionally selective retinal ganglion cells in the Japanese quail, and...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Uchiyama H,Kanaya T,Sonohata S

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Multi-nucleate retinal pigment epithelium cells of the human macula exhibit a characteristic and highly specific distribution.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is reportedly 3% bi-nucleated. The importance to human vision of multi-nucleated (MN)-RPE cells could be clarified with more data about their distribution in central retina. METHODS:Nineteen human RPE-flatmounts (9 ≤ 51 years, 10 > 80 years) were imaged at 12 locat...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Starnes AC,Huisingh C,McGwin G Jr,Sloan KR,Ablonczy Z,Smith RT,Curcio CA,Ach T

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differential effects of excitatory amino acids on photoreceptors of the chick retina: an electron-microscopical study using the zinc-iodide-osmium technique.

    abstract::Although excitotoxins derived from acidic amino acids are known to damage neurons in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers of the retina, little is known about their effects on photoreceptors. This study examines the acute and long-term effects of excitotoxins on photoreceptors of the chick retina. The zinc-iodid...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sattayasai J,Zappia J,Ehrlich D

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evoked potential and psychophysical analysis of Fourier and non-Fourier motion mechanisms.

    abstract::Some visual stimuli produce a strong percept of motion, even though they fail to excite motion detectors based on Fourier energy or cross correlation. Models which suffice to explain the motion percept in these non-Fourier motion (NFM) stimuli include linear spatiotemporal filtering, followed by rectification, followe...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Victor JD,Conte MM

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Encoding of both vertical and horizontal disparity in random-dot stereograms by Wulst neurons of awake barn owls.

    abstract::In binocular vision, the lateral displacement of the eyes gives rise to both horizontal and vertical disparities between the images projected onto the left and right retinae. While it is well known that horizontal disparity is exploited by the binocular visual system of birds and mammals to enable depth perception, th...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nieder A,Wagner H

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pattern-reversal electroretinogram in response to chromatic stimuli: I. Humans.

    abstract::We have studied the steady-state PERG in human subjects in response to red-green plaid patterns modulated either in luminance or in chromaticity or both. By varying the relative luminance of the red and green components, a value could be obtained at which the PERG amplitude was either minimum or locally maximum. This ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morrone C,Porciatti V,Fiorentini A,Burr DC

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of early monocular enucleation upon ocular dominance columns and cytochrome oxidase activity in monkey and human visual cortex.

    abstract::We examined cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity in striate cortex of four macaque monkeys after monocular enucleation at ages 1, 1, 5, and 12 weeks. These animal experiments were performed to guide our interpretation of CO patterns in occipital lobe specimens obtained from two children who died several years after monocu...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Horton JC,Hocking DR

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Decorrelation of neural activity during fixational instability: possible implications for the refinement of V1 receptive fields.

    abstract::Early in life, visual experience appears to influence the refinement and maintenance of the orientation-selective responses of neurons in the primary visual cortex. After eye opening, the statistical structure of visually driven neural responses depends not only on the stimulus, but also on how the stimulus is scanned...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rucci M,Casile A

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • A novel system for the classification of diseased retinal ganglion cells.

    abstract::Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic atrophy is an early feature of many forms of retinal degeneration, providing a challenge to RGC classification. The characterization of these changes is complicated by the possibility that selective labeling of any particular class can confound the estimation of dendritic remodeli...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tribble JR,Cross SD,Samsel PA,Sengpiel F,Morgan JE

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Minimum-variance cone-excitation ratios and the limits of relational color constancy.

    abstract::Relational color constancy refers to the constancy of the perceived relations between the colors of surfaces of a scene under changes in the spectral composition of the illuminant. Spatial ratios of cone excitations provide a natural physical basis for this constancy, as, on average, they are almost invariant under il...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nascimento SM,de Almeida VM,Fiadeiro PT,Foster DH

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Robust directional computation in on-off directionally selective ganglion cells of rabbit retina.

    abstract::The spatial and temporal interactions in the receptive fields of On-Off directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells endow them with directional selectivity. Using a variety of stimuli, such as sinusoidal gratings, we show that these interactions make directional selectivity of the DS ganglion cell robust with respect ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grzywacz NM,Amthor FR

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Chromatic detection and discrimination in the periphery: a postreceptoral loss of color sensitivity.

    abstract::The peripheral visual field is marked by a deterioration in color sensitivity, sometimes attributed to the random wiring of midget bipolar cells to cone photoreceptors in the peripheral retina (Mullen, 1991; Mullen & Kingdom, 1996). Using psychophysical methods, we explored differences in the sensitivity of peripheral...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newton JR,Eskew RT Jr

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Visual callosal projections in the adult ferret.

    abstract::The laminar and tangential organization of visual callosal projections of areas 17 and 18 were investigated in the adult ferret, using histochemical methods to visualize axonally transported horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Normal adult ferrets were given injections of HRP throughout one visual cortex or had gelfoam soak...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grigonis AM,Rayos del Sol-Padua RB,Murphy EH

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • The fate of the oculomotor system in clinical bilateral anophthalmia.

    abstract::The interdependence of the development of the eye and oculomotor system during embryogenesis is currently unclear. The occurrence of clinical anophthalmia, where the globe fails to develop, permits us to study the effects this has on the development of the complex neuromuscular system controlling eye movements. In thi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bridge H,Ragge N,Jenkinson N,Cowey A,Watkins KE

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Variability in mitochondria of zebrafish photoreceptor ellipsoids.

    abstract::Ultrastructural examination of photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoids in larval (4, 8, and 15 days postfertilization; dpf) and adult zebrafish identified morphologically different types of mitochondria. All photoreceptors had mitochondria of different sizes (large and small). At 4 dpf, rods had small, moderately stain...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tarboush R,Novales Flamarique I,Chapman GB,Connaughton VP

