Porcine circovirus 2 infection of epithelial cells is clathrin-, caveolae- and dynamin-independent, actin and Rho-GTPase-mediated, and enhanced by cholesterol depletion.


:Epithelial cells are the major in vivo target cells for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Although these cells are used for most studies of PCV2 gene expression and, little is known on PCV2 entry, attachment and internalization, in epithelial cells. PCV2 attachment to epithelial cells occurred rapidly and in a time-dependent manner. In contrast to attachment, internalization was slow. Immunofluorescent stainings revealed that during internalization, PCV2 co-localized with clathrin, but not caveolin. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis increased instead of decreased the number of PCV2-infected cells by threefold, suggesting that it does not represent the main internalization pathway leading to a full replication. Further analysis with different inhibitors revealed that also macropinocytosis, dynamin-dependent internalization and membrane cholesterol play no role in PCV2 entry that leads to infection. Inhibition of small GTPases with Clostridium difficile toxin B reduced the number of PCV2-infected PK-15, SK and STs to 63+/-25%, 47+/-21% and 14+/-6%, respectively. Finally, inhibiting actin polymerization also blocked PCV2 infection, showing the need for actin during PCV2 infection. Together, these data indicate that a dynamin- and cholesterol-independent, but actin- and small GTPase-dependent pathway, allows PCV2 internalization in epithelial cells that leads to infection and that clathrin-mediated PCV2 internalization in epithelial cells is not followed by a full replication.


Virus Res


Virus research


Misinzo G,Delputte PL,Lefebvre DJ,Nauwynck HJ




Has Abstract


2009-01-01 00:00:00














  • Murine leukemia virus pseudotypes of La Crosse and Hantaan Bunyaviruses: a system for analysis of cell tropism.

    abstract::We have developed a system for the preparation of La Crosse virus (LAC) and Hantaan virus (HTN) pseudotypes using a murine leukemia virus vector. After concentration, the pseudotypes were present in quantities sufficient to analyze cell tropism and neutralization. Cells resistant to LAC could not be infected with the ...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma M,Kersten DB,Kamrud KI,Wool-Lewis RJ,Schmaljohn C,González-Scarano F

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • The interaction between KSHV RTA and cellular RBP-Jkappa and their subsequent DNA binding are not sufficient for activation of RBP-Jkappa.

    abstract::Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication and transcription activator (RTA) is necessary and sufficient for the switch from KSHV latency to lytic replication. RTA activates promoters by several mechanisms. RTA can bind to sequences in viral promoters and activate transcription. In addition, RTA intera...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Papugani A,Coleman T,Jones C,Zhang L

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mosaicism of HTLV-1 5' LTR CpG methylation in the absence of malignancy.

    abstract::Viral expression varies widely between untransformed HTLV-1 positive clones derived from infected individuals without malignancy. Here we show that, in the absence of malignancy, 68% of HTLV-1 positive clones carry deleted (10%) or methylated (58%) 5' LTR. These changes were found to contribute to the fluctuation of v...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sibon D,Zane L,Idrissi ME,Delfau-Larue MH,Gessain A,Gout O,Mortreux F,Wattel E

    更新日期:2013-12-26 00:00:00

  • A review of experimental infections with bluetongue virus in the mammalian host.

    abstract::Experimental infection studies with bluetongue virus (BTV) in the mammalian host have a history that stretches back to the late 18th century. Studies in a wide range of ruminant and camelid species as well as mice have been instrumental in understanding BTV transmission, bluetongue (BT) pathogenicity/pathogenesis, vir...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Coetzee P,van Vuuren M,Venter EH,Stokstad M

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • A reverse genetic study of the adaptation of human enterovirus 71 to growth in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures.

    abstract::We selected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-adapted strains of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) belonging to sub-genogroups B5 (HEV71-B5) and C2 (HEV71-C2) by serial passage in CHO cells at a high multiplicity of infection. During the course of CHO cell passage, virus growth improved significantly, with increasing virus ...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zaini Z,Phuektes P,McMinn P

