Demonstrating treatment efficacy using the single subject randomization design: A tutorial and demonstration.


:Single case research refers to the broader category of research designs in which each case serves as his or her own control. A single subject randomization design is a specific form in which sessions are randomly allocated to treatment conditions within subjects. Two tutorials on the application of these designs are provided. In the single subject randomized phase design, baseline probes are administered repeatedly during a no-treatment or usual care phase; subsequently probes are administered repeatedly during the treatment phase of the experiment; the starting point for the treatment phase is determined by random selection. In the single subject randomized alternation design, any session can be randomly allocated to any treatment condition. In either case, the test statistic can be the mean of probe performance during the treatment sessions after subtracting the baseline mean. The significance of the obtained test statistic is determined by resampling test. Specifically, the obtained test statistic is interpreted relative to a distribution of test statistics generated by all possible random allocations. This distribution yields a P value which represents the probability of obtaining a test statistic as large as that obtained by the selected allocation. In addition to the tutorials, two experiments using these designs with a single 8-year-old participant with Childhood Apraxia of Speech are presented to demonstrate the utility of these designs and the application of the associated statistical analysis procedures.


J Commun Disord


Rvachew S,Matthews T




Has Abstract


2017-05-01 00:00:00












  • Real time comprehension of Spanish articles in children with developmental language disorder: Empirical evidence from eye movements.

    abstract::Function words and, more specifically, articles have been widely indicated as one of the main sources of difficulty for children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). The present study is the first to assess the online comprehension of Spanish articles in bilingual children with DLD. In an eye tracking experimen...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christou S,Guerra E,Coloma CJ,Andreu Barrachina L,Araya C,Rodriguez-Ferreiro J,Buj Pereda MJ,Sanz-Torrent M

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • The use of main concept analysis to measure discourse production in Cantonese-speaking persons with aphasia: a preliminary report.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Discourse produced by speakers with aphasia contains rich and valuable information for researchers to understand the manifestation of aphasia as well as for clinicians to plan specific treatment components for their clients. Various approaches to investigate aphasic discourse have been proposed in the Englis...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kong AP

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Sign language, pantomime, and gestural processing in aphasic persons: a review.

    abstract::Many aphasic individuals who fail to reacquire spoken language skills may retain the ability to acquire aspects of a manual communication system. This conclusion is reached after reviewing the results of studies of pantomime recognition and production, spontaneous gestural production, and manual language training in a...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Christopoulou C,Bonvillian JD

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of various auditory perceptual and cognitive skills.

    abstract::Certain questions regarding auditory skills that are of interest to both researchers and clinicians are raised. These questions have been translated into procedures for assessment of various auditory abilities, resulting in a battery of standardized tests. The main categories of listening skills that are measured are ...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Goldman R,Fristoe M

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • Articulation contact pressures scaled to the physiologic range of the tongue in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A pilot study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of the maximum isometric lingual strength range at which lingual-alveolar consonants are produced (%Pmax) by people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (PALS) compared to people without the disease measured at study entry, and then 3 and 6 months later. DESI...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Searl J,Knollhoff S

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Training speech pathologists through microtherapy.

    abstract::Two microtraining methods were evaluated for training speech pathologists in the acquisition of skills utilized in treating misarticulations. Fifteen subjects in an introductory class in speech pathology were randomly placed in two groups (modeling, video replay, and counseling versus video replay and counseling). The...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Irwin RB

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Comparing fixed- and randomized-interval spaced retrieval in anomia treatment.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Spaced retrieval (SR) has recently been modified to target anomia in persons with aphasia (PWA). It relies on a strict management of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) where the time between stimulus presentations is doubled or halved based on response accuracy. Although SR is successful in treating anomia, i...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morrow KL,Fridriksson J

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Self-acceptance of stuttering: A preliminary study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study explored the relationship between self-acceptance of stuttering and (1) psychosocial factors (self-esteem, hostility towards others, emotional support, and perceived discrimination); (2) treatment history (support group participation, therapy duration, and perceived therapy success); and (3) previous...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Nardo T,Gabel RM,Tetnowski JA,Swartz ER

