Release of cholecystokinin from rat midbrain slices and modulatory effect of D2DA receptor stimulation.


:Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) is colocalized within a majority of dopamine (DA)-containing neurons of the rat midbrain. Exogenous CCK-8 can modulate the electrophysiological activity of DA neurons, at least in part, by direct actions on the somatodendritic region of these cells. If CCK-8 is somatodendritically released from DA neurons, it may influence DA cell function as has been shown for DA itself. In the present study, radioimmunoassay was used to determine if CCK-8 is released in vitro from slices of rat midbrain under basal and depolarizing (30 mM potassium) conditions. Low levels of CCK-8 were detected in the basal incubation medium. Thirty mM potassium caused about a 3-fold increase in the release of CCK-8. This stimulated release was abolished in calcium-free medium. The D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, but not the D1 agonist SKF 38393, attenuated the potassium-stimulated release of CCK-8 but did not affect basal release. These results show that CCK-8, like DA, can be released from midbrain slices, presumably from DA/CCK-8-containing neurons. This finding is in accordance with the possibility that CCK-8 plays a role in the regulation of DA neuronal function at the level of the cell body, where it might influence the excitability of the DA cell membrane.


Brain Res


Brain research


Freeman AS,Chiodo LA,Lentz SI,Wade K,Bannon MJ




Has Abstract


1991-08-02 00:00:00














  • G-protein effects on retrograde axonal transport.

    abstract::Movements of medium and large sized membranous organelles (0.5-1 microns in diameter) were visualized within segments of the crab walking leg nerve with Nomarski differential interference contrast optics and subjected to video contrast enhancement. Accessibility to the axoplasm was demonstrated by intra-axonal fluores...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moshiach S,Nelson TJ,Sanchez-Andres JV,Sakakibara M,Alkon DL

    更新日期:1993-03-12 00:00:00

  • Oxygen therapy improves energy metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia.

    abstract::Oxygen therapy (OT) with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) or normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) improves the oxygenation of penumbral tissue in experimental ischemic stroke. However, whether this results in the improvement of energy metabolism is unclear. We investigated the effect of both OTs on tissue acidosis and on ATP production....

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun L,Strelow H,Mies G,Veltkamp R

    更新日期:2011-09-30 00:00:00

  • Origin of ascending auditory projections to the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis in the chicken.

    abstract::Ascending auditory projections to the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd) were studied in white Leghorn chickens by means of unilateral injections of horseradish peroxidase into the MLd and by injections of tritiated leucine into nucleus angularis or the combined nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus l...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Conlee JW,Parks TN

    更新日期:1986-03-05 00:00:00

  • CART peptide following social novelty in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    abstract::Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous rodents that display high levels of affiliative behaviors, including pair-bonding, biparental care, and cooperative breeding. Species differences in basal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptide expression have been found between prairie...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hostetler CM,Kowalczyk AS,Griffin LL,Bales KL

    更新日期:2011-09-26 00:00:00

  • Comparison of somatostatin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in forebrain neurons projecting to taste-responsive and non-responsive regions of the parabrachial nucleus in rat.

    abstract::Several forebrain areas have been shown to project to the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and exert inhibitory and excitatory influences on taste processing. The neurochemicals by which descending forebrain inputs modulate neural taste-evoked responses remain to be established. This study investigated the existence of soma...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Panguluri S,Saggu S,Lundy R

    更新日期:2009-11-17 00:00:00

  • Exploring and targeting saccades dissociated by saccadic adaptation.

    abstract::Saccadic adaptation maintains saccade accuracy and has been studied with targeting saccades, i.e. saccades that bring the gaze to a target, with the classical intra-saccadic step procedure in which the target systematically jumps to a new position during saccade execution. Post-saccadic visual feedback about the error...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lavergne L,Vergilino-Perez D,Lemoine C,Collins T,Doré-Mazars K

    更新日期:2011-09-30 00:00:00

  • An immunohistochemical and fine-structural analysis of peptidergic hypothalamic neurosecretory axon regeneration into the leptomeninges of the rat.

    abstract::Regeneration of severed hypothalamic peptidergic neurosecretory axons into the ventral pia-arachnoid was observed in rats at the light microscopic and fine-structural levels. A temporal increase occurred in the number of neurophysin-positive axons regenerating into the leptomeninges for distances up to 3.3 mm by 40 da...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dellmann HD,Lue LF,Bellin SI,Ouassat M

    更新日期:1988-05-31 00:00:00

  • Genetic influences on electrical seizure threshold.

    abstract::C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice have been characterized previously as seizure-resistant and seizure-sensitive, respectively, a distinction based primarily upon a differential response to the convulsant effects of various drugs. In the present study, electroconvulsive shock (ECS) was used to assess maximal electrosh...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferraro TN,Golden GT,Snyder R,Laibinis M,Smith GG,Buono RJ,Berrettini WH

    更新日期:1998-11-30 00:00:00

  • Maturational changes of amino acid concentration in cerebrospinal fluid of the rat.

