Reviewing the impact of 11 national Be Clear on Cancer public awareness campaigns, England, 2012 to 2016: A synthesis of published evaluation results.


:The Be Clear on Cancer (BCoC) campaigns have run in England since 2010. They aim to raise awareness of possible cancer symptoms, encouraging people to consult a general practice with these symptoms. Our study provides an overview of the impact of 11 national campaigns, for bowel, lung, bladder and kidney, breast and oesophago-gastric cancers. We synthesised existing results for each campaign covering seven clinical metrics across the patient pathway from primary care attendances to one-year net survival. For each metric, "before" and "after" periods were compared to assess change potentially related to the campaign. Results show that primary care attendances for campaign-related symptoms increased for 9 of 10 campaigns and relevant urgent referrals for suspected cancer increased above general trends for 9 of 11 campaigns. Diagnostic tests increased for 6 of 11 campaigns. For 7 of 11 campaigns, there were increases in cancer diagnoses resulting from an urgent referral for suspected cancer. There were sustained periods where more cancers were diagnosed than expected for 8 of 10 campaigns, with higher than expected proportions diagnosed at an early stage for sustained periods for 4 of 10 campaigns. There was no impact on survival. In summary, there is evidence that the BCoC campaigns impact help-seeking by patients and referral patterns by general practitioners, with some impact on diagnosis (incidence and stage). There was no clear evidence of impact on survival.


Int J Cancer


Lai J,Mak V,Bright CJ,Lyratzopoulos G,Elliss-Brookes L,Gildea C




Has Abstract


2021-03-01 00:00:00












  • Asthma and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

    abstract::Inflammation, and more generally, the immune response are thought to influence the development of prostate cancer. To determine the components of the immune response that are potentially contributory, we prospectively evaluated the association of immune-mediated conditions, asthma and hayfever, with lethal prostate ca...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Platz EA,Drake CG,Wilson KM,Sutcliffe S,Kenfield SA,Mucci LA,Stampfer MJ,Willett WC,Camargo CA Jr,Giovannucci E

    更新日期:2015-08-15 00:00:00

  • New pharmacological effect of fulvestrant to prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration and mechanical allodynia in rats.

    abstract::Oxaliplatin, which is widely used as chemotherapy for certain solid cancers, frequently causes peripheral neuropathy. Commonly described neuropathic symptoms include aberrant sensations such as mechanical allodynia (hypersensitivity to normally innocuous stimuli). Although oxaliplatin neuropathy is a dose-limiting tox...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto S,Yamashita T,Ito M,Caaveiro JMM,Egashira N,Tozaki-Saitoh H,Tsuda M

    更新日期:2019-10-15 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory effect of linoleic acid on transformation of IEC6 intestinal cells by in vitro azoxymethane treatment.

    abstract::The effect of linoleic acid (LA) on growth and transformation of IEC6 intestinal cells was examined. IEC6 cells expressed mRNAs of 15-lipooxygenase (LOX15) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma but not COX-2. Cell growth was suppressed by LA in a dose-dependent manner in IEC6 cells. Three-week tre...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sasaki T,Yoshida K,Shimura H,Ichiba M,Sasahira T,Shimomoto T,Denda A,Kuniyasu H

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and polyglutamine repeat length in the AIB1 gene.

    abstract::Marked variation in phenotypic expression among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers may be partly explained by modifier genes that influence mutation penetrance. Variation in CAG/CAA repeat lengths coding for stretches of glutamines in the C-terminus of the AIB1 protein (amplified in breast cancer 1, a steroid receptor ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hughes DJ,Ginolhac SM,Coupier I,Barjhoux L,Gaborieau V,Bressac-de-Paillerets B,Chompret A,Bignon YJ,Uhrhammer N,Lasset C,Giraud S,Sobol H,Hardouin A,Berthet P,Peyrat JP,Fournier J,Nogues C,Lidereau R,Muller D,Fricke

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Hypomethylation of pericentromeric DNA in breast adenocarcinomas.

    abstract::Drug-induced DNA demethylation in normal human cells and inherited localized hypomethylation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with a rare recessive disease (ICF: immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies) are associated with karyotypic instability. This chromosomal recombination...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Narayan A,Ji W,Zhang XY,Marrogi A,Graff JR,Baylin SB,Ehrlich M

