Induction of retinal degeneration in a crab by light and okadaic acid in vitro: comparison with the Drosophila light-dependent retinal degeneration mutant w rdgBKS222.


:Retinae of the crab Leptograpsus which had been maintained on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle were cultured in vitro and exposed to 1 microM okadaic acid (OKA) at 0.75 h before light onset. Control retinae were subjected to the same routine and sampled at the same times without OKA treatment. At the concentration used, OKA totally inhibits types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, minimally inhibits type 2B, and does not affect type 2C. 1 microM OKA provoked a diminution of rhabdom diameter measured at the level of the photoreceptor nuclei in the dark, some ommatidial cartridges being stripped of rhabdomeral microvilli altogether. After 1-h illumination (225-320 lux), further reduction of rhabdom diameter was modest in control retinae but precipitate in those treated with OKA. After 2 h, control rhabdom diameters showed a further, not significant, decline, but OKA had induced a resynthesis of massive structures with the light-microscopic appearance of rhabdoms. Electron microscopy revealed that they were heterogeneous and of the following kinds: (1) a minority of rhabdoms with normally disposed but distorted microvilli; (2) rhabdoms in the throes of events that parody normal assembly; and (3) rhabdomal volumes occupied by saccular organelles or by pleats or ruffles of irregular architecture. The cytoplasm of all such receptors was packed with free and bound ribosomes and endomembranes. The sequence of events parallels that seen during light-induced degeneration of photoreceptors of the Drosophila mutant w rdgBKS222. Preliminary experiments show that a protein kinase activator SC-9 mimics many of these effects in the dark in the presence of 1 microM OKA. As a working hypothesis, it is proposed that light activates protein kinases via diacylglycerols generated by the phototransduction cascade, and that in both crab retinas challenged with OKA and retinas of rdg BKS222 activation of a nuclear regulatory protein by hyperphosphorylation provokes a runaway transcription whose selectivity and extent remain to be determined.


Vis Neurosci


Visual neuroscience


Blest AD,Carter M,Clausen JA,Stowe S,Trowell SC,Tsukitani Y




Has Abstract


1991-07-01 00:00:00














  • Computation of motion direction by quail retinal ganglion cells that have a nonconcentric receptive field.

    abstract::One type of retinal ganglion cells prefers object motion in a particular direction. Neuronal mechanisms for the computation of motion direction are still unknown. We quantitatively mapped excitatory and inhibitory regions of receptive fields for directionally selective retinal ganglion cells in the Japanese quail, and...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Uchiyama H,Kanaya T,Sonohata S

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Development of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in transitory cholinergic neurons, starburst amacrine cells, and GABAergic amacrine cells of rabbit retina, with implications for previsual and visual development of retinal ganglion cells.

    abstract::Starburst amacrine cells (SACs), the only acetylcholine (ACh)-releasing amacrine cells (ACs) in adult rabbit retina, contain GABA and are key elements in the retina's directionally selective (DS) mechanism. Unlike many other GABAergic ACs, they use glutamic acid decarboxlyase (GAD)(67), not GAD(65), to synthesize GABA...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Famiglietti EV,Sundquist SJ

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Differential induction of gene expression by basic fibroblast growth factor and neuroD in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    abstract::Embryonic chick retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can undergo transdifferentiation upon appropriate stimulation. For example, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces intact RPE tissue younger than embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5) to transdifferentiate into a neural retina. NeuroD, a gene encoding a basic helix-loop...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yan RT,Wang SZ

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • A neural model of foveal light adaptation and afterimage formation.

    abstract::Psychophysical research has documented the existence of three processes in light adaptation: a fast subtractive process, a divisive process that is fast at light onset and slower at light offset, and a very slow subtractive process (Hayhoe et al., 1987). In the neural model developed here, the fast subtractive process...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wilson HR

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Center/surround organization of retinal bipolar cells: High correlation of fundamental responses of center and surround to sinusoidal contrasts.

    abstract::Receptive field organization of cone-driven bipolar cells was investigated by intracellular recording in the intact light-adapted retina of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Centered spots and concentric annuli of optimum dimensions were used to selectively stimulate the receptive field center and surround wi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burkhardt DA,Bartoletti TM,Thoreson WB

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of the inhibitory actions of glycine and GABA on acetylcholine release from the rabbit retina.

    abstract::The inhibition of [3H]acetylcholine (ACh) release from cholinergic amacrine cells by glycine and GABA was studied using an in vivo eyecup preparation in anesthetized rabbits. Glycine (1 mM) had no effect on basal ACh release, but completely blocked the light-evoked release of ACh. Glycine also blocked the strong poten...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Linn DM

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Encoding of both vertical and horizontal disparity in random-dot stereograms by Wulst neurons of awake barn owls.

