Movement of retinal along cone and rod photoreceptors.


:Single isolated photoreceptors can be taken through a visual cycle of light adaptation by bleaching visual pigment, followed by dark adaptation when supplied with 11-cis retinal. Light adaptation after bleaching is manifested by faster response kinetics and a permanent reduction in sensitivity to light flashes, presumed to be due to the presence of bleached visual pigment. The recovery of flash sensitivity during dark adaptation is assumed to be due to regeneration of visual pigment to pre-bleach levels. In previous work, the outer segments of bleached, light-adapted cells were exposed to 11-cis retinal. In the present work, the cell bodies of bleached photoreceptors were exposed. We report a marked difference between rods and cones. Bleached cones recover sensitivity when their cell bodies are exposed to 11-cis retinal. Bleached rods do not. These results imply that retinal can move freely along the cone photoreceptor, but retinal either is not taken up by the rod cell body or retinal cannot move from the rod cell body to the rod outer segment. The free transfer of retinal along cone but not along rod photoreceptors could explain why, during dark adaptation in the retina, cones have access to a store of 11-cis retinal which is not available to rods. Additional experiments investigated the movement of retinal along bleached rod outer segments. The results indicate that retinal can move along the rod outer segment, but that this movement is slow, occurring at about the same rate as the regeneration of visual pigment.


Vis Neurosci


Visual neuroscience


Jin J,Jones GJ,Cornwall MC




Has Abstract


1994-03-01 00:00:00














  • Chromatic detection and discrimination in the periphery: a postreceptoral loss of color sensitivity.

    abstract::The peripheral visual field is marked by a deterioration in color sensitivity, sometimes attributed to the random wiring of midget bipolar cells to cone photoreceptors in the peripheral retina (Mullen, 1991; Mullen & Kingdom, 1996). Using psychophysical methods, we explored differences in the sensitivity of peripheral...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newton JR,Eskew RT Jr

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Variety of genotypes in males diagnosed as dichromatic on a conventional clinical anomaloscope.

    abstract::The hypothesis that dichromatic behavior on a clinical anomaloscope can be explained by the complement and arrangement of the long- (L) and middle-wavelength (M) pigment genes was tested. It was predicted that dichromacy is associated with an X-chromosome pigment gene array capable of producing only a single functiona...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neitz M,Carroll J,Renner A,Knau H,Werner JS,Neitz J

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Functional dopamine deficits in the senile rat retina.

    abstract::The activity of the endogenous retinal dopamine (DA) pathway has been examined in the pigmented rat using retinas obtained from normal adult (approximately 3 months) and senile adults (approximately 24 months) using an in vitro electrophysiological approach. By comparing the pharmacological sensitivity of the horizont...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hankins MW

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium: identification of ocular mutants.

    abstract::The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) is in its fifth year of a ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-based mutagenesis screen to detect recessive mutations that affect the eye and brain. Each pedigree is tested by various phenotyping domains including the eye, neurohistology, behavior, aging, ethanol, drug, social behavior, ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jablonski MM,Wang X,Lu L,Miller DR,Rinchik EM,Williams RW,Goldowitz D

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Dopaminergic amacrine cells express opioid receptors in the mouse retina.

    abstract::The presence of opioid receptors has been confirmed by a variety of techniques in vertebrate retinas including those of mammals; however, in most reports, the location of these receptors has been limited to retinal regions rather than specific cell types. Concurrently, our knowledge of the physiological functions of o...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gallagher SK,Anglen JN,Mower JM,Vigh J

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Transitions between color categories mapped with a reverse Stroop task.

    abstract::In the reverse Stroop task, observers are instructed to ignore the ink color in which a color word is printed (the distractor color) and to respond to the meaning of the color word (the target). Reaction times (RTs) are faster with congruent combinations when the ink color matches the word than with incongruent combin...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smithson HE,Khan SS,Sharpe LT,Stockman A

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Currents in the presynaptic terminal arbors of barnacle photoreceptors.

    abstract::We have described the currents flowing across the presynaptic membranes of the four median photoreceptors of the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilus, using a quasi-voltage clamp arrangement. Membrane potential, measured in the terminal region of one photoreceptor, was controlled in all four terminals by feedback current s...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi JH,Stuart AE

    更新日期:1993-03-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of the components of the multifocal and full-field ERGs.

