Direct repeats as selective response elements for the thyroid hormone, retinoic acid, and vitamin D3 receptors.


:We report here the identification of thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) that consist of a direct repeat, not a palindrome, of the half-sites. Unlike palindromic TREs, direct repeat TREs do not confer a retinoic acid response. The tandem TRE can be converted into a retinoic acid response element by increasing the spacing between the half-sites by 1 nucleotide, and the resulting retinoic acid response element is no longer a TRE. Decreasing the half-site spacing by 1 nucleotide converts the TRE to a vitamin D3 response element, while eliminating response to T3. These results correlate well with DNA-binding affinities of the thyroid hormone, retinoic acid, and vitamin D3 receptors. This study points to the general importance of tandem repeat hormone response elements and suggests a simple physiologic code exists in which half-site spacing plays a critical role in achieving selective hormonal response.






Umesono K,Murakami KK,Thompson CC,Evans RM




Has Abstract


1991-06-28 00:00:00
















  • Back to the future with ubiquitin.

    abstract::Two papers published in 1984 by the Varshavsky laboratory revealed that the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway is the principal system for degradation of short-lived proteins in mammalian cells, setting the stage for future demonstrations of this pathway's many regulatory roles. This perspective discusses the impact of thos...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pickart CM

    更新日期:2004-01-23 00:00:00

  • The protein network of HIV budding.

    abstract::HIV release requires TSG101, a cellular factor that sorts proteins into vesicles that bud into multivesicular bodies (MVB). To test whether other proteins involved in MVB biogenesis (the class E proteins) also participate in HIV release, we identified 22 candidate human class E proteins. These proteins were connected ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: von Schwedler UK,Stuchell M,Müller B,Ward DM,Chung HY,Morita E,Wang HE,Davis T,He GP,Cimbora DM,Scott A,Kräusslich HG,Kaplan J,Morham SG,Sundquist WI

    更新日期:2003-09-19 00:00:00

  • Zip2, a meiosis-specific protein required for the initiation of chromosome synapsis.

    abstract::We describe the identification and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIP2 gene, which encodes a novel meiosis-specific protein essential for synaptonemal complex formation. In the zip2 mutant, chromosomes are homologously paired but not synapsed. The Zip2 protein localizes to discrete foci on meiotic ch...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chua PR,Roeder GS

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Apical localization of wingless transcripts is required for wingless signaling.

    abstract::Many developing and adult tissues are comprised of polarized epithelia. Proteins that are asymmetrically distributed in these cells are thought to be localized by protein trafficking. Here we show that the distribution and function of the signaling protein Wingless is predetermined by the subcellular localization of i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simmonds AJ,dosSantos G,Livne-Bar I,Krause HM

    更新日期:2001-04-20 00:00:00

  • Human transposon tectonics.

    abstract::Mobile DNAs have had a central role in shaping our genome. More than half of our DNA is comprised of interspersed repeats resulting from replicative copy and paste events of retrotransposons. Although most are fixed, incapable of templating new copies, there are important exceptions to retrotransposon quiescence. De n...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Burns KH,Boeke JD

    更新日期:2012-05-11 00:00:00

  • Disentangling inborn and acquired immunity in human twins.

    abstract::The human geneticist Archibald Garrod noted in 1931 that, "It is, of necessity, no easy matter to distinguish between immunity which is inborn and that which has been acquired" (The Inborn Factors in Disease). In this issue of Cell, Brodin et al. show that the heritability of blood counts rapidly decreases with age fo...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Casanova JL,Abel L

    更新日期:2015-01-15 00:00:00

  • The polycomb protein Pc2 is a SUMO E3.

    abstract::Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form large multimeric complexes (PcG bodies) which are involved in the stable repression of gene expression. The human PcG protein, Pc2, has been shown to recruit the transcriptional corepressor, CtBP, to PcG bodies. We show that CtBP is sumoylated at a single lysine. In vitro, CtBP sumoy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kagey MH,Melhuish TA,Wotton D

    更新日期:2003-04-04 00:00:00

  • Modeling Rett syndrome with stem cells.

    abstract::The discovery that somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) raised the exciting possibility of modeling diseases with patient-specific cells. Marchetto et al. (2010) now use iPSC technology to generate, characterize, and treat an in vitro model for the autism spectrum disorder Rett...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Walsh RM,Hochedlinger K

    更新日期:2010-11-12 00:00:00

  • Alternative splicing accounts for the four forms of myelin basic protein.

    abstract::We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the four different forms of mouse myelin basic protein (MBP) and have analyzed the structure of the MBP gene. The three larger forms of MBP differ from the smallest by the inclusion of either or both of two short amino acid sequences at positions 57 and 124 of the smallest protein...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Ferra F,Engh H,Hudson L,Kamholz J,Puckett C,Molineaux S,Lazzarini RA

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • The path of messenger RNA through the ribosome.

