Pattern of sensory innervation of the perineal skin in the female rat.


:Here we describe the nerves innervating the perineal skin together with their sensory fields in the adult female rat. Electrophysiological recording showed that the lumbosacral and L6-S1 trunks, in part by way of the sacral plexus, transmit sensory information from the perineal skin via four nerves: the viscerocutaneous branch of the pelvic nerve innervating the skin at the midline between the vaginal opening and anus, the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve innervating the clitoral sheath, the distal perineal branch of the pudendal nerve innervating a broad area of skin adjacent to the vaginal opening and anus, and the proximal perineal branch of the sacral plexus innervating a broad area of skin adjacent to the clitoris and vaginal opening. The sensory fields of three of these nerves overlapped to some degree: the viscerocutaneous branch of the pelvic and the distal perineal branch of the pudendal nerves at the midline skin between the vaginal opening and the anus, and the distal perineal branch of the pudendal nerve and the proximal perineal branch of the sacral plexus at the skin lateral to the vaginal opening. Such overlap might provide a safeguard helping to ensure that somatosensory input from the perineal region important for triggering reproductive and nonreproductive reflexes reaches the CNS.


Brain Res


Brain research


Cruz Y,Zempoalteca R,Angelica Lucio R,Pacheco P,Hudson R,Martínez-Gómez M




Has Abstract


2004-10-22 00:00:00














  • Modified behavioral characteristics following ablation of the voltage-dependent calcium channel beta3 subunit.

    abstract::Voltage-dependent calcium channels are important for calcium influx and the ensuing intracellular calcium signal in various excitable membranes. The beta subunits of these channels modify calcium currents through pore-forming alpha1 subunits of the high-voltage- activated calcium channels. In the present study, beta3 ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murakami M,Nakagawasai O,Yanai K,Nunoki K,Tan-No K,Tadano T,Iijima T

    更新日期:2007-07-30 00:00:00

  • Influence of glutamate and aspartate on time course of decay of excitatory synaptic currents at locust neuromuscular junctions.

    abstract::The influence of glutamate and aspartate on the time course of decay of excitatory currents at neuromuscular junctions of locust skeletal muscle was examined. Both aspartate (up to 10 mM) and glutamate (up to 0.3 mM) had little influence on the decay time of the synaptic currents, whether measured intracellularly by v...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clark RB,Gration KA,Usherwood PN

    更新日期:1980-06-16 00:00:00

  • Associational and commissural collaterals of neurons in the hippocampal formation (hilus fasciae dentatae and subfield CA3).

    abstract::In rats, True Blue (or Granular Blue) was injected into the hippocampus of one hemisphere and Nuclear Yellow into a homotopic site of the hippocampus of the contralateral hemisphere. Following restricted injections into the septal part of area dentata fluorescent neurons were found in hilus fasciae dentate on both sid...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laurberg S,Sørensen KE

    更新日期:1981-05-18 00:00:00

  • Propagation of hippocampal seizure activity arising from the hippocampus: a local cerebral blood flow study.

    abstract::We studied the propagation of spike discharges and the changes in local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) by means of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and autoradiographs to elucidate the underlying mechanism and the propagation pathway in rats with limbic seizures. Seizures were induced by the unilateral microinjection of kai...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goto Y,Araki T,Kato M,Fukui M

    更新日期:1994-01-21 00:00:00

  • Chronic paroxetine desensitises 5-HT1D but not 5-HT1B autoreceptors in rat lateral geniculate nucleus.

    abstract::The present study examined the effect of chronic paroxetine (10 mg/kg p.o., 21 days) on the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D autoreceptors controlling 5-HT efflux in slices of rat ventrolateral geniculate nucleus. Electrically stimulated 5-HT efflux (10 pulses, 200 Hz, 0.1 ms, 10 mA) was measured using fast cyclic voltammetry. Peak ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davidson C,Stamford JA

    更新日期:1997-06-20 00:00:00

  • Autoradiographic localization of receptors for neuropeptide FF, FLFQPQRFamide, in human spinal sensory system.