    abstract::In binocular vision, the lateral displacement of the eyes gives rise to both horizontal and vertical disparities between the images projected onto the left and right retinae. While it is well known that horizontal disparity is exploited by the binocular visual system of birds and mammals to enable depth perception, th...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nieder A,Wagner H

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate neurons in the rhesus monkey.

    abstract::Studies of the numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons in primates suggest that the numbers of both types of neurons may vary over a two-fold range from one individual to another. This raises the question of whether the numbers of ganglion cells and LGN neurons are related or var...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spear PD,Kim CB,Ahmad A,Tom BW

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Octopamine modulates photoreceptor function in the Limulus lateral eye.

    abstract::Activity at night in efferent nerve fibers from a central circadian clock produces changes in photoreceptor function in the lateral compound eye of Limulus: the response to light is increased; membrane potential fluctuations (bumps) occurring in the dark are suppressed; and the duration of bumps occurring both in the ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Renninger GH,Schimmel R,Farrell CA

    更新日期:1989-08-01 00:00:00

  • Multi-nucleate retinal pigment epithelium cells of the human macula exhibit a characteristic and highly specific distribution.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is reportedly 3% bi-nucleated. The importance to human vision of multi-nucleated (MN)-RPE cells could be clarified with more data about their distribution in central retina. METHODS:Nineteen human RPE-flatmounts (9 ≤ 51 years, 10 > 80 years) were imaged at 12 locat...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Starnes AC,Huisingh C,McGwin G Jr,Sloan KR,Ablonczy Z,Smith RT,Curcio CA,Ach T

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Topography of long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cone opsin gene expression in human and Old World monkey retina.

    abstract::The topographical distributions of the relative ratio of long- (L) and middle- (M) wavelength sensitive cone opsin messenger RNA (mRNA) in human and baboon retinas were mapped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The L:M mRNA ratio increased in a central-to-peripheral gradient in both species, being quite pronou...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neitz M,Balding SD,McMahon C,Sjoberg SA,Neitz J

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Dopaminergic amacrine cells express opioid receptors in the mouse retina.

    abstract::The presence of opioid receptors has been confirmed by a variety of techniques in vertebrate retinas including those of mammals; however, in most reports, the location of these receptors has been limited to retinal regions rather than specific cell types. Concurrently, our knowledge of the physiological functions of o...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gallagher SK,Anglen JN,Mower JM,Vigh J

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • The morphology of the dorsal eye of the hydrothermal vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata.

    abstract::The bresiliid shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, lives in large masses on the sides of hydrothermal vent chimneys at two sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Although essentially no daylight penetrates to depths of 3500 m, very dim light is emitted from the hydrothermal vents themselves. To exploit this light, R. exoculata has ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Neill PJ,Jinks RN,Herzog ED,Battelle BA,Kass L,Renninger GH,Chamberlain SC

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Fixational ocular motor control is plastic despite visual deprivation.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to assess the plasticity of human voluntary fixational eye movement control in relation to visual experience/chronic visual deprivation. Twelve blind adults participated (self-reported vision < or = light perception in each eye; age range = 23-56 years; visual experience range = 0-28 years; b...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hall EC,Ciuffreda KJ

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Visual detection deficits following inactivation of the superior colliculus in the cat.

    abstract::Lesion or inactivation of the superior colliculus (SC) of the cat results in an animal that fails to orient toward peripheral visual stimuli which normally evoke a brisk, reflexive orienting response. A failure to orient toward a visual stimulus could be the result of a sensory impairment (a failure to detect the visu...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fitzmaurice MC,Ciaramitaro VM,Palmer LA,Rosenquist AC

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropharmacological analysis of the role of indoleamine-accumulating amacrine cells in the rabbit retina.

    abstract::In order to elucidate the role of putative indoleaminergic amacrine cells in visual processing, we have employed pharmacological agents specific for the two classes of serotonin receptor, 5-HT2 and 5-HT1, which have been identified in both the retina and brain. Perfusion of the rabbit retina with 5-HT2 selective antag...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brunken WJ,Daw NW

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evoked potential and psychophysical analysis of Fourier and non-Fourier motion mechanisms.

    abstract::Some visual stimuli produce a strong percept of motion, even though they fail to excite motion detectors based on Fourier energy or cross correlation. Models which suffice to explain the motion percept in these non-Fourier motion (NFM) stimuli include linear spatiotemporal filtering, followed by rectification, followe...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Victor JD,Conte MM

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • General principles in motion vision: color blindness of object motion depends on pattern velocity in honeybee and goldfish.