    abstract::The multi-input technique of Sutter and Tran (1992) yields multiple focal ERGs. The purpose here was to compare the components of this multifocal ERG to the components of the standard, full-field ERG. To record multifocal ERGs, an array of 103 hexagons was displayed on a monitor. Full-field (Ganzfeld) ERGs were elicit...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Hood DC,Seiple W,Holopigian K,Greenstein V

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • General principles in motion vision: color blindness of object motion depends on pattern velocity in honeybee and goldfish.

    abstract::Visual systems can undergo striking adaptations to specific visual environments during evolution, but they can also be very "conservative." This seems to be the case in motion vision, which is surprisingly similar in species as distant as honeybee and goldfish. In both visual systems, motion vision measured with the o...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stojcev M,Radtke N,D'Amaro D,Dyer AG,Neumeyer C

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Changing distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity in pigeon visual areas during the early posthatching period and effects of retinal removal on tectal GABAergic systems.

    abstract::The distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the pigeon visual system was studied during the first 9 days after hatching using a mouse monoclonal antibody, mAb 3A12, to glutaraldehyde linked GABA (Matute & Streit, 1986). GABA-like immunoreactivity was seen in cell bodies as well as in neuropil at the level of bot...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bagnoli P,Fontanesi G,Streit P,Domenici L,Alesci R

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • Synaptic inputs to retrogradely labeled ganglion cells in the retina of the cane toad, Bufo marinus.

    abstract::The entire population of ganglion cells in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus was labeled by retrograde transport of a lysine-fixable biotinylated dextran amine of 3000 molecular weight. Synaptic connections between bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells in the inner plexiform layer were quantitatively analyzed, with ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu BS,Gibbins IL

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • Chromatic adaptation, perceived location, and color tuning properties.

    abstract::We have studied the influence of chromatic adaptation upon the perceived visual position of a test stimulus using a Vernier alignment task. Maximum and minimum offsets in spatial position are generated when the adapting and test stimuli lie on the same and orthogonal axes in MBDKL color space, respectively. When the t...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKeefry DJ,McGraw PV,Vakrou C,Whitaker D

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Interlaminar connections of the superior colliculus in the tree shrew. II: Projections from the superficial gray to the optic layer.

    abstract::This study of the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, provides evidence for an intracollicular pathway that arises in the superficial gray layer and terminates in the optic layer. As a first step, Nissl, myelin, and cytochrome oxidase stains were used to identify the layers of the superior colliculus in the tree shrew. Seco...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee P,Hall WC

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Multi-microelectrode investigation of monkey striate cortex: link between correlational and neuronal properties in the infragranular layers.

    abstract::Recordings were taken from infragranular layers of area 17 of anesthetized monkeys with an array of 30 microelectrodes matching about one hypercolumn. From intracortical spike-train correlations, the novel neuronal property "delay scale position" related to retino-cortical delays, was derived. Relationships were estab...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Krüger J

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Light-dependent delay in the falling phase of the retinal rod photoresponse.

    abstract::Using suction electrodes, photocurrent responses to 100-ms saturating flashes were recorded from isolated retinal rods of the larval-stage tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). The delay period (Tc) that preceded recovery of the dark current by a criterion amount (3 pA) was analyzed in relation to the flash intensity...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pepperberg DR,Cornwall MC,Kahlert M,Hofmann KP,Jin J,Jones GJ,Ripps H

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development of multibank rod retinae in deep-sea fishes.

    abstract::We studied the development of multibank rod retinae by monitoring the size-related addition of new layers of rod inner and outer segments in four species of deep-sea fishes and found two different growth paradigms. In the mesopelagic Chauliodus sloani, new banks of rod inner and outer segments are added as long as the...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fröhlich E,Wagner HJ

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Is the input to a GABAergic synapse the sole asymmetry in turtle's retinal directional selectivity?

    abstract::We examined the effects of picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) on the responses to motions of ON-OFF directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells of the turtle's retina. These drugs are antagonists of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. For continuous motions, picrotoxin markedly reduced the overall directionality...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith RD,Grzywacz NM,Borg-Graham LJ

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Properties of stimulus-dependent synchrony in retinal ganglion cells.

    abstract::Neighboring retinal ganglion cells often spike synchronously, but the possible function and mechanism of this synchrony is unclear. Recently, the strength of the fast correlation between ON-OFF directionally selective cells of the rabbit retina was shown to be stimulus dependent. Here, we extend that study, investigat...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chatterjee S,Merwine DK,Amthor FR,Grzywacz NM

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • N-type and L-type calcium channels mediate glycinergic synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells of tiger salamanders.

