Estimation of effective imaging dose for kilovoltage intratreatment monitoring of the prostate position during cancer radiotherapy.


:Kilovoltage intratreatment monitoring (KIM) is a novel real-time localization modality where the tumor position is continuously measured during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) by a kilovoltage (kV) x-ray imager. Adding kV imaging during therapy adds radiation dose. The additional effective dose is quantified for prostate radiotherapy and compared to dose from other localization modalities. The software PCXMC 2.0 was used to calculate the effective dose delivered to a phantom as a function of imager angle and field size for a Varian On-Board Imager. The average angular effective dose was calculated for a field size of 6 cm × 6 cm. The average angular effective dose was used in calculations for different treatment scenarios. Treatment scenarios considered were treatment type and fractionation. For all treatment scenarios, (i.e. conventionally fractionated and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), IMRT and IMAT), the total KIM dose at 1 Hz ranged from 2-10 mSv. This imaging dose is less than the Navotek radioactive implant dose (64 mSv) and a standard SBRT cone beam computed tomography pretreatment scan dose (22 mSv) over an entire treatment regime. KIM delivers an acceptably low effective dose for daily use as a real-time image-guidance method for prostate radiotherapy.


Phys Med Biol


Ng JA,Booth J,Poulsen P,Kuncic Z,Keall PJ




Has Abstract


2013-09-07 00:00:00












  • Computational dosimetry for grounded and ungrounded human models due to contact current.

    abstract::This study presents the computational dosimetry of contact currents for grounded and ungrounded human models. The uncertainty of the quasi-static (QS) approximation of the in situ electric field induced in a grounded/ungrounded human body due to the contact current is first estimated. Different scenarios of cylindrica...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chan KH,Hattori J,Laakso I,Hirata A,Taki M

    更新日期:2013-08-07 00:00:00

  • An FDK-like cone-beam SPECT reconstruction algorithm for non-uniform attenuated projections acquired using a circular trajectory.

    abstract::In this paper, Novikov's inversion formula of the attenuated two-dimensional (2D) Radon transform is applied to the reconstruction of attenuated fan-beam projections acquired with equal detector spacing and of attenuated cone-beam projections acquired with a flat planar detector and circular trajectory. The derivation...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang Q,Zeng GL,You J,Gullberg GT

    更新日期:2005-05-21 00:00:00

  • An image reconstruction method with a locally adaptive gating scheme for PET data.

    abstract::In conventional gating approaches for positron emission tomography (PET), a single number of gates is predetermined for the whole field of view (FOV) regardless of spatially variant motion blurring effects, which compromises image quality by under-gating regions of large motion and over-gating static regions. To achie...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang J,Dong Y,Li H,Feng T

    更新日期:2018-08-10 00:00:00

  • Site-specific volumetric analysis of lung tumour motion.

    abstract::The treatment of lung cancer with radiation therapy is hindered by respiratory motion. Real-time adjustments to compensate for this motion are hampered by mechanical system latencies and imaging-rate restrictions. To better understand tumour motion behaviour for adaptive image-guided radiation therapy of lung cancer, ...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pepin EW,Wu H,Sandison GA,Langer M,Shirato H

    更新日期:2010-06-21 00:00:00

  • Reducing 4DCBCT imaging time and dose: the first implementation of variable gantry speed 4DCBCT on a linear accelerator.

    abstract::Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) uses a constant gantry speed and imaging frequency that are independent of the patient's breathing rate. Using a technique called respiratory motion guided 4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT), we have previously demonstrated that by varying the gantry speed and imaging frequency...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Brien RT,Stankovic U,Sonke JJ,Keall PJ

    更新日期:2017-06-07 00:00:00

  • Self-adaptive ultrasonic beam amplifiers: application to transcostal shock wave therapy.

    abstract::Ultrasound shock wave therapy is increasingly used for non-invasive surgery. It requires the focusing of very high pressure amplitude in precisely controlled focal spots. In transcostal therapy of the heart or the liver, the high impedance mismatch between the bones and surrounding tissues gives rise to strong aberrat...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robin J,Simon A,Arnal B,Tanter M,Pernot M

    更新日期:2018-09-06 00:00:00

  • Physical characterization and performance comparison of active- and passive-pixel CMOS detectors for mammography.

    abstract::We investigated the physical characteristics of two complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) mammography detectors. The detectors featured 14-bit image acquisition, 50 microm detector element (del) size and an active area of 5 cm x 5 cm. One detector was a passive-pixel sensor (PPS) with signal amplification per...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elbakri IA,McIntosh BJ,Rickey DW

    更新日期:2009-03-21 00:00:00

  • Modeling localized delivery of Doxorubicin to the brain following focused ultrasound enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability.

    abstract::Doxorubicin (Dox) is a well-established chemotherapeutic agent, however it has limited efficacy in treating brain malignancies due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent preclinical studies have demonstrated that focused ultrasound induced BBB disruption (BBBD) enables efficient delivery of Dox to th...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nhan T,Burgess A,Lilge L,Hynynen K

