The effect of activated microglia on astrogliosis parameters in astrocyte cultures.

Abstract:

:In the diseased central nervous system, astrogliosis is accompanied by microglial activation. Depending on the context of their activation, reactive astrocytes are involved in neuronal survival and regeneration in an either protective or impedimental way. Major reactive changes of astrocytes in vivo are the upregulation of the intermediate filaments GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and vimentin with accompanying cellular hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia. To examine the involvement of activated microglia in the onset and maintenance of astrogliosis, we used an in vitro model of purified cultures of astrocytes and assessed as parameters for astrogliosis GFAP, vimentin, astroglial hypertrophy and cell growth after treatment with medium conditioned by LPS (lipopolysaccarides)-stimulated microglia. Furthermore, IL-6 as a typically upregulated cytokine in proinflammatory processes in the brain was determined in treated astrocytes. GFAP, the classical marker for astrogliosis, was downregulated on its protein and in parallel with vimentin on its mRNA level. The expression of actin, another cytoskeleton protein used as control, remained unchanged. Ultrastructural studies of astroglial intermediate filaments supported these findings. No hypertrophy was found. Nevertheless, LPS-activated microglia stimulated astrocytes as demonstrated by an increased cell number and an enhanced mRNA expression of IL-6. Resting microglia did not change any of the determined parameters. Our results suggest that the role of activated microglia in astrogliotic processes following injury of the brain has to be reevaluated, as microglia in their activated state might support the onset of astrogliosis on the one hand, but might delay or reduce subsequent glial scar formation on the other hand.

journal_name

Brain Res

journal_title

Brain research

authors

Röhl C,Lucius R,Sievers J

doi

10.1016/j.brainres.2006.10.057

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2007-01-19 00:00:00

pages

43-52

issue

1

eissn

0006-8993

issn

1872-6240

pii

S0006-8993(06)03195-7

journal_volume

1129

pub_type

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