    abstract::Synaptically localized calcium channels shape the timecourse of synaptic release, are a prominent site for neuromodulation, and have been implicated in genetic disease. In retina, it is well established that L-type calcium channels play a major role in mediating release of glutamate from the photoreceptors and bipolar...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bieda MC,Copenhagen DR

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Saccade target selection in macaque during feature and conjunction visual search.

    abstract::To gain insight into how vision guides eye movements, monkeys were trained to make a single saccade to a specified target stimulus during feature and conjunction search with stimuli discriminated by color and shape. Monkeys performed both tasks at levels well above chance. The latencies of saccades to the target in co...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bichot NP,Schall JD

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cholera toxin mapping of retinal projections in pigeons (Columbia livia), with emphasis on retinohypothalamic connections.

    abstract::Anterograde transport of cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) was used to study the retinal projections in birds, with an emphasis on retinohypothalamic connections. Pigeons (Columbia livia) were deeply anesthetized and received unilateral intraocular injections of CTb. In addition to known contralateral retinorecipient regi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shimizu T,Cox K,Karten HJ,Britto LR

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Dark rearing reveals the mechanism underlying stimulus size tuning of superior colliculus neurons.

    abstract::Neurons in the superficial layers of the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) exhibit distinct tuning properties for visual stimuli, but, unlike neurons in the geniculocortical visual pathway, most respond best to visual stimuli that are smaller than the classical receptive field (RF). The mechanism underlying this size ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Razak KA,Pallas SL

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Localization of AMPA-selective glutamate receptor subunits in the adult cat visual cortex.

    abstract::We have studied the presence and distribution of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-selective glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1, 2, 3, and 4) in the adult cat visual cortical areas 17, 18, 19, and the lateral suprasylvian areas (LSA). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) a...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gutiérrez-Igarza K,Fogarty DJ,Pérez-Cerdá F,Doñate-Oliver F,Albus K,Matute C

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Calcium-permeable glutamate receptors in horizontal cells of the mammalian retina.

    abstract::Mechanisms that mediate the calcium influx in mammalian horizontal cells were studied. Horizontal cells (HCs) enzymatically dissociated from the rabbit retina were recorded by the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique and by calcium image ratioespectrophotometry of Fura-2 loaded cells. AMPA-preferring ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rivera L,Blanco R,de la Villa P

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • The retinoids of seven species of mantis shrimp.

    abstract::Eyes of stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimps, contain the greatest diversity of visual pigments yet described in any species, with as many as ten or more spectral classes present in a single retina. In this study, the eyes of seven species of mantis shrimp from three superfamilies of stomatopods were examined for...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goldsmith TH,Cronin TW

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Peripheral shift reduces visual sensitivity in cat geniculate neurones.

    abstract::The sudden displacement of the retinal image during a saccade raises the visual threshold of human observers to foveal stimuli. The fall in visual sensitivity observed during this phenomenon, known as saccadic suppression, seems to occur very early in the visual processing chain. The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) i...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Derrington AM,Felisberti F

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • How many pixels make an image?

    abstract::The human visual system is remarkably tolerant to degradation in image resolution: human performance in scene categorization remains high no matter whether low-resolution images or multimegapixel images are used. This observation raises the question of how many pixels are required to form a meaningful representation o...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Torralba A

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Strain variations in cone wavelength peaks in situ during zebrafish development.

    abstract::There are four cone morphologies in zebrafish, corresponding to UV (U), blue (B), green (G), and red (R)-sensing types; yet genetically, eight cone opsins are expressed. How eight opsins are physiologically siloed in four cone types is not well understood, and in larvae, cone physiological spectral peaks are unstudied...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nelson RF,Balraj A,Suresh T,Torvund M,Patterson SS

    更新日期:2019-07-30 00:00:00

  • Photoreceptor distribution in the retina of adult Pacific salmon: corner cones express blue opsin.

    abstract::The retina of salmonid fishes has two types of cone photoreceptors: single and double cones. At the nuclear level, these cones are distributed in a square mosaic such that the double cones form the sides of the square and the single cones occupy positions at the centre and at the corners of the square. Double cones co...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheng CL,Flamarique IN

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Decorrelation of neural activity during fixational instability: possible implications for the refinement of V1 receptive fields.

    abstract::Early in life, visual experience appears to influence the refinement and maintenance of the orientation-selective responses of neurons in the primary visual cortex. After eye opening, the statistical structure of visually driven neural responses depends not only on the stimulus, but also on how the stimulus is scanned...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rucci M,Casile A

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00