    abstract::The regional distribution of FLFQPQRFamide binding sites on fresh unfixed cryostate sections from post mortem specimens of human spinal cord and lower medulla oblongata was studied by quantitative autoradiographic methods using [125I]YLFQPQRFamide as ligand. Samples were taken from five cases who had died with no hist...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allard M,Jordan D,Zajac JM,Ries C,Martin D,Monkouanga D,Kopp N,Simonnet G

    更新日期:1994-01-07 00:00:00

  • Immunohistochemical study of arginase-1 in the spinal cords of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    abstract::Arginase-1, a marker for M2 phenotype alternatively activated macrophages, inhibits inflammation and is associated with phagocytosis of cell debris and apoptotic cells. We analyzed the expression of arginase-1, a competitive enzyme of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in the spinal cords of Lewis rats with exper...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahn M,Yang W,Kim H,Jin JK,Moon C,Shin T

    更新日期:2012-05-09 00:00:00

  • Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy and tannic acid study of dynamics of neurohaemal and non-synaptic peptide release by the caudodorsal cells of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    abstract::The caudodorsal cells (CDCs) of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis control egg laying and egg-laying associated behaviours by releasing various peptides including the ovulation hormone CDCH. Previously it has been shown that release occurs (1) into the haemolymph from neurohaemal axon terminals in the outer compar...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmidt ED,Roubos EW

    更新日期:1989-06-12 00:00:00

  • In vivo tyrosine hydroxylation rate in retina: effects of phenylalanine and tyrosine administration in rats pretreated with p-chlorophenylalanine.

    abstract::p-Chlorophenylalanine was administered to rats to inhibit hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. Two days later, phenylalanine injection was noted to produce substantial increases in serum phenylalanine levels, and relatively modest increments in serum tyrosine levels. Rats injected with p-chlorophenylalanine 2 d...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernstrom MH,Baker RL,Fernstrom JD

    更新日期:1989-10-16 00:00:00

  • Effects of two volatile anesthetics (sevoflurane and halothane) on the hypothalamic noradrenaline release in rat brain.

    abstract::There are marked increases in noradrenaline (NA) release during emergence from general anesthesia induced with volatile anesthestics. These changes in NA in the posterior hypothalamus of the rat were assessed by intracranial microdialysis. Sevoflurane and halothane in equipotent concentrations were used to obtain the ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chave S,Kushikata T,Ohkawa H,Ishiara H,Grimaud D,Matsuki A

    更新日期:1996-01-15 00:00:00

  • Determination of the course of brainstem catecholamine fibers mediating amphetamine anorexia.

    abstract::Previous studies suggest that brainstem catecholamine (CA) fibers which mediate amphetamine (AMPH)-induced anorexia ascend through the midlateral medical forebrain bundle and perifornical region and terminate in the perifornical hypothalamic region (PFH) at the level of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Through s...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McCabe JT,Leibowitz SF

    更新日期:1984-10-08 00:00:00

  • Influence of visual experience deprivation on the postnatal development of the microvascular bed in layer IV of the rat visual cortex.

    abstract::Cerebral vascular density is correlated with metabolic demands, which increase in highly active brain areas. External inputs are an essential requirement in the modeling of the visual cortex. Experience-mediated development is very active during the first postnatal month, when congruous blood supply is needed. We stud...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Argandoña EG,Lafuente JV

    更新日期:2000-02-07 00:00:00

  • Neuroprotective effects of prior exposure to enriched environment on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: the possible molecular mechanism.

    abstract::Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is neuroprotective in animal models. Recent studies have demonstrated that animals housed in an enriched environment condition after an experimental stroke obtained a better functional outcome than those ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu K,Wu Y,Hu Y,Zhang Q,Xie H,Liu G,Chen Y,Guo Z,Jia J

    更新日期:2013-11-13 00:00:00

  • Establishment and characterization of a human neuroectodermal cell line (TB) from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen.