    abstract::The cisternal spinal fluid (CF), plasma, and brain stem concentrations of 6 amino acids were measured in suckling rats between birth and one months of age. Each of the amino acids studied had its distinctive maturational pattern of CF concentration. Presumably these amino acids have separate mechanisms of transport fr...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Korobkin RK,Cutler RW

    更新日期:1977-01-01 00:00:00

  • Glucocorticoids may alter antioxidant enzyme capacity in the brain: kainic acid studies.

    abstract::Glucocorticoids (GCs) predispose hippocampal neurons to damage during metabolic stressors. One component of hippocampal GC-endangerment may be changes in neuronal defenses against oxidative challenge. Previous experiments showed a decrease in basal levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and glutathione...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McIntosh LJ,Cortopassi KM,Sapolsky RM

    更新日期:1998-04-27 00:00:00

  • The vermal projection of spinocerebellar tracts arising from lower cervical segments in the cat: an anterograde WGA-HRP study.

    abstract::Following injections of WGA-HRP into lower cervical segments, the distribution of anterograde labeled terminals of spinocerebellar fibers was examined in the vermal cortex of the cat. The labeled terminals were seen in sublobules Ib to VIc, VIIb, VIIIa and VIIIb, and lobule IX. They were present mainly in the medial p...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsushita M,Ikeda M,Tanami T

    更新日期:1985-12-23 00:00:00

  • Over expression of amyloid beta-protein reduces the number of neurons in the striatum of APPswe/PS1DeltaE9.

    abstract::The effect of increasing amounts of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) on the number of neurons in the striatum was investigated in APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 transgenic mice. This mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like amyloidosis displays an increased expression of Abeta in the brain with age. On the basis of reports of disruptio...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richner M,Bach G,West MJ

    更新日期:2009-04-17 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of amyloid-beta-induced cell death in human brain pericytes in vitro.

    abstract::Amyloid-beta protein (A beta) deposition in the cerebral vascular walls is one of the key features of Alzheimer's disease and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D). A beta(1-40) carrying the 'Dutch' mutation (HCHWA-D A beta(1-40)) induces pronounced degeneration of cultured human brain p...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rensink AA,Verbeek MM,Otte-Höller I,ten Donkelaar HT,de Waal RM,Kremer B

    更新日期:2002-10-11 00:00:00

  • Centrifugal innervation of the lamprey retina. Light- and electron microscopic and electrophysiological investigations.

    abstract::Centrifugal fibers and their synaptic connections were studied in retinas of the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis. The morphological analysis of retinofugal and retinopetal elements was performed after their horseradish peroxidase (HRP) filling through either the cut optic nerve in isolated retina preparations or after in...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vesselkin NP,Repérant J,Kenigfest NB,Rio JP,Miceli D,Shupliakov OV

    更新日期:1989-07-24 00:00:00

  • Acute depletion of serotonin down-regulates serotonin transporter mRNA in raphe neurons.

    abstract::Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) mRNA and 5-HTT sites were measured 3 days after treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor. While 5-HTT mRNA levels decreased (P < 0.001) in the dorsal raphe nucleus, 5-HTT binding sites remained unchanged, suggesting that an acute depletion of 5-HT may induc...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu A,Yang J,Pawlyk AC,Tejani-Butt SM

    更新日期:1995-08-07 00:00:00

  • Signalling events regulating the retrograde axonal transport of 125I-beta nerve growth factor in vivo.

    abstract::The molecular mechanisms regulating the retrograde axonal transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) are currently unknown. This study identifies some of the signalling events involved. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor wortmannin (1 nmol/eye) irreversibly inhibits the amount of 125I-betaNGF retrogradel...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reynolds AJ,Bartlett SE,Hendry IA

    更新日期:1998-07-06 00:00:00

  • Post-ischemic hypothermia blocks caspase-3 activation in the newborn rat brain after hypoxia-ischemia.

    abstract::The effects of hypothermia on caspase-3 activation were investigated in the newborn rat brain after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Intense caspase-3 activation was observed in the control brains after HI, but this activation was significantly reduced by postischemic hypothermia. These findings suggest that the inhibition of c...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukuda H,Tomimatsu T,Watanabe N,Mu JW,Kohzuki M,Endo M,Fujii E,Kanzaki T,Murata Y

    更新日期:2001-08-10 00:00:00

  • Biogenic monoamine turnover in discrete rat brain regions is correlated with conditioned emotional response and its conditioning history.

    abstract::The content and turnover of dopamine, norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), and the content of their respective major metabolites were evaluated in 19 discrete brain areas of rats exposed to conditioned emotional response (CER), and in control groups which received either equivalent yoked shock (shock on...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lane JD,Sands MP,Co C,Cherek DR,Smith JE

    更新日期:1982-05-20 00:00:00

  • Dorsal raphe cells with collateral projections to the caudate-putamen and substantia nigra: a fluorescent retrograde double labeling study in the rat.

    abstract::The relationship between the dorsal raphe neurons projecting to the caudate-putamen and those projecting to the substantia nigra was investigated using a fluorescent retrograde double labeling technique in the rat. The majority of the dorsal raphe neurons projecting to the substantia nigra were found to project also t...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Kooy D,Hattori T

