Skin-Specific Unsaturated Fatty Acids Boost the Staphylococcus aureus Innate Immune Response.


:Antimicrobial fatty acids (AFAs) protect the human epidermis against invasion by pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we questioned whether human skin fatty acids (FAs) can be incorporated into the lipid moiety of lipoproteins and whether such incorporation would have an impact on innate immune stimulation in the model organism Staphylococcus aureus USA300 JE2. This organism synthesized only saturated FAs. However, when feeding USA300 with unsaturated FAs present on human skin (C16:1, C18:1, or C18:2), those were taken up, elongated stepwise by two carbon units, and finally found in the bacterial (phospho)lipid fraction. They were also observed in the lipid moiety of lipoproteins. When USA300 JE2 was fed with the unsaturated FAs, the cells and cell lysates showed an increased innate immune activation with various immune cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Immune activation was highest with linoleic acid (C18:2). There are several pieces of evidence that the enhanced immune stimulating effect was due to the incorporation of unsaturated FAs in lipoproteins. First, the enhanced stimulation was dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Second, an lgt mutant, unable to carry out lipidation of prolipoproteins, was unable to carry out immune stimulation when fed with unsaturated FAs. Third, the supplied FAs did not significantly affect growth, protein release, or expression of the model lipoprotein Lpl1. Although S. aureus is unable to synthesize unsaturated FAs, it incorporates long-chain unsaturated FAs into its lipoproteins, with the effect that the cells are better recognized by the innate immune system. This is an additional mechanism how our skin controls bacterial colonization and infection.


Infect Immun


Infection and immunity


Nguyen MT,Hanzelmann D,Härtner T,Peschel A,Götz F




Has Abstract


2015-10-26 00:00:00














  • Prevention of C3 deposition by capsular polysaccharide is a virulence mechanism of type III group B streptococci.

    abstract::Strains of type III group B streptococci isolated from patients with neonatal sepsis are generally resistant to complement-mediated phagocytic killing in the absence of specific antibody. It has been suggested that the resistance of type III group B streptococci to phagocytosis results from inhibition of alternative-c...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marques MB,Kasper DL,Pangburn MK,Wessels MR

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Assimilation of xylose, mannose, and mannitol for synthesis of glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    abstract::Cryptococcus neoformans NIH 409 was cultured in a defined medium containing D-[1-13C]xylose (Xyl), D-[1-13C]mannose (Man), or D-[1-13C]mannitol as the sole carbon source. The distribution of 13C in the Man, Xyl, glucuronic acid (GlcA), and O-acetyl constituents of native and de-O-acetylated glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) w...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cherniak R,O'Neill EB,Sheng S

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Borrelia burgdorferi linear plasmid 28-3 confers a selective advantage in an experimental mouse-tick infection model.

    abstract::Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, has a unique segmented genome consisting of numerous linear and circular plasmids and a linear chromosome. Many of these genetic elements have been found to encode factors critical for B. burgdorferi to complete the infectious cycle. However, several plasmi...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dulebohn DP,Bestor A,Rosa PA

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of temperature on survival and growth of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.

    abstract::Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus was stable for 10 days at 4 C in stream and well water, after which the virus had a half-life of 7.5 days. At 15 C, the virus was stable for 5 days, and then had a half-life between 5 and 6 days. Viral antigen in infected cells developed much more slowly at 4 C than at 20 C. Infect...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tu KC,Spendlove RS,Goede RW

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • Serum resistance in Haemophilus ducreyi requires outer membrane protein DsrA.

    abstract::Haemophilus ducreyi is resistant to killing by normal serum antibody and complement. We discovered an H. ducreyi outer membrane protein required for expression of serum resistance and termed it DsrA (for "ducreyi serum resistance A"). The dsrA locus was cloned, sequenced, and mutagenized. An isogenic mutant (FX517) of...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elkins C,Morrow KJ Jr,Olsen B

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Extractability of cell wall polysaccharide from lactobacilli and streptococci by autoclaving and by dilue acid.

    abstract::Autoclaving cell wall of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt for 15 min under the Rantz and Randall conditions released one-tenth of the total cell wall carbohydrate, whereas two-thirds was extracted after autoclaving for 180 min. The extract contained the serotype c-specific antigen but lacked the lipoteichoic acid compone...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campbell LK,Knox KW,Wicken AJ

    更新日期:1978-12-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of hydrogen peroxide as a Streptococcus pneumoniae toxin for rat alveolar epithelial cells.

    abstract::Streptococcus pneumoniae infections of the lung are associated with significant damage to the alveolar epithelium. Host phagocytes and pneumolysin, a cytolytic toxin of S. pneumoniae, are believed to contribute to this cellular damage, yet experiments in which these elements are absent demonstrate the presence of an a...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Duane PG,Rubins JB,Weisel HR,Janoff EN