    abstract::We have established a cell line (TB) from a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen of a patient with a primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis. TB cell line was immunoreactive with the antibodies for low molecular weight neurofilament protein, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin, synaptophysin and HMB-45 (an anti...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sorrentino G,Monsurrò MR,Pettinato G,Vanni R,Zuddas A,Di Porzio U,Bonavita V

    更新日期:1999-05-08 00:00:00

  • Right and left cortical lesions asymmetrically alter cerebrovascular permeability in the rat.

    abstract::Vascular permeability and intravascular space in the rat cerebral cortex and hypothalamus were assessed 5 and 14 days after the production of either right or left hemisphere frontal cortical suction lesions. Rats were intravenously injected with large (dextran, 50,000 kdalton) and small (inulin, 5000 kdalton) molecula...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Margolis RL,Robinson RG

    更新日期:1985-12-16 00:00:00

  • Modification of the visual response properties of cerebellar neurons by norepinephrine.

    abstract::Extracellular recordings were conducted in the paraflocculus of anesthetized Long-Evans pigmented rats to determine how ionotophoresis of norepinephrine (NE) affects the responsiveness of individual Purkinje cells and interneurons to presentations of visual stimuli within their visual receptive fields. Presentations o...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moises HC,Burne RA,Woodward DJ

    更新日期:1990-04-30 00:00:00

  • Effect of hypothyroidism on the size of spines of pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex.

    abstract::We have previously shown that hypothyroidism produces a decrease in the number of spines counted along the apical shafts of pyramidal neurons of the cortex. Nevertheless, other authors have found that when an animal is subjected to some adverse living conditions the size of the spines decreases, making them invisible ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berbel PJ,Escobar del Rey F,Morreale de Escobar G,Ruiz-Marcos A

    更新日期:1985-07-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of the isthmo-optic neurons by the visual Wulst stimulation.

    abstract::The visual Wulst (VW) in the avian telencephalon is thought to be an avian equivalent of the mammalian striate cortex. Effects of electrical stimulation of VW were studied in the isthmo-optic nucleus (ION) of the Japanese quail by extracellular recording. Most ION neurons examined were activated by VW stimulation, and...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Uchiyama H,Matsutani S,Watanabe M

    更新日期:1987-03-17 00:00:00

  • Inferotemporal neurons of the monkey responsive to auditory signal.

    abstract::Responsiveness of single inferotemporal (IT) neurons to a tone as a start or warning signal in each test trial was investigated in monkeys performing visual discrimination of 4 patterns. It was found that the same IT neurons were responsive to both auditory signal and visual discriminanda with different response chara...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iwai E,Aihara T,Hikosaka K

    更新日期:1987-04-28 00:00:00

  • Secretory phospholipase A2 IIA is up-regulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha/beta after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

    abstract::Cerebral ischemia initiates an inflammatory response in the brain that is associated with the induction of a variety of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1alpha/beta (IL-1alpha/beta) that contributes to stroke injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in spon...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,收录出版


    authors: Adibhatla RM,Hatcher JF

    更新日期:2007-02-23 00:00:00

  • Calretinin immunoreactivity in the anterior olfactory nucleus of the rat.

    abstract::Calretinin-immunoreactive structures in the anterior olfactory nucleus of the rat were studied using a polyclonal antibody, which does not cross-react with the highly homologous calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k, and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. Calretinin-immunopositive neurons were found in all regio...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: García-Ojeda E,Alonso JR,Briñón JG,Rogers J,Weruaga E,Arévalo R,Aijón J

    更新日期:1998-04-06 00:00:00

  • Dose-independent antinociceptive interaction of endogenous ligands at the spinal level.

    abstract::Adenosine, agmatine and kynurenic acid are endogenous ligands acting on different (e.g. adenosine, NMDA, alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline) receptors with a potential role in nociception at the spinal level. Their antinociceptive effects have already been investigated as monotherapy, but only a few studies have repo...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kekesi G,Joo G,Csullog E,Peter-Szabo M,Benedek G,Horvath G

