Alterations in D-amino acid levels in the brains of mice and rats after the administration of D-amino acids.


:To mutant ddY/DAO(-) mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity and normal ddY/DAO(+) mice, five D-amino acids (D-Asp, D-Ser, D-Ala, D-Leu and D-Pro) were orally administered for two weeks, and the D-amino acid levels were examined in seven brain regions. The levels of D-Asp markedly increased in the pituitary and pineal glands in both strains. In the ddY/DAO(+) mice, the levels of the other D-amino acids did not significantly change in most of the brain regions. While in the ddY/DAO(-) mice the levels of D-Ser significantly increased in most of the brain regions except for the cerebrum and hippocampus. The levels of D-Ala and D-Leu increased in all regions but the levels of D-Pro did not significantly change. The same five D-amino acids were intravenously injected into Wistar rats and the D-amino acid levels in their brains were examined for 60 min after the administration. The levels of D-Asp markedly increased in the pineal gland 3 min after the administration, while the levels of D-Ser, D-Ala, and D-Pro increased both in the pineal and pituitary glands, the levels of D-Leu increased in all brain regions. These results are useful for the elucidation of the origins and regulation of D-amino acids in the mammalian body.


Amino Acids


Amino acids


Morikawa A,Hamase K,Inoue T,Konno R,Zaitsu K




Has Abstract


2007-01-01 00:00:00












  • Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the regulation of the neuroendocrine stress response in rodents: insights from mutant mice.

    abstract::Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas synthesised from arginine and oxygen by enzymes of the family of the nitric oxide synthase. In particular, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is highly expressed by cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, where the sympatho-adrenal system, the hypothalamic-pitu...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Orlando GF,Wolf G,Engelmann M

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Alterations in neutrophil (PMN) free intracellular alpha-keto acid profiles and immune functions induced by L-alanyl-L-glutamine, arginine or taurine.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to determine the dose as well as duration of exposure-dependent effects of L-alanyl-L-glutamine, arginine or taurine on polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) free alpha-keto acid profiles and, in a parallel study, on PMN immune functions. Exogenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine significantly increa...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mühling J,Nickolaus KA,Halabi M,Fuchs M,Krüll M,Engel J,Wolff M,Matejec R,Langefeld TW,Welters ID,Menges T,Dehne MG,Sablotzki A,Hempelmann G

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological approaches to counter the toxicity of Dopa.

    abstract::Dopa and related catecholamines and their degradation products have been demonstrated to have neurotoxic potential in a number of cellular and in vivo experiments. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved including generation of prooxidant products that subsequently oxidize membrane lipids and exposed ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: VonVoigtlander PF,Fici GJ,Althaus JS

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Intracellular sources of ornithine for polyamine synthesis in endothelial cells.

    abstract::Polyamines are essential for proliferation of endothelial cells (EC) and angiogenesis. This study was conducted to identify the metabolic source(s) of ornithine for polyamine synthesis in EC, using N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (Nor-NOHA, an inhibitor of arginase) and gabaculine (an inhibitor of ornithine aminotransfera...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li H,Meininger CJ,Bazer FW,Wu G

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial activity and membrane-active mechanism of tryptophan zipper-like β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides.

    abstract::Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with amphipathic β-hairpin structures have been demonstrated to possess potent antimicrobial activities and great cell selectivities. However, our understanding of β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides lags behind that of α-helices, mainly because it is difficult for short peptides to form rob...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu L,Chou S,Wang J,Shao C,Li W,Zhu X,Shan A

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Differential regulation of protein synthesis by amino acids and insulin in peripheral and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs.

    abstract::The high efficiency of protein deposition during the neonatal period is driven by high rates of protein synthesis, which are maximally stimulated after feeding. In the current study, we examined the individual roles of amino acids and insulin in the regulation of protein synthesis in peripheral and visceral tissues of...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suryawan A,O'Connor PM,Bush JA,Nguyen HV,Davis TA

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • SILAC-based proteomic analysis to dissect the "histone modification signature" of human breast cancer cells.

    abstract::In living cells, the N-terminal tails of core histones, the proteinaceous component of nucleosomes, are subjected to a range of covalent post-translational modifications (PTMs), which have specific roles in modulating chromatin structure and function. A growing body of evidence suggests that deregulation of histone mo...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cuomo A,Moretti S,Minucci S,Bonaldi T

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Immunohistochemical localization of D-aspartate oxidase in porcine peripheral tissues.

    abstract::D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous substance in mammals. Degradation of D-Asp is carried out only by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). We measured DDO activity in porcine tissues, and produced an anti-porcine DDO antibody to examine the cellular localization of DDO. All the tissues examined showed DDO activities, whereas t...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto A,Tanaka H,Ishida T,Horiike K

