Transcriptional activity of human papillomavirus type 31b enhancer is regulated through synergistic interaction of AP1 with two novel cellular factors.


:Transcription of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is regulated by enhancer sequences located in the upstream regulatory region. The factors regulating expression of one of the high risk genital HPV types, HPV 31b, were investigated using transient expression and protein binding assays. A region of 262 base pairs in length was identified as the minimal functional enhancer and a series of five protected binding sites were observed by footprint analyses. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that AP1, Oct-1, as well as three novel factors bound these sequences. Mutational analyses indicated that AP1 synergistically activated the HPV31b enhancer together with either of two novel factors. One of these novel factors bound a sequence similar to an NF1 site but was distinct from NF-1. The second factor bound sequences bearing similarity to KRF-1 binding sites which have previously been characterized in HPV 18. Competition binding assays demonstrated that this factor was not identical to KRF-1. Additional studies implicated Oct-1 as a negative regulator of HPV 31b expression as mutation of Oct-1 binding sequences resulted in an increase in viral expression. None of the factors observed to be important for HPV 31b enhancer activity was found exclusively in epithelial cells and instead were detected in a variety of cell types. Of these factors, AP1 binding correlated most strongly with enhancer function in a variety of cell types, implicating it as a principal regulator of HPV expression. Variations in the constituents of the AP1 complex that bind the HPV 31b enhancer were also observed in different cell types, suggesting that changes in the distribution of jun proteins may play a significant role in determining the tropism of HPV. These results indicate that AP1 may be a common regulator for various HPV types and that it contributes to enhancer specificity. In addition, a set of novel factors, which may be specific for each HPV type, act synergistically with AP1 for full activation of the enhancer.






Kyo S,Tam A,Laimins LA




Has Abstract


1995-08-01 00:00:00
















  • The evolution and characterization of influenza A(H7N9) virus under the selective pressure of peramivir.

    abstract::Human infection with H7N9 virus has provoked global public health concern due to the substantial morbidity and mortality. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are used as first-line drugs to treat the infection. However, virus quasispecies can evolve rapidly under drug pressure, which may alter various biological character...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ge Y,Chi Y,Min X,Zhao K,Wu B,Wu T,Zhu X,Shi Z,Zhu F,Cui L

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences important for the accumulation of cowpea mosaic virus M-RNA.

    abstract::The location of nucleotide sequences important in determining the extent of cowpea mosaic virus M-RNA accumulation in cowpea protoplasts has been analyzed by deletion mutagenesis of full-length cDNA clones from which infectious transcripts can be produced in vitro. The results suggest that cis-acting sequences which d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rohll JB,Holness CL,Lomonossoff GP,Maule AJ

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Complete genome analysis and molecular characterization of Usutu virus that emerged in Austria in 2001: comparison with the South African strain SAAR-1776 and other flaviviruses.

    abstract::Here we describe the complete genome sequences of two strains of Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne member of the genus Flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serogroup. USUV was detected in Austria in 2001 causing a high mortality rate in blackbirds; the reference strain (SAAR-1776) was isolated in 195...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bakonyi T,Gould EA,Kolodziejek J,Weissenböck H,Nowotny N

    更新日期:2004-10-25 00:00:00

  • Activation of protein kinase R by hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    abstract::Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was shown to activate protein kinase R (PKR), which inhibits expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes by controlling the translation of newly transcribed mRNAs. However, it is unknown exactly how HCV activates PKR. To address the molecular mechanism(s) of PKR activation mediated ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suzuki R,Matsuda M,Shimoike T,Watashi K,Aizaki H,Kato T,Suzuki T,Muramatsu M,Wakita T

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Resistance and susceptibility of bovine cells expressing herpesviral glycoprotein D homologs to herpesviral infections.

    abstract::Bovine cell lines individually expressing two related herpesviral proteins, pseudorabies virus glycoprotein 50 and herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D, were examined for their susceptibility/resistance to infection with several alphaherpesviruses. Cell lines expressing gp50 or gD-1 resisted plaque formation by ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chase CC,Lohff C,Letchworth GJ 3rd

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Biologically active protease 3C of human rhinovirus 1A is expressed from a cloned cDNA segment in Escherichia coli.