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    abstract::Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence t...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mattana A,Sanna M,Cano A,Delogu G,Erre G,Roberts CW,Henriquez FL,Fiori PL,Cappuccinelli P

    更新日期:2016-09-19 00:00:00

  • Affinity of the C9 molecule for the C5b-8 complex compared with that for the complex containing C9 molecules.

    abstract::Gram-negative bacterial cells exposed to a complement source may carry membrane attack complexes containing variable numbers of C9 molecules per C5b-8 site. In order to investigate the assembly of this complex, the ability of C9 molecules to bind to C5b-8 complexes was compared with the binding characteristics of C9 f...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacKay SL,Dankert JR

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Virulence comparisons of Aspergillus nidulans mutants are confounded by the inflammatory response of p47phox-/- mice.

    abstract::While investigating the requirement for phagosomal alkalinization in the host defense against pulmonary aspergillosis, we observed high morbidity of p47(phox)(-/-) mice infected with pH-insensitive Aspergillus nidulans mutants despite a paucity of fungal growth. Fatal infection also resulted from a normally avirulent ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bignell E,Negrete-Urtasun S,Calcagno AM,Arst HN Jr,Rogers T,Haynes K

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Plasmid-determined cytotoxicity in Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    abstract::Yersinia pestis KIM5 was found to be cytotoxic for the IC21 and P388D1 mouse macrophage cell lines, as well as for resident peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice. Affected cells phagocytosed KIM5 inefficiently, became spherical, detached readily from culture dishes, and retained 51Cr poorly. The cytotoxic effect wa...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goguen JD,Walker WS,Hatch TP,Yother J

    更新日期:1986-03-01 00:00:00

  • Chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter jejuni.

    abstract::The chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter jejuni was determined in the presence of different amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and preparations and constituents of mucin and bile. L-Fucose was the only carbohydrate and L-aspartate, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, and L-serine were the only amino acids producing a ch...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hugdahl MB,Beery JT,Doyle MP

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of gastric acid on susceptibility to infection with ingested bacterial pathogens.

    abstract::Despite the widely held belief that gastric acid serves as a barrier to bacterial pathogens, there are almost no experimental data to support this hypothesis. We have developed a mouse model to quantify the effectiveness of gastric acid in mediating resistance to infection with ingested bacteria. Mice that were consti...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tennant SM,Hartland EL,Phumoonna T,Lyras D,Rood JI,Robins-Browne RM,van Driel IR

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Genomic comparison of Escherichia coli K1 strains isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

    abstract::Escherichia coli is a major cause of enteric/diarrheal diseases, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. E. coli K1 is the leading gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis, but the microbial basis of E. coli K1 meningitis is incompletely understood. Here we employed comparative genomic hybridization to investi...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yao Y,Xie Y,Kim KS

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct cytokine regulation by cholera toxin and type II heat-labile toxins involves differential regulation of CD40 ligand on CD4(+) T cells.

    abstract::Cholera toxin (CT) and the type II heat-labile enterotoxins (HLT) LT-IIa and LT-IIb act as potent systemic and mucosal adjuvants and induce distinct T-helper (Th)-cell cytokine profiles. In the present study, CT and the type II HLT were found to differentially affect cytokine production by anti-CD3-stimulated human pe...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martin M,Metzger DJ,Michalek SM,Connell TD,Russell MW

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Bactericidal activity of specific and azurophil granules from human neutrophils: studies with outer-membrane mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT-2.

    abstract::Extracts of specific granules and azurophil granules from human neutrophils were tested for their bactericidal activity against various lipopolysaccharide mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT-2. Three purified granule populations, one specific and two azurophil, were obtained by isopycnic centrifugation of homogenized...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rest RF,Cooney MH,Spitznagel JK

    更新日期:1978-01-01 00:00:00

  • Adherence of oral streptococci: evidence for nonspecific adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite surfaces.

    abstract::It is proposed that binding of oral streptococci to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite (SHA) surfaces is a multifactorial process involving both specific and nonspecific receptors. In this context, specific binding is described as a high-affinity, saturable interaction between the cell and binding surface. Conversely, nons...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Staat RH,Peyton JC

    更新日期:1984-06-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrastructure of the invasion of human hair in vitro by the keratinophilic fungus Microsporum gypseum.

    abstract::The pattern of invasion of human hair in vitro by the dermatophyte Microsporum gypseum was studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Mycelia that invaded the hair cortex through the edge of cuticles showed a flattened "frond" growth in contrast to the filamentous form seen on ordinary laboratory media....