    更新日期:2004-12-10 00:00:00

  • Cerebellar benzodiazepine receptors: cellular localization and consequences of neurological mutations in mice.

    abstract::The distribution of cerebellar [3H]flunitrazepam binding sites was studied autoradiographically in Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd/pcd), weaver (wv/wv), staggerer (sg/sg) and reeler (rl/rl) mutant mice. In the normal 78-day-old C57BL/6J mouse cerebellum, the highest concentration of [3H]flunitrazepam binding sites was...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rotter A,Frostholm A

    更新日期:1988-03-15 00:00:00

  • Neuronal induction of 72-kDa heat shock protein following methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia in the mouse hippocampus.

    abstract::By means of an immunohistochemical technique, we examined the neuronal induction of 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) in response to methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia in the mouse hippocampus. Strong HSP72 immunoreactivity (ir) was found in the neurons of hippocampus proper, particularly in the CA1/2 and medical CA...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goto S,Korematsu K,Oyama T,Yamada K,Hamada J,Inoue N,Nagahiro S,Ushio Y

    更新日期:1993-10-29 00:00:00

  • Grafting of midbrain neurons into the hippocampus restores serotonergic modulation of hippocampal activity in the rat.

    abstract::The ability of midbrain raphe (MR) cells grafted into serotonin-depleted brain to restore hippocampal responses to synaptically released serotonin was studied using a serotonin-releasing drug, D-fenfluramine (FFA). In normal rats, FFA enhances reactivity of the dentate gyrus (DG) to perforant-path stimulation, while s...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richter-Levin G,Segal M

    更新日期:1990-06-25 00:00:00

  • The effect of concentration and duration of normobaric oxygen in reducing caspase-3 and -9 expression in a rat-model of focal cerebral ischaemia.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of normobaric oxygen (NBO) on neurological function and the expression of caspase-3 and -9 in a rat model of acute cerebral ischaemia. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) were randomly divided into four groups (n=30 per group), including 3 groups gi...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen S,Peng H,Rowat A,Gao F,Zhang Z,Wang P,Zhang W,Wang X,Qu L

    更新日期:2015-08-27 00:00:00

  • Does the error negativity reflect the degree of response conflict?

    abstract::The recruitment of performance control was recently explained in terms of the detection of response conflict. One recent hypothesis claims that the degree of response conflict is reflected in an electroencephalographical component, the Error Negativity (Ne). Indeed, in the framework of simulations, variations of the N...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carbonnell L,Falkenstein M

    更新日期:2006-06-20 00:00:00

  • Superior colliculus efferents to five subcortical visual system structures in the ground squirrel.

    abstract::We compared the laminar location and morphology of superior colliculus cells projecting to the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei (LGd, LGv), the pretectum (PT), the parabigeminal nucleus (Pb), and nucleus lateralis posterior (LP) in the ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatus. Horseradish peroxidase w...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lugo-Garcia N,Kicliter E

    更新日期:1987-11-17 00:00:00

  • Light microscopic visualisation of the presynaptic nerve terminal calyx in dissociated chick ciliary ganglion neurons.

    abstract::The pre- and postsynaptic elements of the calyx-type synapse in the chick ciliary ganglion were stained with Lucifer yellow in situ, and the structure of this synapse was examined after enzymatic dissociation of the ganglion. Back-staining of the ciliary nerve resulted in darkly stained neuronal cell bodies. Foreward-...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stanley EF

    更新日期:1987-09-22 00:00:00

  • N-acetylaspartate synthesis in the brain: mitochondria vs. microsomes.

    abstract::Several reports during the last three decades have indicated that biosynthesis of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) occurs primarily in the mitochondria. But a recent report by Lu et al. in this journal [2004; 122: 71-78] and subsequent two reports that cited those data suggested a predominant microsomal localization of the NAA...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ariyannur PS,Madhavarao CN,Namboodiri AM

    更新日期:2008-08-28 00:00:00