    abstract::We produced the putative protease 3C of human rhinovirus 1A (HRV-1A), a minor group rhinovirus, by Escherichia coli expression of a segment of HRV-1A cDNA coding for 3A, 3B, 3C, and parts of 2C and 3D (delta 2C3ABC delta 3D). The protease 3C was expected to be processed by intramolecular Q-G cleavages from the virus-s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aschauer B,Werner G,McCray J,Rosenwirth B,Bachmayer H

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of the integration functions of phi304L: an integrase module among corynephages.

    abstract::Plasmid p12929 was shown to integrate into the chromosome of Corynebacterium glutamicum RM3 and BL15. The minimal integrating fragment was subsequently defined. The arms flanking the integrated plasmid (attL and attR) were identified, allowing for the determination of the attP and the attB attachment sites. The attB s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moreau S,Le Marrec C,Blanco C,Trautwetter A

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of adenovirus E1A regions which affect MHC class I expression and susceptibility to cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    abstract::To map and characterize functional differences between the E1A oncoproteins of Ad5 and Ad12, we previously constructed a series of hybrid Ad5/12 E1A genes and used them in combination with Ad12 E1B to transform Hooded Lister rat cells. At least two regions within the first exon of Ad12 E1A which influenced tumorigenic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pereira DS,Rosenthal KL,Graham FL

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Persistent Ross River virus infection of murine macrophages: an in vitro model for the study of viral relapse and immune modulation during long-term infection.

    abstract::A clinical feature of Ross River virus disease (RRVD) is the periodic relapse of symptoms months after the initial onset of disease. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this relapse have not been determined. In a long-term (148 days) in vitro study of persistently infected murine macrophages we established that ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Way SJ,Lidbury BA,Banyer JL

    更新日期:2002-09-30 00:00:00

  • The host Pex19p plays a role in peroxisomal localization of tombusvirus replication proteins.

    abstract::Replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) RNA takes place on the cytosolic membrane surface of peroxisomes in plants and in yeast, a model host. To identify the host proteins involved in assisting the peroxisomal localization of the tombusvirus p33 replication protein, we tested if p33 could bind directly to yeas...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pathak KB,Sasvari Z,Nagy PD

    更新日期:2008-09-30 00:00:00

  • The Escherichia coli retrons Ec67 and Ec86 replace DNA between the cos site and a transcription terminator of a 186-related prophage.

    abstract::Retrons are unusual, reverse transcriptase-encoding elements found in bacteria. Although there are a number of indications that retrons are mobile elements, their transposition has not been observed. The Escherichia coli retrons Ec67 and Ec86 are different retrons inserted at the same site and we have further characte...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dodd IB,Egan JB

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • The termini of the chlorella virus PBCV-1 genome are identical 2.2-kbp inverted repeats.

    abstract::The Chlorella virus PBCV-1 genome is a linear nonpermuted 333-kbp dsDNA molecule with covalently closed hairpin termini. The termini (minus the hairpin) are identical inverted repeats of at least 2185 bases after which the sequence diverges. The inverted repeats contain two small potential open reading frames and seve...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strasser P,Zhang YP,Rohozinski J,Van Etten JL

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Escape variants of the XPR1 gammaretrovirus receptor are rare due to reliance on a splice donor site and a short hypervariable loop.

    abstract::Entry determinants in the XPR1 receptor for the xenotropic/polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (XP-MLVs) lie in its third and fourth putative extracellular loops (ECLs). The critical ECL3 receptor determinant overlies a splice donor and is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrate XPR1 genes; 2 of the 3 rare replacement mu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu X,Martin C,Bouchard C,Kozak CA

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Infection, replication, and cytopathology of human papillomavirus type 31 in trophoblasts.

    abstract::Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is preferentially found in spontaneous abortions, specifically residing in trophoblasts, and transfected HPV-16 DNA replicates and produces progeny in 3A trophoblasts in culture. In this study 3A trophoblasts were shown to display both HPV receptors and infection by HPV-31b and HPV-6 vir...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: You H,Liu Y,Agrawal N,Prasad CK,Chiriva-Internati M,Lowery CL,Kay HH,Hermonat PL