    更新日期:1998-09-11 00:00:00

  • Transient arrest in a quiescent state allows ovarian cancer cells to survive suboptimal growth conditions and is mediated by both Mirk/dyrk1b and p130/RB2.

    abstract::Some ovarian cancer cells in vivo are in a reversible quiescent state where they can contribute to cancer spread under favorable growth conditions. The serine/threonine kinase Mirk/dyrk1B was expressed in each of seven ovarian cancer cell lines and in 21 of 28 resected human ovarian cancers, and upregulated in 60% of ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu J,Nakhla H,Friedman E

    更新日期:2011-07-15 00:00:00

  • Genetic polymorphisms in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study and meta-analyses.

    abstract::Epidemiological evidence suggests that intake of folate and other B-vitamins and genetic variants in the one-carbon metabolism pathway could influence the risk of breast cancer. Previous studies have focused on 2 polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate gene (MTHFR A222V and E429A); however, findings are inconcl...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lissowska J,Gaudet MM,Brinton LA,Chanock SJ,Peplonska B,Welch R,Zatonski W,Szeszenia-Dabrowska N,Park S,Sherman M,Garcia-Closas M

    更新日期:2007-06-15 00:00:00

  • KIF14 mRNA expression is a predictor of grade and outcome in breast cancer.

    abstract::Gain of chromosome 1q is a hallmark of breast cancer, and likely reflects oncogene amplification. We previously identified mitotic kinesin KIF14 (kinesin family member 14) as an overexpressed candidate oncogene in the 1q31.3-1q32.1 minimal region of genomic gain in breast cancer cell lines. KIF14 also showed high expr...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Corson TW,Gallie BL

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Augmentation of natural killer activity by pyran copolymer in mice.

    abstract::Treatment of older mice with pyran copolymer, a known interferon-inducer, was found to result in a rapid boosting of cell-mediated cytolytic activity against YAC-1 tumor target cells. The effector cells were characterized as being non-adherent and were presumed to be natural killer (NK) cells. Augmentation occurred in...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santoni A,Puccetti P,Riccardi C,Herberman RB,Bonmassar E

    更新日期:1979-11-15 00:00:00

  • The dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI-103 promotes immunosuppression, in vivo tumor growth and increases survival of sorafenib-treated melanoma cells.

    abstract::Melanoma is the most lethal human skin cancer. If metastatic, it becomes very aggressive and resistant to standard modalities of anticancer treatment. During the last 10 years, several therapeutic strategies have been tested including the use of single and combined small drugs. Experimental results indicate that RAS a...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: López-Fauqued M,Gil R,Grueso J,Hernandez-Losa J,Pujol A,Moliné T,Recio JA

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Serum CA 50 as a tumor marker in pancreatic cancer: a comparison with CA 19-9.

    abstract::CA 50 is a new tumor marker based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against a human colorectal carcinoma cell line. The CA 50 antigen is similar, but not identical, to the tumor marker CA 19-9. The serum concentrations of CA 50 were measured by an immunoradiometric assay (CA 50 IRMA) in 95 patients with pancreatic cancer...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haglund C,Kuusela P,Jalanko H,Roberts PJ

    更新日期:1987-04-15 00:00:00

  • The MTHFR C677T and DeltaDNMT3B C-149T polymorphisms confer different risks for right- and left-sided colorectal cancer.

    abstract::Etiological risk factors for proximal (right-sided) colon cancers may be different to those of distal colon and rectal (left-sided) cancers if these tumors develop along distinct pathways. The CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP+) occurs in approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRC) and predominantly in the proxi...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iacopetta B,Heyworth J,Girschik J,Grieu F,Clayforth C,Fritschi L

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of human gamma interferon on cell growth, replication of virus and induction of 2'-5'oligoadenylate synthetase in three human lymphoblastoid cell lines and K562 cells.

    abstract::Human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and beta interferon (IFN-beta) showed antiviral and anticellular effects on human lymphoblastoid Daudi and P3HR-1 cells, but up to 1,000 units/ ml of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) showed no such effect. Though a fairly high level of dsRNA-dependent 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2-5...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tomita Y,Cantell K,Kuwata T

