Distribution of cocaine and metabolites in the pregnant rat and fetus in a chronic subcutaneous injection model.


:We examined the distribution of cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and norcocaine (NOR) in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and fetuses following twice-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of 20 mg/kg cocaine HCl from gestational day (GD) 8 through GD 20. On GD 21, the animals received a single injection and maternal trunk blood, fetal blood, fetal brains, and amniotic fluid were collected 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, or 12 h later for cocaine and metabolite analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The highest concentrations of cocaine and BE were detected in maternal plasma at 1 h and 4 h respectively. Cocaine peaked at 2 h and BE at 4 h in both fetal plasma and brain. In amniotic fluid, cocaine levels peaked at 2 h, but the highest BE levels were found at 8 h postinjection. An additional group of chronically treated dams was given both cocaine injections on GD 21 and sacrificed 2 h later. Benzoylecgonine concentrations were increased in fetal plasma, fetal brain, and amniotic fluid when compared with the 2-h results following a single cocaine treatment. Moreover, NOR, which had not been previously detected, was now measurable in the amniotic fluid.


Neurotoxicol Teratol


Collins LM,Pahl JA,Meyer JS




Has Abstract


1999-11-01 00:00:00














  • Developmental neurotoxicity of anticonvulsants: human and animal evidence on phenytoin.

    abstract::Most epileptic women delivering children each year take anticonvulsants throughout pregnancy. The teratogenic potential of anticonvulsants is most notable for phenytoin, trimethadione, valproic acid, and carbamazepine. This review focuses on the human and animal evidence for the teratogenicity of phenytoin, with empha...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Adams J,Vorhees CV,Middaugh LD

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • Prospects on behavioral studies of marine and freshwater toxins.

    abstract::While there is a long-standing tradition of using behavioral methods to study the effects of manufactured drugs and environmental chemicals, comparatively little attention has focused until recently on the behavioral effects of marine or freshwater toxins. A vast array of microorganisms, found in a variety of waters, ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: MacPhail RC,Jarema KA

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Neurophysiological markers as early signs of organophosphate neurotoxicity.

    abstract::The central and peripheral nervous system effects of acute and subchronic exposure to three organic phosphoro-acid esters (dimethoate, dichlorvos, parathion-methyl) were studied. CNS-dependent variables included mean EEG amplitude, mean frequency of the EEG, and the activity (power density) of six component frequency ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagymajtényi L,Dési I,Lorencz R

    更新日期:1988-09-01 00:00:00

  • Toxic exposure to ethylene dibromide and mercuric chloride: effects on laboratory-reared octopuses.

    abstract::The effects of acute and chronic exposure to either ethylene dibromide (EDB) or mercuric chloride (MC) were studied in laboratory-reared Octopus joubini, O. maya and O. bimaculoides. The advantages of using octopuses were that the responses were immediate, highly visible and sensitive. All species demonstrated signs o...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adams PM,Hanlon RT,Forsythe JW

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Lead and conditioned fear to contextual and discrete cues.

    abstract::Male Fischer 344 rats received either tap water or water containing 250 ppm lead for 90 days prior to training in either Pavlovian fear conditioning or consummatory contrast, an aversive reward reduction paradigm. In Experiment 1, lead-exposed and -unexposed rats were trained in operant chambers over a 6-min session. ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salinas JA,Huff NC

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Exacerbation of iminodipropionitrile-induced behavioral toxicity, oxidative stress, and vestibular hair cell degeneration by gentamicin in rats.

    abstract::This study describes the effect of gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced abnormal neurobehavioral syndrome in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were exposed to IDPN in the dose of 100 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 7 days. Gentamicin (GM) was administered intraperitonea...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al Deeb S,Al Moutaery K,Khan HA,Tariq M

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of lifelong dietary exposure to genistein or nonylphenol on amphetamine-stimulated striatal dopamine release in male and female rats.

    abstract::Estrogen modulates baseline and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine (DA) release in the adult female rat striatum. The isoflavone found in soybeans, genistein, is a phytoestrogen and may have comparable effects on striatal DA levels. Similarly, the industrial intermediate and potential endocrine disrupter, para-nonylpheno...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferguson SA,Flynn KM,Delclos KB,Newbold RR,Gough BJ

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interpreting epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicity: conceptual and analytic issues.

    abstract::This paper discusses issues pertaining to the validity, precision, and interpretation of epidemiologic studies of neurotoxicity. With regard to validity, the critical issues pertain to the appropriate strategy for confounder adjustment, particularly when confounders are complex, multi-faceted constructs, and to the ne...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bellinger DC