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Large retinal ganglion cells in the pipid frog Xenopus laevis form independent, regular mosaics resembling those of teleost fishes.

    abstract::Population-based studies of retinal neurons have helped to reveal their natural types in mammals and teleost fishes. In this, the first such study in a frog, labeled ganglion cells of the mesobatrachian Xenopus laevis were examined in flatmounts. Cells with large somata and thick dendrites could be divided into three ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shamim KM,Tóth P,Cook JE

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Contributions of cat posterior parietal cortex to visuospatial discrimination.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to examine the contributions made by cat posterior parietal cortex to the analyses of the relative position of objects in visual space. Two cats were trained on a landmark task in which they learned to report the position of a landmark object relative to a right or left food-reward...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lomber SG,Payne BR

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Screening of gap junction antagonists on dye coupling in the rabbit retina.

    abstract::Many cell types in the retina are coupled via gap junctions and so there is a pressing need for a potent and reversible gap junction antagonist. We screened a series of potential gap junction antagonists by evaluating their effects on dye coupling in the network of A-type horizontal cells. We evaluated the following c...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pan F,Mills SL,Massey SC

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Receptive-field properties of Q retinal ganglion cells of the cat.

    abstract::The goal of this work was to provide a detailed quantitative description of the receptive-field properties of one of the types of rarely encountered retinal ganglion cells of cat; the cell named the Q-cell by Enroth-Cugell et al. (1983). Quantitative comparisons are made between the discharge statistics and between th...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Troy JB,Schweitzer-Tong DE,Enroth-Cugell C

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate neurons in the rhesus monkey.

    abstract::Studies of the numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons in primates suggest that the numbers of both types of neurons may vary over a two-fold range from one individual to another. This raises the question of whether the numbers of ganglion cells and LGN neurons are related or var...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spear PD,Kim CB,Ahmad A,Tom BW

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Excitation and inhibition in orientation selectivity of cat visual cortex neurons revealed by whole-cell recordings in vivo.

    abstract::One striking transformation in response properties that occurs in the geniculo-cortical pathway is the appearance of a high degree of orientation selectivity in the cortex. This property may be conceived as arising purely from the excitatory inputs to the cell, as being structured largely by the inhibition a cortical ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Volgushev M,Pei X,Vidyasagar TR,Creutzfeldt OD

    更新日期:1993-11-01 00:00:00

  • Galvanic vestibular stimulation modulates the electrophysiological response during face processing.

    abstract::Although galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is known to affect the speed and accuracy of visual judgments, the underlying electrophysiological response has not been explored. In the present study, we therefore investigated the effect of GVS on the N170 event-related potential, a marker commonly associated with earl...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilkinson D,Ferguson HJ,Worley A

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Simulation of an anatomically defined local circuit: the cone-horizontal cell network in cat retina.

    abstract::The outer plexiform layer of the retina contains a neural circuit in which cone synaptic terminals are electrically coupled and release glutamate onto wide-field and narrow-field horizontal cells. These are also electrically coupled and feed back through a GABAergic synapse to cones. In cat this circuit's structure is...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith RG

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Variety of genotypes in males diagnosed as dichromatic on a conventional clinical anomaloscope.

    abstract::The hypothesis that dichromatic behavior on a clinical anomaloscope can be explained by the complement and arrangement of the long- (L) and middle-wavelength (M) pigment genes was tested. It was predicted that dichromacy is associated with an X-chromosome pigment gene array capable of producing only a single functiona...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neitz M,Carroll J,Renner A,Knau H,Werner JS,Neitz J

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioral evidence of filling-in at the blind spot of the monkey.

    abstract::In human subjects, the blind spot is perceptually filled-in by color and brightness from the surrounding visual field. The present behavioral study examined the occurrence of color filling-in at the blind spot in monkeys. First, the location of the blind spot was determined using a monocular saccade task. The blind sp...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Komatsu H,Murakami I

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • The retinae of Prototherian mammals possess neuronal types that are characteristic of non-mammalian retinae.

    abstract::This study has shown that the retinae of Prototherian (egg-laying) mammals possess two neuronal types that are present in non-mammalian retinae, but absent or morphologically different in the retinae of Eutherian (placental) mammals. First, endogenous serotonin-like immunoreactivity has been localized in a population ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Young HM,Vaney DI

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • The interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus, posterior bundle (INSFp) in the guinea pig: another nucleus of the accessory optic system processing the vertical retinal slip signal.

    abstract::As in rabbit, gerbil, and rat, the guinea pig interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus, posterior bundle (INSFp) is a sparse assemblage of neurons scattered among the fibers forming the fasciculus bearing this name. Most of the INSFp neurons are small and are ovoid in shape. Interspersed among these, are a few ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Benassi C,Biral GP,Lui F,Porro CA,Corazza R

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • ON and OFF activity gradients in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat: a combined 14C 2-deoxyglucose and D,L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid study.

    abstract::Experiments on the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the cat based on 14C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography and intraocular injections of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB) provided evidence for gradients of metabolic activity in the ON and OFF pathways in layer A, but only very weakly, if at all, in layer A1...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thurlow GA,Bowling DB,Cooper RM

    更新日期:1993-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of retinal impulse blockage on cytochrome oxidase-rich zones in the macaque striate cortex: II. Quantitative electron-microscopic (EM) analysis of neuropil.

    abstract::Unilateral retinal impulse blockage with tetrodotoxin (TTX) induces reversible shrinkage and decreased cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity in alternate rows of supragranular, CO-rich puffs in the adult macaque striate cortex (Wong-Riley & Carroll, 1984b: Carroll & Wong-Riley, 1987). The present study extended the finding...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong-Riley MT,Trusk TC,Tripathi SC,Hoppe DA

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00