    abstract::Visual systems can undergo striking adaptations to specific visual environments during evolution, but they can also be very "conservative." This seems to be the case in motion vision, which is surprisingly similar in species as distant as honeybee and goldfish. In both visual systems, motion vision measured with the o...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stojcev M,Radtke N,D'Amaro D,Dyer AG,Neumeyer C

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Whole-cell recording of light-evoked photoreceptor responses in a slice preparation of the cuttlefish retina.

    abstract::A new tissue slice preparation of the cuttlefish eye is described that permits patch-clamp recordings to be acquired from intact photoreceptors during stimulation of the retina with controlled light flashes. Whole-cell recordings using this preparation, from the retinas of very young Sepia officinalis demonstrated tha...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chrachri A,Nelson L,Williamson R

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Regenerating axons from adult chick retinal ganglion cells recognize topographic cues from embryonic central targets.

    abstract::We investigated whether regenerating mature axons recapitulate embryonic features essential to successful reconnectivity within the injured nervous system. Strips from embryonic and adult chick retinae were cultured, and outgrowing axons were examined morphometrically and immunohistochemically. In addition, the target...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vanselow J,Müller B,Thanos S

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Visual experience promotes the isotropic representation of orientation preference.

    abstract::Within the visual cortex of several mammalian species, more circuitry is devoted to the representation of vertical and horizontal orientations than oblique orientations. The sensitivity of this representation of orientation preference to visual experience during cortical maturation and the overabundance of cardinal co...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coppola DM,White LE

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • The discoloration illusion.

    abstract::The discoloration illusion, a new visual phenomenon, is described. This phenomenon originates from the juxtaposition of eight chromatic parallel contours on a white background, creating a luminance gradient and enclosing a light red region. Under these conditions, the inner region appears white: the light red discolor...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pinna B

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cortical projections to anterior inferior temporal cortex in infant macaque monkeys.

    abstract::Inferior temporal (IT) cortex is a "high-order" region of extrastriate visual cortex important for visual form perception and recognition in adult primates. The pattern of cortical afferents from both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres to anterior IT cortex was determined in infant macaque monkeys 7-18 weeks of...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodman HR,Consuelos MJ

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • An in vitro study of retinotectal transmission in the chick: role of glutamate and GABA in evoked field potentials.

    abstract::We have developed two brain slice preparations for studying tectofugal visual pathways in the chick: conventional, 400-microns slices ("thin slices"), and "thick slices" which encompass the rostral pole of the optic tectum and the contralateral optic nerve. Stimulation was delivered with a bipolar electrode positioned...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dye JC,Karten HJ

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • AMPA-selective glutamate receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR4 in the cat retina: an immunocytochemical study.

    abstract::AMPA-selective glutamate receptors play a major role in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the retina and are expressed in a variety of neuronal subpopulations. In the present study, immunocytochemical techniques were used to visualize the distribution of GluR2 and GluR4 subunits in the cat retina. Results were compar...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin P,Pourcho RG

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Electrophysiological sensitivity of carotenoid deficient and replaced Drosophila.

    abstract::R1-6 dominated electroretinographic (ERG) spectral sensitivities were determined as a function of days posteclosion from carotenoid deprived and replaced white-eyed Drosophila. The sensitivity of flies deprived from egg to adult waxed (about 1.5 log units by day 3), and then waned gradually from 3-11 days (over 2 log ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen DM,Stark WS

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of the components of the multifocal and full-field ERGs.

    abstract::The multi-input technique of Sutter and Tran (1992) yields multiple focal ERGs. The purpose here was to compare the components of this multifocal ERG to the components of the standard, full-field ERG. To record multifocal ERGs, an array of 103 hexagons was displayed on a monitor. Full-field (Ganzfeld) ERGs were elicit...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Hood DC,Seiple W,Holopigian K,Greenstein V

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • The topography of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina of the ground squirrel.

    abstract::The distributions of rod and cone photoreceptors have been determined in the retina of the California ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi. Retinas were fixed by perfusion and the rods and cones were detected with indirect immunofluorescence using opsin antibodies. Local densities were determined at 2-mm intervals a...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kryger Z,Galli-Resta L,Jacobs GH,Reese BE

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Temporal properties of surround suppression in cat primary visual cortex.

    abstract::The responses of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli presented in the region surrounding the receptive field. There is debate as to whether this surround suppression is due to intracortical inhibition, is inherited from lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), or is due to a combination of these f...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Durand S,Freeman TC,Carandini M

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Controversies about the visual areas located at the anterior border of area V2 in primates.

    abstract::Anatomical and electrophysiological studies have provided us with detailed information regarding the extent and topography of the primary (V1) and secondary (V2) visual areas in primates. The consensus about the V1 and V2 maps, however, is in sharp contrast with controversies regarding the organization of the cortical...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gattass R,Lima B,Soares JG,Ungerleider LG

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00