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    abstract::The effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced taste aversion was examined to assess the importance of the vagus nerve in transmitting information on the peripheral toxicity of radiation to the brain. Vagotomy had no effect on taste aversion learning, consistent with reports using ot...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hunt WA,Rabin BM,Lee J

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple risk factors do not identify cocaine use in rural obstetrical patients.

    abstract::This nonconcurrent, cohort study of consecutive admissions to one of three hospital units: labor and delivery (n = 474), well-born nursery (n = 100), and the neonatal intensive care unit (n = 100), was designed to determine the prevalence of cocaine exposure in a rural obstetrical sample and to determine the relations...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Behnke M,Eyler FD,Conlon M,Woods NS,Casanova OQ

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of a neurotoxic dose regimen of (+)-methamphetamine on behavior, plasma corticosterone, and brain monoamines in adult C57BL/6 mice.

    abstract:RATIONALE:In rats, neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine (MA) induce astrogliosis, long lasting monoamine reductions, reuptake transporter down-regulation, and learning impairments. OBJECTIVE:We tested whether comparable effects occur in C57BL/6 mice. METHOD:C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10mg/kgs.c.x4 MA on a single d...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grace CE,Schaefer TL,Herring NR,Graham DL,Skelton MR,Gudelsky GA,Williams MT,Vorhees CV

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Exposure to mephedrone during gestation increases the risk of stillbirth and induces hippocampal neurotoxicity in mice offspring.

    abstract::In recent years, abuse of synthetic cathinones, in particular, mephedrone, has increased among young adults worldwide. The study aim is to investigate the effects of mephedrone exposure during the gestational period on mice offspring outcomes, focusing on hippocampal neurotoxicity. The pregnant mice received mephedron...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Naseri G,Fazel A,Golalipour MJ,Haghir H,Sadeghian H,Mojarrad M,Hosseini M,Shahrokhi Sabzevar S,Beheshti F,Ghorbani A

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropsychological sequelae from acute poisoning and long-term exposure to carbamate and organophosphate pesticides.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:This research examines the effects of different degrees of pesticide exposure on neuropsychological performance. Exposures varied from acute poisoning coupled with chronic exposure to low or high levels of chronic exposure (defined by years of exposure). A cross-sectional neuropsychological and biochemical s...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roldan-Tapia L,Nieto-Escamez FA,del Aguila EM,Laynez F,Parron T,Sanchez-Santed F

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic ambient hydrogen sulfide exposure and cognitive function.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. METHODS:Participants were 1637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua cit...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reed BR,Crane J,Garrett N,Woods DL,Bates MN

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sensory-evoked potentials in rats chronically exposed to trichloroethylene: predominant auditory dysfunction.

    abstract::Sensory-evoked potentials (EPs) were studied in male Long-Evans and Fischer-344 rats in order to characterize the electrophysiological consequences of chronic inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE). Groups of ten Long-Evans rats were exposed to air or 1600 ppm or 3200 ppm TCE for twelve weeks and evaluated per...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rebert CS,Day VL,Matteucci MJ,Pryor GT

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal ethanol exposure alters sensitivity to the effects of apomorphine given alone and in combination with ethanol on locomotor activity in adult male mouse offspring.

    abstract::Previous studies have indicated that prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters developing catecholamine (CA) systems and acute sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of EtOH. The purpose of this study was to examine whether prenatal EtOH exposure influences the effects of the direct dopamine (DA) agonist apomorp...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Becker HC,Weathersby RT,Hale RL

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Transplacental cocaine exposure. 2: Effects of cocaine dose and gestational timing.

    abstract::We have utilized a mouse model of transplacental cocaine exposure to investigate the effects of cocaine dose and gestational timing in altering brain and body growth and postnatal behavior in exposed offspring. Pregnant dams were injected with cocaine HCl at 40 mg/kg/day (COC 40) or 20 mg/kg/day (COC 20), or 10 mg/kg/...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilkins AS,Jones K,Kosofsky BE

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Methamphetamine-induced dopamine and serotonin reductions in neostriatum are not gender specific in rats with comparable hyperthermic responses.

    abstract::Methamphetamine (MA)-induced monoamine depletions in male and female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were studied under conditions in which the magnitude of MA-induced hyperthermia was comparable between the sexes. MA (5 or 10 mg/kg) or saline (3 ml/kg) was administered SC four times at 2-h intervals. Animals were sacrificed 3...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukumura M,Cappon GD,Broening HW,Vorhees CV

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced expression of α5GABAA receptors elicits autism-like alterations in EEG patterns and sleep-wake behavior.

    abstract::A reduction in the activity of GABAA receptors, particularly α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (α5GABAARs), has been implicated in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Genetically modified mice that lack α5GABAARs (Gabra5-/-) exhibit autism-like behaviors and both enhanced and impaired learning and mem...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mesbah-Oskui L,Penna A,Orser BA,Horner RL

