Formation and disruption of functional domains in myelinated CNS axons.

Abstract:

:Communication in the central nervous system (CNS) occurs through initiation and propagation of action potentials at excitable domains along axons. Action potentials generated at the axon initial segment (AIS) are regenerated at nodes of Ranvier through the process of saltatory conduction. Proper formation and maintenance of the molecular structure at the AIS and nodes are required for sustaining conduction fidelity. In myelinated CNS axons, paranodal junctions between the axolemma and myelinating oligodendrocytes delineate nodes of Ranvier and regulate the distribution and localization of specialized functional elements, such as voltage-gated sodium channels and mitochondria. Disruption of excitable domains and altered distribution of functional elements in CNS axons is associated with demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, and is likely a mechanism common to other neurological disorders. This review will provide a brief overview of the molecular structure of the AIS and nodes of Ranvier, as well as the distribution of mitochondria in myelinated axons. In addition, this review highlights important structural and functional changes within myelinated CNS axons that are associated with neurological dysfunction.

journal_name

Neurosci Res

journal_title

Neuroscience research

authors

Griggs RB,Yermakov LM,Susuki K

doi

10.1016/j.neures.2016.09.010

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2017-03-01 00:00:00

pages

77-87

eissn

0168-0102

issn

1872-8111

pii

S0168-0102(16)30172-9

journal_volume

116

pub_type

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