Effects of manganese (II) on Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945A physiology and gamma-poly(glutamic acid) formation.


:Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945A was cultivated in shake flasks using citrate (12 gl-1), glutamate (20 gl-1) and glycerol (80 gl-1) as carbon sources for cell growth and gamma-poly(glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) production. The effect of the MnSO4 concentration in the medium over a range from 0.0 to 615 microns was studied. The number of viable cells increased for all concentrations of MnSO4 from approximately 10(5) to 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) ml-1 by the early stationary phase (24 h). However, after 50 h, the cell viability decreased rapidly for relatively lower MnSO4 concentrations (0.615 and 0 microns). The utilization of carbon sources by B. licheniformis was greater for cultures containing 33.8 and 615 microns MnSO4 relative to cultures with no added MnSO4. For example, cultures with 615 microns MnSO4 utilized 37, 54 and 93% and cultures with no added MnSO4 utilized 19, 10 and 17% of glutamate, glycerol and citrate, respectively. The gamma-PGA volumetric yield increased from approximately 5 to 17 gl-1 for corresponding increases in MnSO4 concentration from 0 to 33.8 microns and then decreased at higher MnSO4 concentrations. The stereochemical content of gamma-PGA was found to vary inversely with MnSO4 concentration, and ranged from 59 to 10% L-glutamate units for MnSO4 concentrations of 0 and 615 microns, respectively. For all of the MnSO4 concentrations investigated, the gamma-PGA molecular weights decreased rapidly as the gamma-PGA volumetric yield simultaneously increased for cultivation times from 24 to approximately 50 h. Mw and Mn values after approximately 50 h cultivation times, determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), were 1.3 to 1.6 and 0.5 to 0.8 million g mol-1, respectively. A complex gamma-PGA molecular weight distribution that appeared bimodal by GPC analysis due to the presence of a low-molecular-weight product fraction was observed in cultures containing 33.8 and 61.5 microns MnSO4 at extended cultivation times. A high-molecular-weight fraction and the unfractionated gamma-PGA sample from the 33.8 microns MnSO4 culture contained 13 +/- 4 and 30 +/- 1% L-repeat units, respectively. A relationship between the product molecular weight and its stereochemical composition was thus established.


Int J Biol Macromol


Cromwick AM,Gross RA




Has Abstract


1995-10-01 00:00:00














  • Durable antibacterial and UV protections of in situ synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles onto cotton fabrics.

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    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

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    authors: Shaheen TI,El-Naggar ME,Abdelgawad AM,Hebeish A

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  • Lycium barbarum polysaccharides grafted with doxorubicin: An efficient pH-responsive anticancer drug delivery system.

    abstract::Lycium barbarum polysaccharide-doxorubicin (LBP-DOX) nanoparticles were synthesized via a one-step Schiff base reaction between oxidized Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (oxidized LBP) and doxorubicin (DOX). The structure of LBP-DOX nanoparticles was characterized by multi-spectral methods, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance...

    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang Y,Bai F,Luo Q,Wu M,Song G,Zhang H,Cao J,Wang Y

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  • Botryosphaeran and sulfonated derivatives as novel antiviral agents for herpes simplex and dengue fever.

    abstract::Sulfated polysaccharides are known to display activity against enveloped viruses, such as herpes and dengue. The aim of this work was to assess the antiviral activity of botryosphaeran, a fungal exocellular (1 → 3)(1 → 6)-β-d-glucan devoid of sulfate groups, and its chemically sulfonated derivatives, against herpes si...

    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sacchelli BAL,Faccin-Galhardi LC,Ito VY,Lopes JL,Dekker RFH,Barbosa-Dekker AM,Orsato A

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    abstract::A novel GH1 β-glucosidase (EaBgl1A) from a bacterium isolated from Antarctica soil samples was recombinantly overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and characterized. The enzyme showed unusual pH dependence with maximum activity at neutral pH and retention of high catalytic activity in the pH range 6 to 9, indicating...

    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crespim E,Zanphorlin LM,de Souza FH,Diogo JA,Gazolla AC,Machado CB,Figueiredo F,Sousa AS,Nóbrega F,Pellizari VH,Murakami MT,Ruller R

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    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

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    authors: Gujjari A,Rodriguez BV,Pescador J,Maeder C,Beall GW,Lewis LK

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    authors: Wu H,Shang-Guan DC,Lu QM,Hu XQ,Yang JW,Zhang HB

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    authors: Håkansson K

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    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Linhares MP,el-Jaick LJ,Bemski G,Wajnberg E

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    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang W,Fortunati E,Dominici F,Giovanale G,Mazzaglia A,Balestra GM,Kenny JM,Puglia D

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    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang R,Tao Y,Xu W,Xiao S,Du S,Zhou Y,Hasan A

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    journal_title:International journal of biological macromolecules

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen Q,Shi Y,Chen G,Cai M

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00