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Natural recombination between tobacco and tomato mosaic viruses.

    abstract::Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense plant RNA virus which has a wide host range and a worldwide distribution. Other than a troublesome pathogen, TMV is regarded as a model system pioneering biologic research for a century. The tomato strain of TMV has been recognized to be a distinct tobamovirus as the toma...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: He M,He CQ,Ding NZ

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular analysis of the echovirus 18 prototype: evidence of interserotypic recombination with echovirus 9.

    abstract::Echovirus 18 (EV18) is one of the echovirus serotypes associated with human diseases and in particular aseptic meningitis. To facilitate studies of the molecular epidemiology of EV18 and the evolution of enteroviruses in general, the complete nucleotide (nt) sequence was determined for the echovirus 18 prototype strai...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andersson P,Edman K,Lindberg AM

    更新日期:2002-04-23 00:00:00

  • Molecular mechanisms of influenza virus resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors.

    abstract::A wide use of inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase (NAIs) to control influenza in humans demands a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the resistance emergence. In vitro studies demonstrate that both neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) influence virus susceptibility to NAIs. Drug resistance...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gubareva LV

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Early intranuclear replication of African swine fever virus genome modifies the landscape of the host cell nucleus.

    abstract::Although African swine fever virus (ASFV) replicates in viral cytoplasmic factories, the presence of viral DNA within the host cell nucleus has been previously reported to be essential for productive infection. Herein, we described, for the first time, the intranuclear distribution patterns of viral DNA replication ev...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simões M,Martins C,Ferreira F

    更新日期:2015-12-02 00:00:00

  • Analysis of adaptive mutations selected during the consecutive passages of hepatitis E virus produced from an infectious cDNA clone.

    abstract::To characterize the genomic mutations of hepatitis E virus (HEV) during consecutive passages associated with adaptation to growth in cell culture, a cloned genotype 3 HEV [pJE03-1760F/wt, starting virus (SV)] was passaged 10 times in A549 cells, and the entire genomic sequence of the passage 10 (P10) progeny was deter...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagashima S,Kobayashi T,Tanaka T,Tanggis,Jirintai S,Takahashi M,Nishizawa T,Okamoto H

    更新日期:2016-09-02 00:00:00

  • Low DNA HTLV-2 proviral load among women in São Paulo City.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:HTLV-2 infections are almost always asymptomatic, and diseases associated with the infection are rarely reported. Little information is available on the relationship between HTLV-2 proviral load and gender or expression of disease, especially among patients with HIV-1 co-infection. METHODS:We studied 77 HTL...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montanheiro P,Olah I,Fukumori LM,Smid J,Oliveira AC,Kanzaki LI,Fonseca LA,Duarte AJ,Casseb J

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of replication competence of wild-type and lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus isolates from a chronic hepatitis B patient.

    abstract::In lamivudine-refractory chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, discontinuation of lamivudine therapy may lead to loss of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) and reappearance of wide-type HBV as dominant strains, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned wide-type and lamivudine-resi...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang Q,Chen J,Pan M,Liu J,Liu T,Zhou YH

    更新日期:2018-08-15 00:00:00

  • The pathogenic and vaccine strains of equine infectious anemia virus differentially induce cytokine and chemokine expression and apoptosis in macrophages.

    abstract::The attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine was the first attenuated lentivirus vaccine to be used in a large-scale application and has been used to successfully control the spread of equine infectious anemia (EIA) in China. To better understand the potential role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of E...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin YZ,Cao XZ,Li L,Li L,Jiang CG,Wang XF,Ma J,Zhou JH

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of an animal-derived G4P[6] group A rotavirus strain in a symptomatic child, in Italy.

