Infection load as a predisposing factor for somatoform disorders: evidence from a Dutch General Practice Registry.


OBJECTIVE:Somatoform disorders (SDs) are characterized by chronic multiple functional somatic (FS) symptoms. It has been suggested that infections may be triggers for FS symptoms to occur, pointing to the immune system as a pathogenic factor in their development. The current study aimed to compare the prevalence of infections (i.e., infection load) in the history of patients with SDs with that of matched controls. METHODS:Samples (n = 185) were identified in the Psychiatric Case Register Middle Netherlands and the Julius General Practitioners Network. Patients with an SD diagnosis in the Psychiatric Case Register Middle Netherlands were compared with matched persons without somatoform complaints (controls) on their infection load in two periods before the date of the psychiatric diagnosis or a matched date for the controls (i.e., the total period for which data were available and a 3-year period). Infection load was defined as the total number of infections documented in the Julius General Practitioners Network. RESULTS:Patients with SD had significantly more infections than did controls in both periods (total period: mean [standard error] = 0.87 [0.10] versus 0.51 [0.06], z = -3.08, p = .002; 3-year period: 3.44 [0.47] versus 2.15 [0.50], z = -2.91, p = .004). CONCLUSIONS:Results show that patients with SD have a higher infection load preceding their diagnosis as compared with matched controls, implicating that infection load may indeed predispose for developing FS symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of further research on immunological mechanisms in FS symptoms. Limitations of the study are discussed.


Psychosom Med


Psychosomatic medicine


Lacourt TE,Houtveen JH,Smeets HM,Lipovsky MM,van Doornen LJ




Has Abstract


2013-10-01 00:00:00














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    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Hostility is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). However, assessment tools used to evaluate hostility in epidemiological studies vary widely. METHODS:We administered nine subscales of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS) to 656 outpatients with stable CHD between...

    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong JM,Sin NL,Whooley MA

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We examined whether high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in women is a biomarker for increased testosterone (T) and higher levels of sexual desire. METHODS:Participants were 99 healthy nonobese premenopausal women. Trait levels of mean bioavailable T were estimated from three saliva samples collected at 8:00 am, 9:...

    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Anders SM,Hampson E

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Depression as an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Mortality on medical intensive care units (ICU) is approximately 25%. It is associated with age, severity of illness, and comorbidities. Preexisting depression is a risk factor for worse outcome in many diseases. The impact of depression on outcome of ICU patients has not been investigated. We assessed a poss...

    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wewalka M,Warszawska J,Strunz V,Kitzberger R,Holzinger U,Fuhrmann V,Zauner C,Miehsler W,Moser G

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Association between self-reported dental health status and onset of dementia: a 4-year prospective cohort study of older Japanese adults from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) Project.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Studies have shown that people with cognitive impairment have poor dental health. However, the direction of causality remains unknown. This prospective cohort study aimed to determine the association between four self-reported dental health variables and dementia onset in older Japanese people. METHODS:Anal...

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    authors: Yamamoto T,Kondo K,Hirai H,Nakade M,Aida J,Hirata Y

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::In a study designed to identify the electrophysiologic characteristics of the Transcendental Meditation Program, 52 periods of spontaneous respiratory suspension (RS) were observed in 18 subjects during the practice of this program. These periods were correlated with some but not all the subjective experiences of pure...

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    authors: Badawi K,Wallace RK,Orme-Johnson D,Rouzere AM

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Semler CN,Harvey AG

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

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    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

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    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sullivan MD,LaCroix AZ,Spertus JA,Hecht J,Russo J

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Wu T,Treiber FA,Snieder H

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kennedy DO,Little W,Scholey AB

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The Monroe County Psychiatric Case Register and hospital records were used to investigate the incidence of anorexia nervosa in Monroe County, New York, during the periods 1960-1969 and 1979-1976 to determine whether the number of newly diagnosed cases has increased over time. The results support the general clinical i...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones DJ,Fox MM,Babigian HM,Hutton HE

    更新日期:1980-11-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laferton JAC,Stenzel NM,Rief W,Klaus K,Brähler E,Mewes R

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Halbreich U,Rojansky N,Palter S,Hreshchyshyn M,Kreeger J,Bakhai Y,Rosan R

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing Lifetime Stress Exposure Using the Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adults (Adult STRAIN): An Overview and Initial Validation.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gray A,Jackson DN,McKinlay JB

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moldofsky H,Lue FA,Eisen J,Keystone E,Gorczynski RM

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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


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    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


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    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McCubbin JA,Merritt MM,Sollers JJ 3rd,Evans MK,Zonderman AB,Lane RD,Thayer JF

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Association between depression and inflammation--differences by race and sex: the META-Health study.

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    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morris AA,Zhao L,Ahmed Y,Stoyanova N,De Staercke C,Hooper WC,Gibbons G,Din-Dzietham R,Quyyumi A,Vaccarino V

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jennings JR,Matthews KA

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence of early retinal microvascular changes in patients with type 2 diabetes and depression.

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    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen TT,Wong TY,Islam FM,Hubbard L,Ajilore O,Haroon E,Darwin C,Esser B,Kumar A

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marsland AL,Gianaros PJ,Prather AA,Jennings JR,Neumann SA,Manuck SB

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gaab J,Hüster D,Peisen R,Engert V,Heitz V,Schad T,Schürmeyer TH,Ehlert U

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Brain Structure and Response to Emotional Stimuli as Related to Gut Microbial Profiles in Healthy Women.

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    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tillisch K,Mayer EA,Gupta A,Gill Z,Brazeilles R,Le Nevé B,van Hylckama Vlieg JET,Guyonnet D,Derrien M,Labus JS

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Psychosomatic medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gale CR,Batty GD,Cooper C,Deary IJ

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00