The U.S. EPA Conference on Preventable Causes of Cancer in Children: a research agenda.


:On 15-16 September 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored the Conference on Preventable Causes of Cancer in Children. The conference was convened to examine rising trends in reported incidence of childhood cancer and the association of these trends with environmental exposures. This paper summarizes recommendations for future research offered by participants. These recommendations included more collaborative research integrating epidemiology, molecular biology, toxicology, and risk assessment; the development of better protocols for toxicologic testing including carcinogenicity using young animals; and research focused on specific periods of development during which susceptibility to environmental agents may be enhanced. Also recommended was enhanced use and development of molecular biomarkers for identification of susceptible populations, and documentation of exposures and effects in epidemiologic and toxicologic studies. Although toxicologic testing is considered essential to determine the effects of potential carcinogens on biological organisms, participants emphasized the need to link these findings with epidemiologic and exposure assessment research.


Carroquino MJ,Galson SK,Licht J,Amler RW,Perera FP,Claxton LD,Landrigan PJ




Has Abstract


1998-06-01 00:00:00








106 Suppl 3


  • Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction?

    abstract::A brief history of the development of the field of aquatic toxicology is provided. In order to provide a perspective on the state-of-the-art in aquatic toxicology relative to classical toxicology, the two fields are compared from the standpoint of the type of scientist practicing each field, the respective objectives ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Macek KJ

    更新日期:1980-02-01 00:00:00

  • An association between fine particles and asthma emergency department visits for children in Seattle.

    abstract::Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and its prevalence is increasing, causing much concern for identification of risk factors such as air pollution. We previously conducted a study showing a relationship between asthma visits in all persons < 65 years of age to emergency departments (EDs) and air po...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Norris G,YoungPong SN,Koenig JQ,Larson TV,Sheppard L,Stout JW

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Contribution of lead from calcium supplements to blood lead.

    abstract::We conducted a case-control study to determine the contribution of lead to blood from consumption of calcium supplements approximating the recommended daily intakes over a 6-month period. Subjects were males and females ages 21 to 47 years (geometric mean 32 years) with a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 2.5...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gulson BL,Mizon KJ,Palmer JM,Korsch MJ,Taylor AJ

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jessup CM,Balbus JM,Christian C,Haque E,Howe SE,Newton SA,Reid BC,Roberts L,Wilhelm E,Rosenthal JP

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Biomarker research in neurotoxicology: the role of mechanistic studies to bridge the gap between the laboratory and epidemiological investigations.

    abstract::There is an increasing interest in the development and validation of biomarkers for use in biochemical/molecular epidemiological studies. Though the area of neurotoxicology has received much attention in the past several years, it still lags behind with regard to the development of biomarkers, particularly those of he...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Costa LG

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Gestational and lactational exposure of rats to xenoestrogens results in reduced testicular size and sperm production.

    abstract::This study assessed whether exposure of male rats to two estrogenic, environmental chemicals, 4-octylphenol (OP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) during gestation or during the first 21 days of postnatal life, affected testicular size or spermatogenesis in adulthood (90-95 days of age). Chemicals were administered via...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharpe RM,Fisher JS,Millar MM,Jobling S,Sumpter JP

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of mutagenicity testing with Salmonella typhimurium TA102 in three different laboratories.

    abstract::Thirty compounds of various chemical classes were investigated for mutagenicity in a collaborative study (three laboratories) using Salmonella typhimurium TA102. With five compounds, hydrazine sulfate, phenylhydrazine, hydralazine, glutardialdehyde, and glyoxal, mutagenicity was detected by all laboratories. Formaldeh...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Müller W,Engelhart G,Herbold B,Jäckh R,Jung R

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of metals in in vitro bioassays.

    abstract::The capacity of in vitro bioassays to detect the potential carcinogenicity of metal compounds is reviewed. The in vitro bioassays discussed include: bacterial reversion analysis to determine the capacity of metal salts to revert Salmonella typhimurium histidine auxotrophs or to revert Escherichia coli WP 2 tryp- to tr...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sirover MA