    更新日期:2014-10-21 00:00:00

  • Noise reduction and convergence of Bayesian algorithms with blobs based on the Huber function and median root prior.

    abstract::Iterative image reconstruction algorithms have the potential to produce low noise images. Early stopping of the iteration process is problematic because some features of the image may converge slowly. On the other hand, there may be noise build-up with increased number of iterations. Therefore, we examined the stabili...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chlewicki W,Hermansen F,Hansen SB

    更新日期:2004-10-21 00:00:00

  • Calibration of CT Hounsfield units for radiotherapy treatment planning of patients with metallic hip prostheses: the use of the extended CT-scale.

    abstract::Heterogeneity corrections for radiotherapy dose calculations are based on the electron density of the disturbing heterogeneity. However, when CT planning a radiotherapy treatment, where metallic hip implants are present, considerable artefacts are seen in the images. Often, an additional problem arises whereby no info...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coolens C,Childs PJ

    更新日期:2003-06-07 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of high performance data acquisition boards for simultaneous sampling of fast signals from PET detectors.

    abstract::Detectors used for positron emission tomography (PET) provide fast, randomly distributed signals that need to be digitized for further processing. One possibility is to sample the signals at the peak initiated by a trigger from a constant fraction discriminator (CFD). For PET detectors, simultaneous acquisition of man...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Judenhofer MS,Pichler BJ,Cherry SR

    更新日期:2005-01-07 00:00:00

  • Volume-selective and spectroscopically resolved NMR investigation of diffusion and relaxation in fertilised hen eggs.

    abstract::A radiofrequency and field-gradient pulse sequence is presented permitting the non-invasive, volume-selective and spectroscopically resolved determination of incoherent transport parameters with the aid of an NMR field-gradient method. With proton NMR, diffusion or (quasi-incoherent) perfusion coefficients as low as 1...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klammler F,Kimmich R

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hybrid scatter correction applied to quantitative holmium-166 SPECT.

    abstract::Ho-166 is a combined beta-gamma emitter of which the betas can be used therapeutically. From the 81 keV gammas of Ho-166, SPECT images can be obtained, which give opportunities to guide Ho-166 therapy. Accurate reconstruction of Ho-166 images is currently hampered by photopeak-scatter in the patient, down-scatter in t...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Wit TC,Xiao J,Nijsen JF,van het Schip FD,Staelens SG,van Rijk PP,Beekman FJ

    更新日期:2006-10-07 00:00:00

  • A control systems approach for the simulation of renal dynamic software phantoms for nuclear medicine.

    abstract::For renal dynamic studies, the COST B2 hybrid phantom is an example of an artificially created software phantom. Although this phantom is useful, it is not possible to implement the phantom in a self-consistent fashion to produce, for example, a collection of tracer in the bladder which is related to the flow from the...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Houston AS,Sampson WF,Jose RM,Boyce JF

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Efficient IMRT inverse planning with a new L1-solver: template for first-order conic solver.

    abstract::Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning using total-variation (TV) regularization has been proposed to reduce the complexity of fluence maps and facilitate dose delivery. Conventionally, the optimization problem with L-1 norm is solved with quadratic programming (QP), which is time consuming and ...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim H,Suh TS,Lee R,Xing L,Li R

    更新日期:2012-07-07 00:00:00

  • 2D convolution kernels of ionization chambers used for photon-beam dosimetry in magnetic fields: the advantage of small over large chamber dimensions.

    abstract::This study aims at developing an optimization strategy for photon-beam dosimetry in magnetic fields using ionization chambers. Similar to the familiar case in the absence of a magnetic field, detectors should be selected under the criterion that their measured 2D signal profiles M(x,y) approximate the absorbed dose to...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Looe HK,Delfs B,Poppinga D,Harder D,Poppe B

    更新日期:2018-03-29 00:00:00

  • Influence of source parameters on large-field electron beam profiles calculated using Monte Carlo methods.

    abstract::The purpose of this paper was to study the source model for a Monte Carlo simulation of electron beams from a medical linear accelerator. In a prior study, a non-divergent Gaussian source with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0.15 cm was successful in predicting relative dose distributions for electron beams wit...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weinberg R,Antolak JA,Starkschall G,Kudchadker RJ,White RA,Hogstrom KR

    更新日期:2009-01-07 00:00:00

  • Breast composition measurements using retrospective standard mammogram form (SMF).

    abstract::The standard mammogram form (SMF) representation of an x-ray mammogram is a standardized, quantitative representation of the breast from which the volume of non-fat tissue and breast density can be easily estimated, both of which are of significant interest in determining breast cancer risk. Previous theoretical analy...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Highnam R,Pan X,Warren R,Jeffreys M,Davey Smith G,Brady M

    更新日期:2006-06-07 00:00:00

  • A robust optimization method for weighted-layer-stacking proton beam therapy.

    abstract::The layer-stacking method can provide three-dimensional conformal dose distributions to the target based on a passive scattering method using mini-spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a new weight optimization algorithm that can enhance the robustness of dose di...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sakamoto Y,Maeda Y,Yamada Y,Ikeda M,Tameshige Y,Sasaki M,Shibata S,Yamamoto K