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of lead-induced performance deficit in children by varying signal rate in a serial choice reaction task.

    abstract::Evidence is presented showing that serial choice reaction performance is disrupted at low blood lead levels (PbB), and that parametric variation of task characteristics modulates the degree of disruption. This evidence is based on two independent studies in 6- to 9-year-old children living in two lead smelter areas in...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Winneke G,Brockhaus A,Collet W,Krämer U

    更新日期:1989-11-01 00:00:00

  • The use of traditional toxicologic data in assessing neurobehavioral dysfunction.

    abstract::In the United States, the regulation and testing of chemicals that may impact on human health is mandated by a number of different laws and regulated by several government agencies. Toxicologic screening in laboratory animals has created a major database for predicting adverse health effects of drugs, food and cosmeti...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Steinberg M

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • Utility of a neurobehavioral screening battery for differentiating the effects of two pyrethroids, permethrin and cypermethrin.

    abstract::The ability of a neurobehavioral screening battery to differentiate the effects of two pyrethroids, permethrin and cypermethrin, was assessed in this experiment. Although the structures of these pesticides differ only in the alpha-cyano group, the behavioral syndromes associated with the Type I and II pyrethroids are ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDaniel KL,Moser VC

    更新日期:1993-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission by amitraz in primary hippocampal cells.

    abstract::Amitraz is a formamidine pesticide that has been reported to be a neurotoxic compound that induces convulsions among other effects. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated mainly by glutamate and GABA, respectively, so their alteration could be responsible for induction of seizures. In this regard, ami...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Del Pino J,Frejo MT,Baselga MJ,Moyano P,Díaz MJ

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Combined effects of simultaneous exposure to toluene and ethanol on auditory function in rats.

    abstract::Three experimental groups and one control group of Long-Evans rats were used to study the combined effects of toluene and ethanol on auditory function. The first experimental group was exposed to toluene vapors (1750 ppm, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks), the second one was daily gavaged with a saline solution of ethano...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campo P,Lataye R,Cossec B,Villette V,Roure M,Barthelemy C

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Brief embryonic strychnine exposure in zebrafish causes long-term adult behavioral impairment with indications of embryonic synaptic changes.

    abstract::Zebrafish provide a powerful model of the impacts of embryonic toxicant exposure on neural development that may result in long-term behavioral dysfunction. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 1.5mM strychnine for short embryonic time windows to induce transient changes in inhibitory neural signaling, an...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roy NM,Arpie B,Lugo J,Linney E,Levin ED,Cerutti D

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Visual discrimination by rats with transplacentally induced micrencephaly.

    abstract::Long-Evans rats with micrencephaly induced by prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate and normal controls were trained in a two-choice box to discriminate between stimuli of different brightness (black vs. white) or pattern (horizontal vs. vertical alternating black-and-white stripes). Mild footshock was used...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rabe A,Lee MH

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Demonstration of physical dependence following chronic continuous methadone delivery via osmotic minipumps in pregnant rats.

    abstract::The effects of a 14-day (gestation days 7-20) chronic methadone (6.3-9.0 mg/kg/day) infusion via osmotic minipumps were studied on the induction of physical dependence in both pregnant and nonpregnant female rats. Following continued methadone exposure, an acute injection of naloxone (2.0 mg/kg, SC) produced the follo...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Darmani NA,Saady JJ,Schnoll SH,Martin BR

    更新日期:1991-11-01 00:00:00

  • Moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of fetal malformations: a meta-analysis.

    abstract::To determine whether there is an association between moderate alcohol consumption in the first trimester of pregnancy and increased risk of fetal malformations, we conducted a literature search using Medline (1966-present), PsycLit (1974-1995), and EMBASE (1988-1995). The following inclusion criteria were used to sele...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Polygenis D,Wharton S,Malmberg C,Sherman N,Kennedy D,Koren G,Einarson TR

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ethanol-induced cell death in cultured rat astroglia.

    abstract::Because of the important role of glial cells in brain maturation and reports on their delayed proliferation following ethanol exposure, it was considered of interest to investigate the mechanism of ethanol action on these cells. Biochemical parameters related to the apoptotic and necrotic processes in astroglial cells...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holownia A,Ledig M,Ménez JF

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Zebrafish as potential model for developmental neurotoxicity testing: a mini review.

    abstract::The zebrafish is a powerful toxicity model; biochemical assays can be combined with observations at a structural and functional level within one individual. This mini review summarises the potency of zebrafish as a model for developmental neurotoxicity screening, and its possibilities to investigate working mechanisms...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Esch C,Slieker R,Wolterbeek A,Woutersen R,de Groot D

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00