Maleimide conjugation markedly enhances the immunogenicity of both human and murine idiotype-KLH vaccines.

Abstract:

:The collection of epitopes present within the variable regions of the tumor-specific clonal immunoglobulin expressed by B cell lymphomas (idiotype, Id) can serve as a target for active immunotherapy. Traditionally, tumor-derived Id protein is chemically conjugated to the immunogenic foreign carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) using glutaraldehyde to serve as a therapeutic vaccine. While this approach offered promising results for some patients treated in early clinical trials, glutaraldehyde Id-KLH vaccines have failed to induce immune and clinical responses in many vaccinated subjects. We recently described an alternative conjugation method employing maleimide-sulfhydryl chemistry that significantly increased the therapeutic efficacy of Id-KLH vaccines in three different murine B cell lymphoma models, with protection mediated by either CD8(+) T cells or antibodies. We now define in detail the methods and parameters critical for enhancing the in vivo immunogenicity of human as well as murine Id-KLH conjugate vaccines. Optimal conditions for Id sulfhydryl pre-reduction were determined, and maleimide Id-KLH conjugates maintained stability and potency even after prolonged storage. Field flow fractionation analysis of Id-KLH particle size revealed that maleimide conjugates were far more uniform in size than glutaraldehyde conjugates. Under increasingly stringent conditions, maleimide Id-KLH vaccines maintained superior efficacy over glutaraldehyde Id-KLH in treating established, disseminated murine lymphoma. More importantly, human maleimide Id-KLH conjugates were consistently superior to glutaraldehyde Id-KLH conjugates in inducing Id-specific antibody and T cell responses. The described methods should be easily adaptable to the production of clinical grade vaccines for human trials in B cell malignancies.

journal_name

Mol Immunol

journal_title

Molecular immunology

authors

Kafi K,Betting DJ,Yamada RE,Bacica M,Steward KK,Timmerman JM

doi

10.1016/j.molimm.2008.10.020

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2009-01-01 00:00:00

pages

448-56

issue

3

eissn

0161-5890

issn

1872-9142

pii

S0161-5890(08)00724-4

journal_volume

46

pub_type

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