    更新日期:1982-08-15 00:00:00

  • Germline variation in BRCA1/2 is highly ethnic-specific: Evidence from over 30,000 Chinese hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients.

    abstract::BRCA1 and BRCA2 play essential roles in maintaining the genome stability. Pathogenic germline mutations in these two genes disrupt their function, lead to genome instability and increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA mutations have been extensively screened in Caucasian populations, and the r...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bhaskaran SP,Chandratre K,Gupta H,Zhang L,Wang X,Cui J,Kim YC,Sinha S,Jiang L,Lu B,Wu X,Qin Z,Huang T,Wang SM

    更新日期:2019-08-15 00:00:00

  • Anti-idiotype vaccine against Hodgkin's lymphoma: induction of B- and T-cell immunity across species barriers against CD30 antigen by murine monoclonal internal image antibodies.

    abstract::Murine monoclonal antibody HRS-4 (Ab1), which defines the cell-bound and soluble CD30 antigen associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma, was used to generate monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Murine monoclonal Ab2 14G9 and Ab2 9G10 directed against HRS-4 were shown to be anti-idiotypic Ab2 ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pohl C,Renner C,Schwonzen M,Sieber M,Lorenz P,Pfreundschuh M,Diehl V

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • A novel SOCS5/miR-18/miR-25 axis promotes tumorigenesis in liver cancer.

    abstract::The role of miRNAs with tumor suppressive activity in liver cancer has been well studied. However, little is known about potential oncomiRs in HCC. In our study, we conducted a systematic evaluation of candidate oncomiRs and found that upregulation of miR-18a and miR-25 in HCC was associated with poor patient survival...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanchez-Mejias A,Kwon J,Chew XH,Siemens A,Sohn HS,Jing G,Zhang B,Yang H,Tay Y

    更新日期:2019-01-15 00:00:00

  • A novel tumor-based epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition score that associates with prognosis and metastasis in patients with Stage II/III colorectal cancer.

    abstract::It is increasingly appreciated that host factors within the tumor center and microenvironment play a key role in dictating colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes. As a result, the metastatic process has now been defined as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Establishment of the role of EMT within the tumor...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roseweir AK,Kong CY,Park JH,Bennett L,Powell AGMT,Quinn J,van Wyk HC,Horgan PG,McMillan DC,Edwards J,Roxburgh CS

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • A prospective, population-based study of 40,000 women regarding host factors, UV exposure and sunbed use in relation to risk and anatomic site of cutaneous melanoma.

    abstract::Prospective cohort studies about cutaneous melanoma (CM) risk are still few. Host factor- and UVR exposure data were collected prospectively by questionnaire in this population-based cohort study including 40,000 Swedish born women, aged 25-64 years at enrolment (1990). Risk for CM (Cox regression and Stepwise Cox reg...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nielsen K,Måsbäck A,Olsson H,Ingvar C

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • The decline in the incidence of stomach cancer in Sweden 1960-1984: a birth cohort phenomenon.

    abstract::Trends in the incidence of stomach cancer among 52,604 patients notified to the National Swedish Cancer Registry in 1960 through 1984 were analysed. Age-standardized incidence rates declined throughout the period, from 47.1 to 24.6 per 10(5) in males and from 23.8 to 12.7 per 10(5) in females. Among males the decline ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hansson LE,Bergström R,Sparén P,Adami HO

    更新日期:1991-02-20 00:00:00

  • Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study.

    abstract::Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated wi...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pantavos A,Ruiter R,Feskens EF,de Keyser CE,Hofman A,Stricker BH,Franco OH,Kiefte-de Jong JC

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differential activation of cell death and autophagy results in an increased cytotoxic potential for trifluorothymidine compared to 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer cells.

    abstract::Trifluorothymidine (TFT) is part of the oral drug formulation TAS-102. Both 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and TFT can inhibit thymidylate synthase and be incorporated into DNA. TFT shows only moderate cross-resistance to 5-FU. Therefore, we examined whether mechanistic differences in cell death could underlie their different ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bijnsdorp IV,Peters GJ,Temmink OH,Fukushima M,Kruyt FA

    更新日期:2010-05-15 00:00:00

  • Imatinib mesylate effectively combines with chaperone-rich cell lysate-loaded dendritic cells to treat bcr-abl+ murine leukemia.