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Joint attention and oromotor abilities in young children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study examined the relationship between joint attention ability and oromotor imitation skill in three groups of young children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder using both nonverbal oral and verbal motor imitation tasks. Research questions addressed a) differences among joint attention and oromotor...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dalton JC,Crais ER,Velleman SL

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • The use of time-expanded speech as an aid in the diagnosis of articulation disorders.

    abstract::The recordings of 20 speech defective speakers' readings of a standard prose passage were presented to 36 student speech clinicians under three listening conditions: (1) unaltered; (2) time expanded to 150% of the original recording time; and (3) time-expanded to 200% of the original recording time. Results of their e...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lass NJ,Foulke E

    更新日期:1976-06-01 00:00:00

  • Acoustic characteristics: tracheoesophageal speech.

    abstract::This study examined differences among five tracheoesophageal, four esophageal, and five laryngeal speakers on the acoustic parameters of intensity and duration. Each subject repeated 14 prerecorded model sentences and prolonged phonation of three vowels. Analogue prints of the voice samples were obtained, and measures...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baggs TW,Pine SJ

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • The use of artificial neural networks to estimate speech intelligibility from acoustic variables: a preliminary analysis.

    abstract::Previous research has used regression analysis to attempt to predict the intelligibility of hearing-impaired speakers from acoustic speech parameters. Improvement of prediction may be achieved by the use of computerized artificial neural networks to process mathematically the acoustic input variables as part of the in...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Metz DE,Schiavetti N,Knight SD

    更新日期:1992-03-01 00:00:00

  • Life habits of school-aged children with specific language impairment as perceived by their parents and by school professionals.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Describe social participation of a group of children with specific language impairment. METHOD:26 parents of children with specific language impairment (SLI) aged from 5 to 13 years and 11 school professionals participated in the study. Data collection was performed with the adapted version for children aged f...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Croteau C,McMahon-Morin P,Morin C,Jutras B,Trudeau N,Le Dorze G

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring the use of dynamic language assessment with deaf children, who use American Sign Language: Two case studies.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:We describe a model for assessment of lexical-semantic organization skills in American Sign Language (ASL) within the framework of dynamic vocabulary assessment and discuss the applicability and validity of the use of mediated learning experiences (MLE) with deaf signing children. Two elementary students (ag...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mann W,Peña ED,Morgan G

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence of compensatory processing in adults with developmental language impairment: testing the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) proposes that individuals with primary developmental language impairment (DLI) have a deficient procedural memory, compromising their syntactic abilities. Individuals with DLI may compensate for procedural memory deficits by engaging declarative memory for syntactic ta...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poll GH,Miller CA,van Hell JG

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Do the symptoms of language disorder align with treatment goals? An exploratory study of primary-grade students' IEPs.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Individual Education Plans (IEPs) are legal documents that guide the treatment of students with language disorder (LD). This exploratory study investigated the extent to which students' symptoms of LD align with goals on their IEPs. A total of 99 kindergarten and first-grade students receiving treatment for ...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmitt MB,Justice LM,Logan JA,Schatschneider C,Bartlett CW

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Bilingual children with primary language impairment: issues, evidence and implications for clinical actions.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:A clear understanding of how to best provide clinical serves to bilingual children with suspected or confirmed primary language impairment (PLI) is predicated on understanding typical development in dual-language learners as well as the PLI profile. This article reviews general characteristics of children le...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kohnert K

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Speed of color naming and intelligence: association in girls, dissociation in boys.

    abstract::We administered a rapid naming test to a sample of prereaders. Slow performance on this task among older children is known to be associated with reading disability. Results showed a sex difference in the degree of correlation between naming performance and a test of general intelligence. The finding was replicated on ...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jaffe J,Pringle GF,Anderson SW

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • Neurobiological studies of reading and reading disability.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Evidence from neuroimaging studies, including our own, suggest that skilled word identification in reading is related to the functional integrity of two consolidated left hemisphere (LH) posterior systems: a dorsal (temporo-parietal) circuit and a ventral (occipito-temporal) circuit. This posterior system ap...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pugh KR,Mencl WE,Jenner AR,Katz L,Frost SJ,Lee JR,Shaywitz SE,Shaywitz BA