    abstract::Using X-ray crystallography, we have directly observed the path of mRNA in the 70S ribosome in Fourier difference maps at 7 A resolution. About 30 nucleotides of the mRNA are wrapped in a groove that encircles the neck of the 30S subunit. The Shine-Dalgarno helix is bound in a large cleft between the head and the back...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yusupova GZ,Yusupov MM,Cate JH,Noller HF

    更新日期:2001-07-27 00:00:00

  • The SR protein SRp38 represses splicing in M phase cells.

    abstract::SR proteins constitute a family of pre-mRNA splicing factors that play important roles in both constitutive and regulated splicing. Here, we describe one member of the family, which we call SRp38, with unexpected properties. Unlike other SR proteins, SRp38 cannot activate splicing and is essentially inactive in splici...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shin C,Manley JL

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Trans-acting nuclear protein responsible for induction of rearranged human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene.

    abstract::A complete human gamma 1 heavy chain gene (HIG1) was transferred into mouse cells by protoplast fusion. The HIG1 gene was strongly expressed in mouse myeloma cells but not in mouse fibroblasts (L cells). Nuclear extracts from myeloma cells were injected into L cell transformants containing one copy of the HIG1 gene; t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maeda H,Kitamura D,Kudo A,Araki K,Watanabe T

    更新日期:1986-04-11 00:00:00

  • The CaaX motif of lamin A functions in conjunction with the nuclear localization signal to target assembly to the nuclear envelope.

    abstract::While the nuclear lamin proteins (A, B, and C) assemble specifically at the surface of the nuclear membrane, their sequences do not reveal stretches of hydrophobic amino acids that might explain their association with the nuclear membranes. However, the A and B lamin proteins possess Ras-like C-terminal CaaX sequence ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holtz D,Tanaka RA,Hartwig J,McKeon F

    更新日期:1989-12-22 00:00:00

  • Nucleosome arrangement on tRNA genes of Xenopus laevis.

    abstract::We have examined the chromatin structure of a repeated cluster of tRNA genes of Xenopus laevis, with particular attention to possible phase relationships between nucleosomes and the underlying tDNA sequence. In transcriptionally active liver and cultured kidney cells, essentially all tDNA is packaged into regularly sp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bryan PN,Hofstetter H,Birnstiel ML

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Peering into the crystal ball: influenza pandemics and vaccine efficacy.

    abstract::The looming threat of a new influenza virus pandemic has fueled ambitious efforts to devise more predictive parameters for assessing the risks associated with emergent virus strains. At the same time, a comprehensive understanding of critical factors that can accurately predict the outcome of vaccination is sorely nee...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller MS,Palese P

    更新日期:2014-04-10 00:00:00

  • Loss of a gp130 cardiac muscle cell survival pathway is a critical event in the onset of heart failure during biomechanical stress.

    abstract::Biomechanical stress is a major stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. By generating mice that harbor a ventricular restricted knockout of the gp130 cytokine receptor via Cre-IoxP-mediated recombination, we demonstrate a critical role for a gp130-dependent myocyte survival pathway in the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirota H,Chen J,Betz UA,Rajewsky K,Gu Y,Ross J Jr,Müller W,Chien KR

    更新日期:1999-04-16 00:00:00

  • Distinctive Activation Mechanism for Angiotensin Receptor Revealed by a Synthetic Nanobody.

    abstract::The angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a critical regulator of cardiovascular and renal function and is an important model for studies of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. By stabilizing the receptor with a single-domain antibody fragment ("nanobody") discovered using a synthetic yeast-display...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wingler LM,McMahon C,Staus DP,Lefkowitz RJ,Kruse AC

    更新日期:2019-01-24 00:00:00

  • Autophagy: paying Charon's toll.

    abstract::Autophagy (literally self-eating) has diverse cytoprotective functions but also is linked to programmed cell death (PCD). In this issue, Qu et al. (2007) analyze the role of autophagy in PCD during development. Unexpectedly they find that autophagy induces apoptotic cells to present a signal to ensure their clearance,...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yoshimori T

    更新日期:2007-03-09 00:00:00

  • The nuclear pore complex: oily spaghetti or gummy bear?

    abstract::In this issue, Frey and Görlich (2007) provide new insight into the selective barrier that controls protein traffic through the nuclear pore complex. They show that a single protein domain of the nuclear pore protein Nsp1 can form a hydrogel that allows highly selective access of nuclear transport receptors and their ...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weis K

    更新日期:2007-08-10 00:00:00

  • Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins inhibit Beclin 1-dependent autophagy.

    abstract::Apoptosis and autophagy are both tightly regulated biological processes that play a central role in tissue homeostasis, development, and disease. The anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, interacts with the evolutionarily conserved autophagy protein, Beclin 1. However, little is known about the functional significance of thi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pattingre S,Tassa A,Qu X,Garuti R,Liang XH,Mizushima N,Packer M,Schneider MD,Levine B

    更新日期:2005-09-23 00:00:00

  • Repurposing CRISPR as an RNA-guided platform for sequence-specific control of gene expression.