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Synthesis and biological activity of oxytocin analogues containing unnatural amino acids in position 9: structure activity study.

    abstract::We report the solid phase synthesis and some pharmacological properties of 24 oxytocin (OT) analogues. Basic modifications at position 9 (introduction of L- or D-beta-(2-thienyl)-alanine [L- or D-Thi], or L- or D-3-Pyridylalanine [L- or D-3-Pal]) were combined with D-tyrosine(OEthyl) [D-Tyr(Et)] or D-1-naphthylalanine...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Magafa V,Borovicková L,Slaninová J,Cordopatis P

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Creatine supplementation as a possible new therapeutic approach for fatty liver disease: early findings.

    abstract::Over the last few years, consistent data have demonstrated that creatine (Cr) supplementation prevents the accumulation of fat in rat liver as well as the progression of fatty liver disease in different situations. Studies have demonstrated that Cr is effective and prevents fatty liver in high-fat and choline-deficien...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Deminice R,de Castro GS,Brosnan ME,Brosnan JT

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in colon biopsies from inflammatory areas: correlation with inflammation intensity in patients with ulcerative colitis but not with Crohn's disease.

    abstract::Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities are responsible for the enzymatic conversion of L-arginine into NO and L-citrulline. Relatively low amounts of NO are produced in intestinal epithelial cells or are released from nerve endings. The effects of NO production are related to the maintenance of epithelial integrity an...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guihot G,Guimbaud R,Bertrand V,Narcy-Lambare B,Couturier D,Duée PH,Chaussade S,Blachier F

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Transglutaminases: future perspectives.

    abstract::This is the third special issue focused on "Transglutaminases" that is now available on this journal and dedicated to one of the pioneers of these enzymes, John Edward Folk, who died December 2010 [see in this issue Beninati et al. 2012a]. The first edition, "Polyamines and Transglutaminases" was published in Amino Ac...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Beninati S,Facchiano F,Piacentini M

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Piceatannol attenuates homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and endothelial cell damage via heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    abstract::A growing body of evidence implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced cellular dysfunction and apoptosis as important factors to a variety of diseases. In endothelial cells (ECs), the sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) causes EC apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through induction o...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kil JS,Jeong SO,Chung HT,Pae HO

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

    abstract::Muscle carnosine synthesis is limited by the availability of beta-alanine. Thirteen male subjects were supplemented with beta-alanine (CarnoSyn) for 4 wks, 8 of these for 10 wks. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis was obtained from 6 of the 8 at 0, 4 and 10 wks. Subjects undertook a cycle capacity test to determine tota...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hill CA,Harris RC,Kim HJ,Harris BD,Sale C,Boobis LH,Kim CK,Wise JA

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Structure-activity relationships in ultrashort cationic lipopeptides: the effects of amino acid ring constraint on antibacterial activity.

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    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Domalaon R,Yang X,O'Neil J,Zhanel GG,Mookherjee N,Schweizer F

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced muscle carnosine content in type 2, but not in type 1 diabetic patients.

    abstract::Carnosine is present in high concentrations in skeletal muscle where it contributes to acid buffering and functions also as a natural protector against oxidative and carbonyl stress. Animal studies have shown an anti-diabetic effect of carnosine supplementation. High carnosinase activity, the carnosine degrading enzym...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gualano B,Everaert I,Stegen S,Artioli GG,Taes Y,Roschel H,Achten E,Otaduy MC,Junior AH,Harris R,Derave W

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of renal function on homeostasis of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA): studies in donors and recipients of renal transplants.

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    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Said MY,Douwes RM,van Londen M,Minović I,Frenay AR,de Borst MH,van den Berg E,Heiner-Fokkema MR,Kayacelebi AA,Bollenbach A,van Goor H,Navis G,Tsikas D,Bakker SJL

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Hemolymph amino acid variations following behavioral and genetic changes in individual Drosophila larvae.

    abstract::This study investigated the effect of different sampling environments on hemolymph amino acid content of individual Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Hemolymph was collected from individual third instar larvae under cold-anesthetized, awake, and stress conditions. Qualitative and quantitative hemolymph amino acid analys...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Piyankarage SC,Augustin H,Featherstone DE,Shippy SA

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • In vivo targeting of HER2-positive tumor using 2-helix affibody molecules.

    abstract::Molecular imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) expression has drawn significant attention because of the unique role of the HER2 gene in diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of human breast cancer. In our previous research, a novel cyclic 2-helix small protein, MUT-DS, was discovered as an anti-...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ren G,Webster JM,Liu Z,Zhang R,Miao Z,Liu H,Gambhir SS,Syud FA,Cheng Z