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanbe T,Tanaka K

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and bacterial lipopolysaccharide are involved in Coxiella burnetii-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor by human monocytes.

    abstract::Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, enters human monocytes through alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and survives inside host cells. In addition, C. burnetii stimulates the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by monocytes. We studied the role of the interaction of C. burnetii with THP...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dellacasagrande J,Ghigo E,Hammami SM,Toman R,Raoult D,Capo C,Mege JL

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Chlorphenesin: an antigen-associated immunosuppressant.

    abstract::Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubat...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whang HY,Neter E

    更新日期:1970-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cyclic dimeric GMP signaling regulates intracellular aggregation, sessility, and growth of Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

    abstract::Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger, is known to regulate bacterial biofilm and sessility. Replication of an obligatory intracellular pathogen, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, is characterized by formation of bacterial aggregates called morulae inside membrane-bound inclusions. When E. chaffeensis matur...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kumagai Y,Matsuo J,Cheng Z,Hayakawa Y,Rikihisa Y

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Serotyping of Chlamydia. I. Isolates of ovine origin.

    abstract::Eight chlamydial isolates of ovine origin were tested in a plaque reduction system using homologous and heterologous rooster antisera. The eight isolates could be separated into two separate immunotypes. Type 1 included isolates associated with ovine abortion and one agent recovered from the feces of an apparently nor...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schachter J,Banks J,Sugg N,Sung M,Storz J,Meyer KF

    更新日期:1974-01-01 00:00:00

  • Scanning electron microscopy of epidermal adherence and cavitation in murine candidiasis: a role for Candida acid proteinase.

    abstract::Adherence of blastoconidia to epidermal corneocytes is an early event in Candida colonization and infection of the skin. Pathogenic species adhere more avidly than nonpathogenic species, transform to hyphal growth, and invade the stratum corneum of the skin. Adherence was studied by scanning electron microscopy of exp...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ray TL,Payne CD

    更新日期:1988-08-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro sensitivity of oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria to the bactericidal activity of human neutrophil defensins.

    abstract::Neutrophils play a major role in defending the periodontium against infection by oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria, such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Capnocytophaga spp. We examined the sensitivity of these bacteria to a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and highly p...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyasaki KT,Bodeau AL,Ganz T,Selsted ME,Lehrer RI

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • An inside job: hacking into Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling cascades by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.

    abstract::The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is well known for its skill at invading and living within host cells. New discoveries are now also revealing the astounding ability of the parasite to inject effector proteins into the cytoplasm to seize control of the host cell. This review summarizes recent advances in o...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Denkers EY,Bzik DJ,Fox BA,Butcher BA

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Volatile fatty acid, metabolic by-product of periodontopathic bacteria, induces apoptosis in WEHI 231 and RAJI B lymphoma cells and splenic B cells.

    abstract::The ability of butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, to induce apoptosis in murine WEHI 231 cells, splenic B cells, and human RAJI cells was examined. The culture filtrate of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella loescheii, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, which contains high a percentag...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kurita-Ochiai T,Ochiai K,Fukushima K

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity by levo-1-methyl tryptophan blocks gamma interferon-induced Chlamydia trachomatis persistence in human epithelial cells.

    abstract::Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induces expression of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in human epithelial cells, the permissive cells for the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. IDO1 depletes tryptophan by catabolizing it to kynurenine with consequences for C. trachom...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ibana JA,Belland RJ,Zea AH,Schust DJ,Nagamatsu T,AbdelRahman YM,Tate DJ,Beatty WL,Aiyar AA,Quayle AJ

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Hypha formation in the white-opaque transition of Candida albicans.

    abstract::Cells of Candida albicans strain WO-1 and related strains switch frequently and reversibly between a white-colony-forming unit (white phase) and a gray-colony-forming unit (opaque phase). Cells in the budding white phase exhibit the usual smooth round phenotype observed in other C. albicans strains, but cells in the b...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anderson J,Cundiff L,Schnars B,Gao MX,Mackenzie I,Soll DR

    更新日期:1989-02-01 00:00:00

  • Role of Protein A in Nonspecific Immunofluorescence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    abstract::gammaG-globulin from nonimmunized rabbits and from rabbits immunized with various bacteria reacted in the immunofluorescence technique with protein A-containing Staphylococcus aureus. Pepsin digestion of most immunoglobulin preparations eliminated the reaction, thus showing that the Fc fragment is involved and that th...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Forsgren A,Forsum U

    更新日期:1970-10-01 00:00:00

  • Experimental production of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    abstract::Chronic actinomycetoma associated with grain production was induced in BALB/c mice by subcutaneous inoculation of live Nocardia brasiliensis in Freund incomplete adjuvant into the hind footpads. Similar inoculation of N. asteroides and N. caviae resulted in local tumor formation which healed spontaneously after 5 mont...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zlotnik H,Buckley HR

    更新日期:1980-09-01 00:00:00