    abstract::During 2017, a G4P[6] group A rotavirus strain was identified in the feces of an Italian child hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in Southern Italy. Nucleotide sequencing of the 11 genomic segments, revealed the G4-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 genotype constellation. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene segments i...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ianiro G,Micolano R,Conte M,Labianca M,Vaccari G,Monini M

    更新日期:2019-01-15 00:00:00

  • In vivo tropisms and kinetics of rat theilovirus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats.

    abstract::Rat theilovirus (RTV) is a cardiovirus related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. While RTV is a prevalent viral pathogen of rats used in biomedical research, the pathogenesis and characterization of RTV infections is not well understood. In the studies reported herein, we used immunohistochemistry to identi...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Drake MT,Besch-Williford C,Myles MH,Davis JW,Livingston RS

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Engineering human rhinovirus serotype-A1 as a vaccine vector.

    abstract::Herein we describe the construction of recombinant human rhinoviruses (rHRVs) encoding HIV Gag or Tat by inserting the full length tat gene or regions of the gag gene flanked by sequences encoding the HRV 2A protease cleavage site into the junction between HRV genes encoding structural (P1) and non-structural (P2) pro...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tomusange K,Yu W,Suhrbier A,Wijesundara D,Grubor-Bauk B,Gowans EJ

    更新日期:2015-05-04 00:00:00

  • Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary phylogeography analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 1.

    abstract::Dengue is now hyper-endemic in most parts of south and southeast Asia including India. The northern India particularly national capital New Delhi witnessed major Dengue outbreaks with Dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) as the dominant serotype since last five years. This study was initiated to decipher the complete genome i...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dash PK,Sharma S,Soni M,Agarwal A,Sahni AK,Parida M

    更新日期:2015-01-02 00:00:00

  • Molecular analysis of double-stranded RNAs reveals complex infection of grapevines with multiple viruses.

    abstract::The table grape variety "Waltham Cross" was infected with Leafroll and Shiraz Disease. To reveal specific viruses that are associated with the diseased plants, we used an RT-PCR-based strategy to determine partial genome sequences of these viruses. Upon cloning and sequencing of the RT-PCR products, we detected seven ...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Prosser SW,Goszczynski DE,Meng B

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Integration of human papillomavirus correlates with high levels of viral oncogene transcripts in cervical carcinogenesis.

    abstract::A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the integration of high-risk human papillomavirus and disease severity of cervical lesions. 720 liquid-based cytology specimens including 422 normal cytology, 78 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 172 high-grade squamous...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ho CM,Lee BH,Chang SF,Chien TY,Huang SH,Yan CC,Cheng WF

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • VP6 capsid protein of chicken rotavirus strain CH2: sequence, phylogeny and in silico antigenic analyses.

    abstract::The inner capsid protein VP6 of group A rotavirus possesses group and subgroup epitope specificities. Avian rotaviruses have a unique VP6 that is antigenically different from its mammalian counterpart. The lack of information on the VP6 protein of chicken rotavirus strain, CH2, at the genetic and antigenic level was a...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buragohain M,Cherian SS,Prabhakar G,Chitambar SD

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • The genetic organization and transcriptional analysis of the short unique region in the genome of nononcogenic Marek's disease virus serotype 2.

    abstract::Studies on the Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 2 (MDV2) genome may be important for understanding the naturally nononcogenic nature of the virus. To determine the complete DNA sequence of MDV2 unique short (Us) region, genomic BamHI fragments F, M1 and R were sequenced. The MDV2 Us region is 12109 bp long and con...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jang HK,Ono M,Kim TJ,Izumiya Y,Damiani AM,Matsumura T,Niikura M,Kai C,Mikami T

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced cell death exhibits features consistent with a nontypical form of apoptosis.

    abstract::Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, belongs to a group of RNA viruses that are cytopathic for macrophages and establish persistent infections. Apoptosis is the presumed mechanism of cell death in monkey kidney cell lines and porcine alveolar macrophages after infection with Eur...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim TS,Benfield DA,Rowland RR