    更新日期:1980-03-17 00:00:00

  • Mg2+ dependence of membrane resistance increases evoked by NMDA in hippocampal neurones.

    abstract::The response of granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurones to NMDA was studied in the presence and absence of Mg2+ using an in vitro slice preparation. In the absence of Mg2+ the depolarizing response of hippocampal neurones to NMDA is accompanied by a decrease in input resistance. In the presence of Mg2+ ions, however,...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crunelli V,Mayer ML

    更新日期:1984-10-08 00:00:00

  • Phasic but not tonic REM-selective discharge of periaqueductal gray neurons in freely behaving animals: relevance to postulates of GABAergic inhibition of monoaminergic neurons.

    abstract::To determine if ventrolateral periaqueductal gray contains neurons that selectively increase their discharge activity before and during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and hence might furnish GABAergic inhibition of monoaminergic neurons, we recorded the extracellular activity of 33 neurons across sleep-wakefulness in...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thakkar MM,Strecker RE,McCarley RW

    更新日期:2002-08-02 00:00:00

  • Lamina-selective changes in the density of synapses following perturbation of monoamines and acetylcholine in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    abstract::The rat medial prefrontal cortex is known to have diverse brain functions such as learning and memory, attention, and behavioral flexibility. Although these functions are affected by monoamines (dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT)) and acetylcholine (ACh), the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Imai H,Matsukawa M,Okado N

    更新日期:2004-06-25 00:00:00

  • The retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase from the developing limb of the chick embryo.

    abstract::Chick embryos ranging in age from 4.0 to 18 days of incubation and 1-2-day-old hatchlings received injections of HRP solutions directly into the leg musculature. After survival periods of from 5 to 25 h motoneurons and cells in the spinal sensory ganglia were found to be stained with the HRP reaction product. It was f...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oppenheim RW,Heaton MB

    更新日期:1975-11-14 00:00:00

  • Anatomical identification of an auditory pathway from a nucleus of the lateral lemniscal system to the frontal telencephalon (nucleus basalis) of the pigeon.

    abstract::Anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments employing WGA-HRP were used to identify an auditory projection area within the frontal telencephalon of the pigeon. The projection originates in a nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, travels with the quintofrontal tract and terminates within nucleus basalis. The location of...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arends JJ,Zeigler HP

    更新日期:1986-11-29 00:00:00

  • A neurotransmitter specific functional recovery mediated by fetal implants in the lesioned spinal cord of the rat.

    abstract::In the electrophysiologic test of the hindlimb withdrawal reflex where the long latency component is found to be dependent on noradrenaline (NA), implants of fetal NA tissue in lesioned animals result in a recovery of NA dependent function proportional to the number of catecholamine fluorescent cells in the implants. ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moorman SJ,Whalen LR,Nornes HO

    更新日期:1990-02-05 00:00:00

  • Dorsal and ventral hippocampal cholinergic systems modulate anxiety in the plus-maze and shock-probe tests.

    abstract::There is emerging evidence that increased acetylcholine levels in brain reduce anxiety. More specifically there is evidence that some of these anxiolytic effects of acetylcholine are modulated by the hippocampus. In the present study we examined the roles of the cholinergic systems in the dorsal and ventral hippocampu...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Degroot A,Treit D

    更新日期:2002-09-13 00:00:00

  • An experimental anatomical study on the optic nerve fibers in the rat: courses of the accessory optic tract.

    abstract::By means of silver impregnation and an HRP method, courses of the accessory optic tract were examined in albino and pigmented rats. The accessory optic tract is composed of 3 fasciculi: anterior, lateral and dorsal. The anterior fasciculus gives off fibers to the subthalamic nucleus and terminates in the medial termin...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamadori T,Yamauchi KE

    更新日期:1983-06-13 00:00:00

  • Bleeping you out of the blink: sound saves vision from oblivion.

    abstract::The second of two targets (T2) presented in a rapid visual stream is often missed when presented shortly after the first (T1). This phenomenon has been referred to as the attentional blink. Here we show that the presentation of a synchronous sound enables T2 to escape the attentional blink, to the extent that performa...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olivers CN,Van der Burg E

    更新日期:2008-11-25 00:00:00

  • Asymmetric activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in rat vestibular nuclei by unilateral labyrinthectomy.

    abstract::The expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK 1/2) was evaluated in the vestibular nuclei (VN) of rats following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant asymmetrical increase in pERK 1/2 expression in the VN, 5 min after UL, after which pERK 1/2 i...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim MS,Choi MA,Choi DO,Lee MY,Kim KY,Rhee JK,Jin YZ,Park BR

    更新日期:2004-06-18 00:00:00

  • Neuroprotective effect of astaxanthin on H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and on focal cerebral ischemia in vivo.

    abstract::Astaxanthin (AST) is a powerful antioxidant that occurs naturally in a wide variety of living organisms. Much experimental evidence has proved that AST has the function of eliminating oxygen free radicals and can protect organisms from oxidative damage. The present study was carried out to further investigate the neur...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu YP,Liu SY,Sun H,Wu XM,Li JJ,Zhu L

    更新日期:2010-11-11 00:00:00