    abstract::Targeted gene regulation on a genome-wide scale is a powerful strategy for interrogating, perturbing, and engineering cellular systems. Here, we develop a method for controlling gene expression based on Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease from a type II CRISPR system. We show that a catalytically dead Cas9 lacking en...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qi LS,Larson MH,Gilbert LA,Doudna JA,Weissman JS,Arkin AP,Lim WA

    更新日期:2013-02-28 00:00:00

  • Nerve growth factor is an autocrine survival factor for memory B lymphocytes.

    abstract::Production of nerve growth factor (NGF) was assessed in cultures of human T and B lymphocytes and macrophages. NGF was constitutively produced by B cells only, which also expressed surface p140trk-A and p75NGFR molecules and hence efficiently bound and internalized the cytokine. Neutralization of endogenous NGF caused...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Torcia M,Bracci-Laudiero L,Lucibello M,Nencioni L,Labardi D,Rubartelli A,Cozzolino F,Aloe L,Garaci E

    更新日期:1996-05-03 00:00:00

  • The V beta-specific superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B: stimulation of mature T cells and clonal deletion in neonatal mice.

    abstract::Staphylococcal enterotoxin B is known to be a powerful T cell stimulant in mouse and man. In this paper we show that, for mice, this is because the protein in association with major histocompatibility complex class II molecules stimulates virtually all T cells bearing V beta 3 and V beta 8.1, 8.2, and 8.3, and few oth...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: White J,Herman A,Pullen AM,Kubo R,Kappler JW,Marrack P

    更新日期:1989-01-13 00:00:00

  • Asynchronous switching of flagellar motors on a single bacterial cell.

    abstract::Salmonella possesses several flagella, each capable of counterclockwise and clockwise rotation. Counterclockwise rotation produces swimming, clockwise rotation produces tumbling. Switching between senses occurs stochastically. The rotational sense of individual flagella on a single cell could be monitored under specia...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macnab RM,Han DP

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Specified neural progenitors sort to form sharp domains after noisy Shh signaling.

    abstract::Sharply delineated domains of cell types arise in developing tissues under instruction of inductive signal (morphogen) gradients, which specify distinct cell fates at different signal levels. The translation of a morphogen gradient into discrete spatial domains relies on precise signal responses at stable cell positio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiong F,Tentner AR,Huang P,Gelas A,Mosaliganti KR,Souhait L,Rannou N,Swinburne IA,Obholzer ND,Cowgill PD,Schier AF,Megason SG

    更新日期:2013-04-25 00:00:00

  • Premature activation of the SLX4 complex by Vpr promotes G2/M arrest and escape from innate immune sensing.

    abstract::The HIV auxiliary protein Vpr potently blocks the cell cycle at the G2/M transition. Here, we show that G2/M arrest results from untimely activation of the structure-specific endonuclease (SSE) regulator SLX4 complex (SLX4com) by Vpr, a process that requires VPRBP-DDB1-CUL4 E3-ligase complex. Direct interaction of Vpr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laguette N,Brégnard C,Hue P,Basbous J,Yatim A,Larroque M,Kirchhoff F,Constantinou A,Sobhian B,Benkirane M

    更新日期:2014-01-16 00:00:00

  • Probing the Diversity of T Cell Dysfunction in Cancer.

    abstract::T cell dysfunction in cancer comes in many forms, with two new varieties reported in this issue. Daley et al. find that T cells expressing γδ T cell receptors (TCR) promote pancreatic tumor growth by inhibiting activation of T cells with conventional TCRs. Singer et al. characterize dysfunctional tumor infiltrating ly...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Sowell RT,Kaech SM

    更新日期:2016-09-08 00:00:00

  • Beyond the Triplet Code: Context Cues Transform Translation.

    abstract::The elucidation of the genetic code remains among the most influential discoveries in biology. While innumerable studies have validated the general universality of the code and its value in predicting and analyzing protein coding sequences, established and emerging work has also suggested that full genome decryption m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brar GA

    更新日期:2016-12-15 00:00:00

  • Architecture of the 90S Pre-ribosome: A Structural View on the Birth of the Eukaryotic Ribosome.

    abstract::The 90S pre-ribosome is an early biogenesis intermediate formed during co-transcriptional ribosome formation, composed of ∼70 assembly factors and several small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that associate with nascent pre-rRNA. We report the cryo-EM structure of the Chaetomium thermophilum 90S pre-ribosome, revealing how ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kornprobst M,Turk M,Kellner N,Cheng J,Flemming D,Koš-Braun I,Koš M,Thoms M,Berninghausen O,Beckmann R,Hurt E

    更新日期:2016-07-14 00:00:00

  • A comparison of two cloned mouse beta-globin genes and their surrounding and intervening sequences.

    abstract::The BALC/c mouse has two nonallelic beta-globin genes that appear to reside on two different Eco R1 fragments of genomic DNA. We have already cloned one of these fragments and shown that the gene encoded within it is interrupted by at least one large intervening sequence of DNA. We have now cloned and characterized th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tiemeier DC,Tilghman SM,Polsky FI,Seidman JG,Leder A,Edgell MH,Leder P

    更新日期:1978-06-01 00:00:00