    abstract::Imatinib mesylate has become an effective agent for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the development of drug resistance has led to examination of combination therapies. In this study, we investigated the effects of combining imatinib with immunotherapy against a murine bcr-abl(+) leukemia, 12B...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zeng Y,Graner MW,Feng H,Li G,Katsanis E

    更新日期:2004-06-10 00:00:00

  • Expression of human telomerase subunits in ovarian malignant, borderline and benign tumors.

    abstract::Telomerase activity is involved in the maintenance of telomere length and is thought to be required for cellular immortality and oncogenesis. Three major subunits composing telomerase, human telomerase RNA (hTR), telomerase-associated protein (TPI) and human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT), have been identified. ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kyo S,Kanaya T,Takakura M,Tanaka M,Yamashita A,Inoue H,Inoue M

    更新日期:1999-03-15 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a small-cell-lung-carcinoma cell line from a patient with cancer-associated retinopathy.

    abstract::We examined the biologic properties of a small-cell-lung-carcinoma (SCLC) cell line (designated MN-1112) established from a patient with SCLC who showed paraneoplastic retinopathy syndrome. Morphologic and immunocytochemical analyses showed that MN-1112 cells possess features of the classic type of SCLC. MN-1112 cells...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamaji Y,Matsubara S,Yamadori I,Sato M,Fujita T,Fujita J,Takahara J

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Endogenous sex hormones and the risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study.

    abstract::Sex steroid hormones influence prostate development and maintenance through their roles in prostate cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Although suspected to be involved in prostate carcinogenesis, an association between circulating androgens and prostate cancer has not been clearly established in e...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Weiss JM,Huang WY,Rinaldi S,Fears TR,Chatterjee N,Hsing AW,Crawford ED,Andriole GL,Kaaks R,Hayes RB

    更新日期:2008-05-15 00:00:00

  • Retraction.

    abstract::This article has been retracted at the request of: Editor-in-Chief and Co-author 'Restoring sensitivity to oxaliplatin by a novel approach in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo' by Banerjee, S., Kong, D., Azmi, A. S., Wang, Z., Ahmad, A., Sethi, S. and Sarkar, F. H. The above article, p...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章,撤回出版物



    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Beta-galactoside alpha2,6 sialyltransferase in human colon cancer: contribution of multiple transcripts to regulation of enzyme activity and reactivity with Sambucus nigra agglutinin.

    abstract::Colon cancer tissues display an increased activity of beta-galactoside alpha2,6 sialyltransferase (ST6Gal.I) and an increased reactivity with the lectin from Sambucus nigra (SNA), specific for alpha2,6-sialyl-linkages. Experimental and clinical studies indicate a contribution of these alterations to tumor progression,...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dall'Olio F,Chiricolo M,Ceccarelli C,Minni F,Marrano D,Santini D

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Human sulphotransferases are involved in the activation of aristolochic acids and are expressed in renal target tissue.

    abstract::Use of herbal preparations containing Aristolochia species has led to progressive nephropathy and urothelial cancer in humans. Analysis of DNA adducts formed in human target tissues and studies in animal models have pointed out a major role of the secondary plant metabolites, aristolochic acids, in these effects. Only...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meinl W,Pabel U,Osterloh-Quiroz M,Hengstler JG,Glatt H

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Parity and breast cancer risk: possible effect on age at diagnosis.

    abstract::We examined the effect of parity on breast cancer risk on the basis of information from 107,146 married female nurses followed prospectively between 1976-1980. For everparous women, a significant protective effect against breast cancer was observed with increasing parity (chi 12 for trend = 14.2, p less than 0.001). A...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pathak DR,Speizer FE,Willett WC,Rosner B,Lipnick RJ

    更新日期:1986-01-15 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for tumors of the brain and meninges: results from the Adelaide Adult Brain Tumor Study.

    abstract::A population-based case-control study of incident primary brain tumors in adults was carried out in Adelaide, Australia in the period 1987 through 1990. It included 110 subjects with newly diagnosed primary glioma, 60 subjects with meningioma and 417 controls selected from the Australian Electoral Roll and frequency-m...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ryan P,Lee MW,North B,McMichael AJ

    更新日期:1992-04-22 00:00:00