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Concurrent task sequencing in single-phoneme phonologic treatment and generalization.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Phonologic treatments have traditionally been designed to teach a target speech sound starting with presumed easy teaching tasks and progressing to harder tasks. This investigation evaluated the effects on single-phoneme acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of Concurrent Treatment, which randomly int...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Skelton SL

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Self-efficacy scaling by adult stutterers.

    abstract::A scale was developed for estimating adult stutterers' confidence for entering and maintaining fluency in a variety of speaking situations. This Self-Efficacy Scale for Adult Stutterers (SESAS) was administered to 20 adult stutterers along with the shortened form of the Erickson Scale of Communication Attitudes and th...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ornstein AF,Manning WH

    更新日期:1985-08-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between speech recognition in noise and non-speech recognition in noise test performances: Implications for central auditory processing disorders testing.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:According to the American Academy of Audiology, a recommendation for frequency-modulation systems may be based upon performances on speech perception tests that do not include background noise. PURPOSE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the presumption that non-speech recognition in noise tes...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vermiglio AJ,Velappan K,Heeke P,Bulla E,Fang X,Bonilla E,Garner E,Skinner J

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Natural processes in the phonologies of four error-rate groups.

    abstract::Processes involved in the misarticulations of 97 children were used to identify patients associated with error rate. Results indicated that while no processes are unique to subjects with higher error rates, the moderate and high error-rate children either used more processes in unusual ways or overused a few, less-dif...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Norris M,Harden J

    更新日期:1981-05-01 00:00:00

  • Topic manipulation and conversational participation as a function of familiarity in school-age language-impaired and normal language peers.

    abstract::This study investigated the topic manipulation skills and conversational participation of school-age language-impaired children (LI) in interactions with normal language peers. The subjects consisted of eight dyads of a normal language child and a language-impaired child balanced for approximate age and sex. They rang...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edmonds PE,Haynes WO

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • Connectionist networks and language disorders.

    abstract::Although neuropsychological localization constitutes the principal approach to the study of language disorders, there is reason to think it may not be entirely correct. Recent anatomical studies suggest that cognitive brain functions do not localize to precise anatomical locations. Connectionist (parallel distributed ...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Small SL

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between serum homovanillic acid, DRD2 C957T (rs6277), and hDAT A559V (rs28364997) polymorphisms and developmental stuttering.

    abstract::The involvement of the brain dopamine system in the pathophysiology of developmental stuttering has been previously suggested. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between developmental stuttering in children and the levels of serum homovanillic acid (HVA), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T (...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohammadi H,Joghataei MT,Rahimi Z,Faghihi F,Farhangdoost H

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development and breakdown of written language.

    abstract::This article presents an overview of the development and breakdown of written language. Development of written language is reviewed for both the species and the child. Breakdown in written language is discussed in relation to the disorder of linguistic agraphia, with particular reference to studies involving cases tha...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Friedland J

    更新日期:1990-06-01 00:00:00

  • Verbal fluency in three Spanish-English bilingual speakers with TBI.

    abstract::This study investigated differences between healthy bilingual participants and bilingual participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on verbal fluency tasks. The performance of three Spanish-English bilingual speakers with traumatic brain injury was compared to the performance of 30 neurotypical bilingual speakers ...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wauters L,Marquardt T,Muñoz ML

    更新日期:2019-12-13 00:00:00

  • Hysterical high pitch in an adult female: a case study.

    abstract::A case study of an adult female with hysterical high pitch is presented. A variation of the pushing approach was utilized to aid in establishing an appropriate pitch level and to prove to the patient that she was able to speak at her customary (normal) pitch level. Hysterical high pitch is presented as one of several ...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aldes ME

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Principal component analysis of language performances in Alzheimer's disease.

    abstract::This report analyzes the performances of a group of 104 mildly to moderately impaired probable Alzheimer's disease patients (Mini Mental Examination 10 to 23) on linguistic tasks exploring written and oral language. A principal component analysis showed a two-factor solution including 14 out of the 15 linguistic tasks...

    journal_title:Journal of communication disorders

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marcie P,Roudier M,Goldblum MC,Boller F

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00