    更新日期:2003-11-25 00:00:00

  • Reduced antigenicity of the hepatitis B virus HBsAg protein arising as a consequence of sequence changes in the overlapping polymerase gene that are selected by lamivudine therapy.

    abstract::The prevalence of hepatitis B virus vaccine escape mutants has increased as a consequence of the introduction of global vaccination programs. Furthermore and as a consequence of the organization of the genome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) into overlapping reading frames, the selection of polymerase mutants during long-te...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Torresi J,Earnest-Silveira L,Deliyannis G,Edgtton K,Zhuang H,Locarnini SA,Fyfe J,Sozzi T,Jackson DC

    更新日期:2002-02-15 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a human astrovirus serotype 2 structural protein (VP26) that contains an epitope involved in virus neutralization.

    abstract::An improved purification procedure for human astrovirus serotype 2 (H-Ast2) has facilitated the isolation of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (PL-2) directed against one of the major structural proteins (VP26) of H-Ast2. A minor component (VP29) of the virus particles is also recognized by PL-2 antibody. Immunofluor...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanchez-Fauquier A,Carrascosa AL,Carrascosa JL,Otero A,Glass RI,Lopez JA,San Martin C,Melero JA

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Two phenylalanines in the C-terminus of Epstein-Barr virus Rta protein reciprocally modulate its DNA binding and transactivation function.

    abstract::The Rta (R transactivator) protein plays an essential role in the Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) lytic cascade. Rta activates viral gene expression by several mechanisms including direct and indirect binding to target viral promoters, synergy with EBV ZEBRA protein, and stimulation of cellular signaling pathways. We previou...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen LW,Raghavan V,Chang PJ,Shedd D,Heston L,Delecluse HJ,Miller G

    更新日期:2009-04-10 00:00:00

  • Nucleotide sequences within the U5 region of the viral RNA genome are the major determinants for an human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to maintain a primer binding site complementary to tRNA(His).

    abstract::The initiation of reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome requires cellular tRNA(Lys,3) as a primer and occurs at a site in the viral RNA genome, designated as the primer binding site (PBS), which is complementary to the 3'-terminal 18 nucleotides of tRNA(Lys,3). We previously d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang Z,Kang SM,LeBlanc A,Hajduk SL,Morrow CD

    更新日期:1996-12-15 00:00:00

  • Nuclear matrix protein SMAR1 represses HIV-1 LTR mediated transcription through chromatin remodeling.

    abstract::Nuclear Matrix and MARs have been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of host as well as viral genes but their precise role in HIV-1 transcription remains unclear. Here, we show that >98% of HIV sequences contain consensus MAR element in their promoter. We show that SMAR1 binds to the LTR MAR and reinforces t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sreenath K,Pavithra L,Singh S,Sinha S,Dash PK,Siddappa NB,Ranga U,Mitra D,Chattopadhyay S

    更新日期:2010-04-25 00:00:00

  • Structure of the antigen from Fiji disease virus particles eliciting antibodies specific to double-stranded polyribonucleotides.

    abstract::Antisera with Fiji disease virus (FDV) protein-specific and double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific antibodies were prepared by injecting rabbits with highly purified preparations of FDV cores. Electron microscopic examination of negatively stained core preparations disclosed the presence of icosahedral particles, about 54 ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Lubbe JL,Hatta T,Francki RI

    更新日期:1979-06-01 00:00:00

  • A mycoreovirus suppresses RNA silencing in the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.

    abstract::RNA silencing is a fundamental antiviral response in eukaryotic organisms. We investigated the counterdefense strategy of a fungal virus (mycovirus) against RNA silencing in the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix. We generated an R. necatrix strain that constitutively induced RNA silencing of the exogenous gre...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yaegashi H,Yoshikawa N,Ito T,Kanematsu S

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the human parainfluenza virus type 2 phosphoprotein.

    abstract::Human parainfluenza virus type 2 phosphoprotein (P) is an essential component of viral polymerase. The P gene encodes both P and accessory V proteins by a specific gene editing mechanism. Therefore, the N-terminal 164 amino acids of P protein are common to V protein. Interestingly, while P protein is located in the cy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohtsuka J,Matsumoto Y,Ohta K,Fukumura M,Tsurudome M,Nosaka T,Nishio M