    更新日期:2002-05-10 00:00:00

  • Immunologic characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens ICP10 and ICSP11/12.

    abstract::Infected cell protein 10 (ICP10) or antigen 4 (Ag4) and infected cell-specific protein 11/12 (ICSP11/12) have been suggested as specific antigenic markers for cervical carcinoma. Experiments were designed to determine whether ICP10 and ICSP11/12 are distinct antigens and to determine the cellular localization of ICP10...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flanders RT,Kucera LS,Raben M,Ricardo MJ Jr

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • Divergent IRES elements in invertebrates.

    abstract::Viruses have evolved unique strategies and mechanisms to recruit ribosomes to ensure continued translation of their viral RNA during infection. The Dicistroviridae family of invertebrate viruses contains an unusual internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which can directly recruit ribosomes in the absence of initiation f...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jan E

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle destruction caused by coxsackievirus A10 in gerbils: Construction of a novel animal model for antiviral evaluation.

    abstract::The morbidity and mortality of coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been increasing in recent years, while few studies on the vaccine and animal model of CVA10 have been reported. Here, we first established a CVA10-infected gerbil model and employed it to evaluate the immunop...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen C,Xia Y,Zhu S,Xu F,Sun Y,Lu H,Gao M,Yang Z,Mao Z,Ge Q,Miao Z,Zhu H,Yao P

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative and retrospective molecular analysis of Parapoxvirus (PPV) isolates.

    abstract::Species members of the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) within the family Poxviridae cause contagious pustular dermatitis in small ruminants (Orf virus, ORFV) and mostly mild localized inflammation in cattle (bovine papular stomatitis virus, BPSV and pseudocowpox virus, PCPV). All PPVs are known to be zoonotic, leading to cir...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friederichs S,Krebs S,Blum H,Wolf E,Lang H,von Buttlar H,Büttner M

    更新日期:2014-03-06 00:00:00

  • Adenovirus infection induces amplification of persistent viral DNA sequences (simian virus 40, hepatitis B virus, bovine papillomavirus) in human and rodent cells.

    abstract::Adenoviruses, types 2 and 12 induce amplification of SV40 DNA sequences in cells of the SV40-transformed human newborn kidney cell line, NB-E. Similarly, integrated hepatitis B virus DNA sequences in the human hepatoma cell line, PLC/*PRF/5, and bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in BPV-transformed mouse cells ...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schlehofer JR,zur Hausen H

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Expression cloning and antigenic analysis of the nucleocapsid protein of equine arteritis virus.

    abstract::A series of recombinant fusion proteins derived from equine arteritis virus (EAV) open reading frame (ORF) 7 have been used to define the immunoreactive region of the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. Reactivities of recombinant N fusion proteins with post-infection equine sera in immunoblots and ELISAs indicate that th...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chirnside ED,Francis PM,Mumford JA

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Recombinant Vpr (rVpr) causes augmentation of HIV-1 p24 Ag level in U1 cells through its ability to induce the secretion of TNF.

    abstract::We have found that an HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpr enhanced HIV-1 reproduction in U1 cells chiefly by the induction of TNF, a proinflammatory cytokine, which was also known to be an activator of HIV-1 reproduction. We have generated the functional HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpr in bacterial cells. Vpr was genera...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamura T,Suzuki H,Okamoto T,Kotani S,Atsuji Y,Tanaka T,Ito Y

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Porcine adenoviruses types 1, 2 and 3 have short and simple early E-3 regions.

    abstract::The nucleotide sequence of the E-3 region genes, the hexon associated protein pVIII genes, and part of the fiber genes coding for the N-terminal tail regions, of porcine adenovirus (PAV) types 1 and 2 were determined. The sizes of the E-3 regions were found to be 1162 and 1222 bp, respectively. The five open reading f...

    journal_title:Virus research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reddy PS,Idamakanti N,Derbyshire JB,Nagy E

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00