    更新日期:2020-09-28 00:00:00

  • Effects of injected dose, BMI and scanner type on NECR and image noise in PET imaging.

    abstract::Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and image noise are two different but related metrics that have been used to predict and assess image quality, respectively. The aim of this study is to investigate, using patient studies, the relationships between injected dose (ID), body mass index (BMI) and scanner type on NECR an...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang T,Chang G,Kohlmyer S,Clark JW,Rohren E,Mawlawi OR

    更新日期:2011-08-21 00:00:00

  • The relative effects of arterial curvature and lumen diameter on wall shear stress distributions in human right coronary arteries.

    abstract::This study looks at blood flow in four different human right coronary arteries (RCAs), which have been reconstructed from bi-plane angiograms. A generalized power-law model of blood viscosity is used to study the blood flow at a particular point in the cardiac cycle. Large differences are found in the wall shear stres...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnston BM,Johnston PR

    更新日期:2007-05-07 00:00:00

  • Accurate and efficient modeling of the detector response in small animal multi-head PET systems.

    abstract::In fully three-dimensional PET imaging, iterative image reconstruction techniques usually outperform analytical algorithms in terms of image quality provided that an appropriate system model is used. In this study we concentrate on the calculation of an accurate system model for the YAP-(S)PET II small animal scanner,...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cecchetti M,Moehrs S,Belcari N,Del Guerra A

    更新日期:2013-10-07 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of a ferrous benzoic xylenol orange transparent PVA cryogel radiochromic dosimeter.

    abstract::A stable cryogel dosimeter was prepared using ferrous benzoic xylenol orange (FBX) in a transparent poly-(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cryogel matrix. Dose response was evaluated for different numbers of freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs), different concentrations of PVA, and ratios of water/dimethyl sulfoxide. Linear relationships be...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eyadeh MM,Farrell TJ,Diamond KR

    更新日期:2014-04-07 00:00:00

  • Independent Monte-Carlo dose calculation for MLC based CyberKnife radiotherapy.

    abstract::This work aims to develop, implement and validate a Monte Carlo (MC)-based independent dose calculation (IDC) framework to perform patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-based CyberKnife® (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) treatment plans. The IDC framework uses an XML-format treatment plan...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mackeprang PH,Vuong D,Volken W,Henzen D,Schmidhalter D,Malthaner M,Mueller S,Frei D,Stampanoni MFM,Dal Pra A,Aebersold DM,Fix MK,Manser P

    更新日期:2017-12-19 00:00:00

  • Absorbed dose determination at short distance from 60Co and 192Ir brachytherapy sources.

    abstract::This paper presents two methods for absorbed dose determination with ionization chambers at short distance from 60Co and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. The methods are modifications of the Bragg-Gray and large cavity principles given in the IAEA code of practice for high- and medium-energy photon beams. A non-uniformity...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tölli H,Johansson KA

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Implementation of tetrahedral-mesh geometry in Monte Carlo radiation transport code PHITS.

    abstract::A new function to treat tetrahedral-mesh geometry was implemented in the particle and heavy ion transport code systems. To accelerate the computational speed in the transport process, an original algorithm was introduced to initially prepare decomposition maps for the container box of the tetrahedral-mesh geometry. Th...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Furuta T,Sato T,Han MC,Yeom YS,Kim CH,Brown JL,Bolch WE

    更新日期:2017-06-21 00:00:00

  • Improved correction for the tissue fraction effect in lung PET/CT imaging.

    abstract::Recently, there has been an increased interest in imaging different pulmonary disorders using PET techniques. Previous work has shown, for static PET/CT, that air content in the lung influences reconstructed image values and that it is vital to correct for this 'tissue fraction effect' (TFE). In this paper, we extend ...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holman BF,Cuplov V,Millner L,Hutton BF,Maher TM,Groves AM,Thielemans K

    更新日期:2015-09-21 00:00:00

  • Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices.

    abstract::Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of d...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martínez-Búrdalo M,Sanchis A,Martín A,Villar R

    更新日期:2010-02-21 00:00:00

  • 4D maximum a posteriori reconstruction in dynamic SPECT using a compartmental model-based prior.

    abstract::A 4D ordered-subsets maximum a posteriori (OSMAP) algorithm for dynamic SPECT is described which uses a temporal prior that constrains each voxel's behaviour in time to conform to a compartmental model. No a priori limitations on kinetic parameters are applied; rather, the parameter estimates evolve as the algorithm i...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kadrmas DJ,Gullberg GT

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Rotational IMRT delivery using a digital linear accelerator in very high dose rate 'burst mode'.

    abstract::Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in arc-based IMRT, through the use of 'conventional' multileaf collimator (MLC) systems that can treat large tumor volumes in a single, or very few pass(es) of the gantry. Here we present a novel 'burst mode' modulated arc delivery approach, wherein 2000 monitor units ...

    journal_title:Physics in medicine and biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salter BJ,Sarkar V,Wang B,Shukla H,Szegedi M,Rassiah-Szegedi P

    更新日期:2011-04-07 00:00:00