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Purified scrapie prions resist inactivation by procedures that hydrolyze, modify, or shear nucleic acids.

    abstract::Prions were purified from scrapie-infected hamster brains and incubated for 24 hr at 65 degrees with 2 mM Zn2+ or 5 mM Mg2+; no loss of infectivity was observed. Bacteriophage M13, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), potato virus X, and potato spindle tuber viroid were all inactivated by divalent metal ions under these condit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bellinger-Kawahara C,Diener TO,McKinley MP,Groth DF,Smith DR,Prusiner SB

    更新日期:1987-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cellular mechanisms in the superinfection exclusion of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    abstract::The superinfection exclusion of VSV has been studied and found to be caused by a combination of three distinct effects on endocytosis by VSV-infected cells: first, a decreased rate of formation of endocytic vesicles as judged by an inhibition of fluid-phase uptake at 2 hr postinfection; second, a decreased rate of int...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simon KO,Cardamone JJ Jr,Whitaker-Dowling PA,Youngner JS,Widnell CC

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Adenovirus transformation revertant resistant to retransformation by E1 but not by SV40-T and HPV16-E7 oncogenes.

    abstract::We have previously described a revertant cell line which expresses a dominant tumor suppressor phenotype to E1 but not to heterologous oncogenes such as c-myc, N-ras, or polyoma middle t (Sircar et al. (1988) Oncogene 3, 725-728). DNA tumor virus oncogenes have been suggested to transform cells via the common mechanis...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sircar S,Horvath J,Roberge D,Diouri M,Weber JM

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • The RNAs of cucumoviruses: 3'-terminal sequence analysis of two strains of tomato aspermy virus.

    abstract::The sequences of 189 residues from the 3' terminus of three RNAs of one strain and two RNAs of another strain of tomato aspermy virus have been determined; there was almost complete sequence homology between the RNAs. A base-paired transfer RNA-like structure is proposed for tomato aspermy virus RNAs which is similar ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson PA,Symons RH

    更新日期:1981-07-15 00:00:00

  • Proteolytic maturation of the 206-kDa nonstructural protein encoded by turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA.

    abstract::The longest open reading frame of turnip yellow mosaic virus genomic RNA (ORF-206) encodes a 206-kDa nonstructural protein. The most prominent in vitro translation products of ORF-206 are the full-length p206 and a shorter N-coterminal 150-kDa protein. We have confirmed these assignments by immunoprecipitation of in v...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bransom KL,Weiland JJ,Dreher TW

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Alterations in the hemagglutinin associated with adaptation of influenza B virus to growth in eggs.

    abstract::In 1943 Burnet reported on changes in the hemagglutinating properties of human influenza virus which occurred during adaptation of the virus to growth in chicken eggs. Only recently has direct evidence been presented that these changes affect the antigenic properties of the virus. Schild et al. (G. C. Schild, J. S. Ox...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robertson JS,Naeve CW,Webster RG,Bootman JS,Newman R,Schild GC

    更新日期:1985-05-01 00:00:00

  • Construction and characterisation of a full-length infectious molecular clone from a fast replicating, X4-tropic HIV-1 CRF02.AG primary isolate.

    abstract::Based on our previous analysis of HIV-1 isolates from Cameroon, we constructed a full-length infectious molecular clone from a primary isolate belonging to the CRF02.AG group of recombinant viruses which dominate the HIV-epidemic in West and Central Africa. The virus derived by transfection of the proviral clone pBD6-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tebit DM,Zekeng L,Kaptué L,Kräusslich HG,Herchenröder O

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Conserved amino acids of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx nuclear localization signal are critical for nuclear targeting of the viral preintegration complex in non-dividing cells.

    abstract::The HIV-2 viral accessory protein Vpx is related to, but distinct from the Vpr protein of HIV-1. Vpx is packaged into virions and as a component of the viral preintegration complex (PIC) is required for efficient virus replication in non-dividing cells. We have previously reported that the minimal transferable region ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belshan M,Mahnke LA,Ratner L

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00