    更新日期:1981-08-01 00:00:00

  • Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    abstract::Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of usi...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stevens AA

    更新日期:1982-12-01 00:00:00

  • The three modern faces of mercury.

    abstract::The three modern "faces" of mercury are our perceptions of risk from the exposure of billions of people to methyl mercury in fish, mercury vapor from amalgam tooth fillings, and ethyl mercury in the form of thimerosal added as an antiseptic to widely used vaccines. In this article I review human exposure to and the to...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clarkson TW

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of an Elementary School-based Educational Intervention for Reducing Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chronic exposure to well water arsenic (As) remains a major rural health challenge in Bangladesh and some other developing countries. Many mitigation programs have been implemented to reduce As exposure, although evaluation studies for these efforts are rare in the literature. OBJECTIVES:In this study we es...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khan K,Ahmed E,Factor-Litvak P,Liu X,Siddique AB,Wasserman GA,Slavkovich V,Levy D,Mey JL,van Geen A,Graziano JH

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident.

    abstract::This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environm...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kulakov VI,Sokur TN,Volobuev AI,Tzibulskaya IS,Malisheva VA,Zikin BI,Ezova LC,Belyaeva LA,Bonartzev PD,Speranskaya NV

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Predicting health effects of exposures to compounds with estrogenic activity: methodological issues.

    abstract::Many substances are active in in vitro tests for estrogenic activity, but data from multigenerational and other toxicity studies are not available for many of those substances. Controversy has arisen, therefore, concerning the likelihood of adverse health effects. Based on a toxic equivalence factor risk assessment ap...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rudel R

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of genetic effects of environmental agents.

    abstract::The fundamental problems in population monitoring for genetic effects are twofold: the binomialized nature of the data and the lower power due to small risk of finding positive results. The binomial character is artificial, even forced, and can with advantage be replaced by more refined analysis, and by a focus on all...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murphy EA

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Mutagenesis testing program.

    abstract::Until recently, mutagenicity testing was done on preselected compounds in a manner in which the testing laboratories knew the identity of the substances under test and the "expected" results, i.e., positive for compounds selected because of their carcinogenicity and negative for food additives. There is no completed s...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valcovic LR

    更新日期:1977-10-01 00:00:00

  • Chromium(VI) reduction by ascorbate: role of reactive intermediates in DNA damage in vitro.

    abstract::Reaction of chromium(VI) with one equivalent of ascorbate was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in the presence of 0.10 M 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide (DMPO) at room temperature in 0.10 M (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) (HEPES) and 0.05 M tris(hydroxymethyl)aminometh...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stearns DM,Courtney KD,Giangrande PH,Phieffer LS,Wetterhahn KE

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing uncertainty in spatial exposure models for air pollution health effects assessment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although numerous epidemiologic studies now use models of intraurban exposure, there has been little systematic evaluation of the performance of different models. OBJECTIVES:In this present article we proposed a modeling framework for assessing exposure model performance and the role of spatial autocorrelat...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Molitor J,Jerrett M,Chang CC,Molitor NT,Gauderman J,Berhane K,McConnell R,Lurmann F,Wu J,Winer A,Thomas D

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • The pulmonary extracellular lining.

    abstract::The extracellular lining of the lungs is reviewed. The pulmonary extracellular lining is a complex mixture of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates which is absolutely essential for the maintenance of normal pulmonary functions such as gas exchange. Without the lining the lungs would collapse. Alterations in the p...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: George G,Hook GE

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • A cross-sectional investigation of chronic exposure to microcystin in relationship to childhood liver damage in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Microcystin-producing Microcystis bloom is a severe water problem in the world. Some reports indicate that chronic exposure to microcystin may result in liver damage in adults, but information on effects in children is limited. OBJECTIVE:We investigated the relationship between microcystin exposure and live...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Y,Chen JA,Zhao Q,Pu C,Qiu Z,Zhang R,Shu W