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Selective determination of mimosine and its dihydroxypyridinyl derivative in plant systems.

    abstract::Our observations on the growth stimulatory nature of mimosine, (beta-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridon-1-yl)-L-alanine), the toxic non-protein plant amino acid, in some model experimental systems, warranted sensitive and selective routine estimations. For the determination of both mimosine and DHP, an indirect spectrophotometric m...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lalitha K,Rajendra Kulothungan S

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Peptide substrate for caspase-3 with 2-aminoacridone as reporting group.

    abstract::Synthesis and properties of a new fluorescent/fluorogenic substrate Ac-DEVD-AMAC for caspase-3 are reported. The substrate is obtained by conventional Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis and its properties are investigated with regard to fluorescence, sensitivity, applicability and kinetic constants. A non-tradit...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lozanov V,Ivanov IP,Benkova B,Mitev V

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Applications and current challenges of proteomic approaches, focusing on two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    abstract::Since the formulation of the concept of "proteomics" in 1995, a plethora of proteomic technologies have been developed in order to study proteomes of tissues, cells and organelles. The powerful new technologies enabled by proteomic approaches have lead to the application of these methods to an exponentially increasing...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vercauteren FG,Arckens L,Quirion R

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • ω-Amidase: an underappreciated, but important enzyme in L-glutamine and L-asparagine metabolism; relevance to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism, tumor biology and hyperammonemic diseases.

    abstract::In mammals, two major routes exist for the metabolic conversion of L-glutamine to α-ketoglutarate. The most widely studied pathway involves the hydrolysis of L-glutamine to L-glutamate catalyzed by glutaminases, followed by the conversion of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate by the action of an L-glutamate-linked aminotr...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cooper AJ,Shurubor YI,Dorai T,Pinto JT,Isakova EP,Deryabina YI,Denton TT,Krasnikov BF

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • A synthetic peptide derived of the β2-β3 loop of the plant defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds induces Leishmania amazonensis apoptosis-like cell death.

    abstract::For medical use of proteins and peptide-based drugs, it is desirable to have small biologically active sequences because they improve stability, reduce side effects, and production costs. Several plant defensins have their biological activities imparted by a sequence named γ-core. Vu-Def, a Vigna unguiculata defensin,...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Souza GS,de Carvalho LP,de Melo EJT,da Silva FCV,Machado OLT,Gomes VM,de Oliveira Carvalho A

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • The role of substance P in stress and anxiety responses.

    abstract::Substance P (SP) is one of the most abundant peptides in the central nervous system and has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including stress regulation, as well as affective and anxiety-related behaviour. Consistent with these functions, SP and its preferred neurokinin 1 ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ebner K,Singewald N

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue proteome: pitfalls, challenges, and future prospectives.

    abstract::Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are a real treasure for retrospective analysis considering the amount of samples present in hospital archives, combined with pathological, clinical, and outcome information available for every sample. Although unlocking the proteome of these tissues is still a challenge,...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maes E,Broeckx V,Mertens I,Sagaert X,Prenen H,Landuyt B,Schoofs L

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • L-Arginine stimulates proliferation and prevents endotoxin-induced death of intestinal cells.

    abstract::This study tested the hypothesis that L-arginine (Arg) may stimulate cell proliferation and prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death of intestinal cells. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1) were cultured for 4 days in Arg-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12) containing 10, 100 or 3...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan B,Yin Y,Kong X,Li P,Li X,Gao H,Li X,Huang R,Wu G

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of oral taurine administration on behavior and hippocampal signal transduction in rats.

    abstract::Taurine, 2-aminoethylsulfonic acid, is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain. It has various important physiological functions as a neuromodulator and antioxidant. Taurine is expected to be involved in depression; however, knowledge regarding its function in relation to depression is limited. In this study...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iio W,Matsukawa N,Tsukahara T,Toyoda A

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • The relation between glutamine and the immunodepression observed in exercise.

    abstract::Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body. It is an important fuel for some key cells of the immune system. Both the plasma concentration of glutamine and the functional ability of immune cells in the blood are decreased after prolonged, exhaustive exercise. Glutamine feeding has had beneficial effects in ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Castell LM,Newsholme EA

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Spectroscopic and structural elucidation of amino acid derivatives and small peptides: experimental and theoretical tools.

    abstract::This mini review deals with the modern aspects of the spectroscopy and structural elucidation of amino acid derivatives and small biologically active compounds. Free peptide bond rotation in these systems yields various conformers, which possess differing biological activities. Another phenomenon is the intermolecular...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kolev T,Spiteller M,Koleva B

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00