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Urinary levoglucosan as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure: observations in a mouse model and in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Biomass smoke is an important source of particulate matter (PM), and much remains to be discovered with respect to the human health effects associated with this specific PM source. Exposure to biomass smoke can occur in one of two main categories: short-term exposures consist of periodic, seasonal exposures ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Migliaccio CT,Bergauff MA,Palmer CP,Jessop F,Noonan CW,Ward TJ

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal Plasma Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Miscarriage: A Nested Case-Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widespread persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors. High doses of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure can cause pregnancy loss and infant deaths in animals, but the associations between PFAS exposures and...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liew Z,Luo J,Nohr EA,Bech BH,Bossi R,Arah OA,Olsen J

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Daily estimates of soil ingestion in children.

    abstract::Soil ingestion estimates play an important role in risk assessment of contaminated sites, and estimates of soil ingestion in children are of special interest. Current estimates of soil ingestion are trace-element specific and vary widely among elements. Although expressed as daily estimates, the actual estimates have ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stanek EJ 3rd,Calabrese EJ

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Significance of high soil lead concentrations for childhood lead burdens.

    abstract::The lead exposure of children and their mothers has been studied in two towns with mean soil lead contents of 900 and 400 ppm. No significant difference in blood or fecal lead contents was demonstrated between the two populations, but a small difference in hair lead content was shown. The blood lead content of childre...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barltrop D,Strehlow CD,Thorton I,Webb JS

    更新日期:1974-05-01 00:00:00

  • Neurogenic inflammation and sensitivity to environmental chemicals.

    abstract::Neurogenic inflammation as a pathway distinct from antigen-driven, immune-mediated inflammation may play a pivotal role in understanding a broad class of environmental health problems resulting from chemical exposures. Recent progress in understanding the mediators, triggers, and regulation of neurogenic inflammation ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meggs WJ

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal Exposure to DDT and Pyrethroids for Malaria Control and Child Neurodevelopment: The VHEMBE Cohort, South Africa.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although indoor residual spraying (IRS) with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids effectively controls malaria, it potentially increases human exposure to these insecticides. Previous studies suggest that prenatal exposure to these insecticides may impact human neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES:...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eskenazi B,An S,Rauch SA,Coker ES,Maphula A,Obida M,Crause M,Kogut KR,Bornman R,Chevrier J

    更新日期:2018-04-06 00:00:00

  • Mortality in the Medicare population and chronic exposure to fine particulate air pollution in urban centers (2000-2005).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prospective cohort studies constitute the major source of evidence about the mortality effects of chronic exposure to particulate air pollution. Additional studies are needed to provide evidence on the health effects of chronic exposure to particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zeger SL,Dominici F,McDermott A,Samet JM

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological response to aerosol propellants.

    abstract::Acute exposures to isobutane, propane, F-12, and F-11 in concentrations of 250, 500, or 1000 ppm for periods of 1 min to 8 hr did not produce any untoward physiological effects as determined by the methods employed which included serial EKG's and continuous monitoring of modified V5 by telemetry during exposure. Repet...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stewart RD,Newton PE,Baretta ED,Herrmann AA,Forster HV,Soto RJ

    更新日期:1978-10-01 00:00:00

  • Monitoring intracellular redox changes in ozone-exposed airway epithelial cells.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The toxicity of many xenobiotic compounds is believed to involve oxidative injury to cells. Direct assessment of mechanistic events involved in xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress is not easily achievable. Development of genetically encoded probes designed for monitoring intracellular redox changes represent...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibbs-Flournoy EA,Simmons SO,Bromberg PA,Dick TP,Samet JM

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • High breast milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among four women living adjacent to a PCB-contaminated waste site.

    abstract::As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since 1993, measures of intraute...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Korrick SA,Altshul L

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • DNA damage-inducible genes as biomarkers for exposures to environmental agents.

    abstract::A biodosimetric approach to determine alpha-particle dose to the respiratory tract epithelium from known exposures to radon has been developed in the rat. Cytotoxicity assays have been used to obtain dose-conversion factors for cumulative exposures typical of those encountered by underground uranium miners. However, t...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson NF,Carpenter TR,Jaramillo RJ,Liberati TA

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00