Skin-Specific Unsaturated Fatty Acids Boost the Staphylococcus aureus Innate Immune Response.


:Antimicrobial fatty acids (AFAs) protect the human epidermis against invasion by pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we questioned whether human skin fatty acids (FAs) can be incorporated into the lipid moiety of lipoproteins and whether such incorporation would have an impact on innate immune stimulation in the model organism Staphylococcus aureus USA300 JE2. This organism synthesized only saturated FAs. However, when feeding USA300 with unsaturated FAs present on human skin (C16:1, C18:1, or C18:2), those were taken up, elongated stepwise by two carbon units, and finally found in the bacterial (phospho)lipid fraction. They were also observed in the lipid moiety of lipoproteins. When USA300 JE2 was fed with the unsaturated FAs, the cells and cell lysates showed an increased innate immune activation with various immune cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Immune activation was highest with linoleic acid (C18:2). There are several pieces of evidence that the enhanced immune stimulating effect was due to the incorporation of unsaturated FAs in lipoproteins. First, the enhanced stimulation was dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Second, an lgt mutant, unable to carry out lipidation of prolipoproteins, was unable to carry out immune stimulation when fed with unsaturated FAs. Third, the supplied FAs did not significantly affect growth, protein release, or expression of the model lipoprotein Lpl1. Although S. aureus is unable to synthesize unsaturated FAs, it incorporates long-chain unsaturated FAs into its lipoproteins, with the effect that the cells are better recognized by the innate immune system. This is an additional mechanism how our skin controls bacterial colonization and infection.


Infect Immun


Infection and immunity


Nguyen MT,Hanzelmann D,Härtner T,Peschel A,Götz F




Has Abstract


2015-10-26 00:00:00














  • Protective and pathological functions of CD8+ T cells in Leishmania braziliensis infection.

    abstract::Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis is characterized by a strong Th1 response that leads to skin lesion development. In areas where L. braziliensis transmission is endemic, up to 15% of healthy subjects have tested positive for delayed-type hypersensitivity to soluble leishmania antigen (SLA...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cardoso TM,Machado Á,Costa DL,Carvalho LP,Queiroz A,Machado P,Scott P,Carvalho EM,Bacellar O

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-12 is produced by macrophages in response to live or killed Bordetella pertussis and enhances the efficacy of an acellular pertussis vaccine by promoting induction of Th1 cells.

    abstract::Using a murine respiratory infection model, we have demonstrated previously that infection with Bordetella pertussis or immunization with a whole-cell pertussis vaccine induced antigen-specific Th1 cells, which conferred a high level of protection against aerosol challenge. In contrast, immunization with an acellular ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahon BP,Ryan MS,Griffin F,Mills KH

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Preclinical immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic efficacy of antisera to capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccines of Vibrio vulnificus.

    abstract::Vibrio vulnificus is an oyster-associated bacterial pathogen that causes life-threatening fulminating septicemia and necrotizing wound infections in humans. The capsular polysaccharide of V. vulnificus (VvPS) is critical for virulence. Previously we showed that active immunization of mice with a VvPS-tetanus toxoid (V...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Devi SJ,Hayat U,Powell JL,Morris JG Jr

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adjuvant activity of naturally occurring monophosphoryl lipopolysaccharide preparations from mucosa-associated bacteria.

    abstract::Natural heterogeneity in the structure of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces differential effects on the innate immune response. Gram-negative bacterial species produce LPS structures that differ from the classic endotoxic LPS structures. These differences include hypoacylation and hypophosphoryl...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chilton PM,Hadel DM,To TT,Mitchell TC,Darveau RP

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct regulatory pathways control expression of Borrelia burgdorferi infection-associated OspC and Erp surface proteins.

    abstract::Deciphering the mechanisms by which Borrelia burgdorferi controls the synthesis of proteins associated with mammalian infection will be an important step toward understanding the pathogenic properties of Lyme disease-causing bacteria. We present results of studies indicating that B. burgdorferi senses a wide variety o...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Babb K,El-Hage N,Miller JC,Carroll JA,Stevenson B

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Virus production and release, cell longevity, and cloning efficiency of chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with Rous sarcoma virus.

    abstract::Continuous virus production is a characteristic of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected and transformed by a nondefective Schmidt-Ruppin subgroup A Rous sarcoma virus. This virus production has been examined with particular attention to the amount of newly budded virus which remained cell-associated, and to the a...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Volkmann KR,Morgan HR

    更新日期:1974-10-01 00:00:00

  • Mycobacterium-inducible Nramp in striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    abstract::In mammals, the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene, Nramp1, plays a major role in resistance to mycobacterial infections. Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is currently experiencing an epizootic of mycobacteriosis that threatens the health of this ecologically and economically importa...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burge EJ,Gauthier DT,Ottinger CA,Van Veld PA

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical composition and biological activity of the Yersinia pestis envelope substance.

    abstract::Purification of the envelope antigen of Yersinia pestis EV with passive hemagglutination activity is described. The purification procedure consisted of pancreatin digestion, chromatography on human erythrocyte stroma set on Celite, and rechromatography on Sephadex G-200. Chemical, physical, and biological properties o...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Głosnicka R,Gruszkiewicz E

    更新日期:1980-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrastructural study of adherence to and penetration of cultured cells by two invasive Escherichia coli strains isolated from infants with enteritis.

    abstract::The adherence of invasive Escherichia coli strains 444-3 and 469-3 to human erythrocytes and to cultured HeLa and HEp-2 cells has been examined by electron microscopy. Bacteria elaborating type 1 fimbriae, glycocalyces , and nonfimbrial mannose-resistant hemagglutinins specific for human erythrocytes were identified i...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knutton S,Williams PH,Lloyd DR,Candy DC,McNeish AS

    更新日期:1984-06-01 00:00:00

  • Morphology, Physiology, and Virulence of Some Mutants of Candida albicans.

    abstract::Five mutagens were used to induce mutants of Candida albicans. Ultraviolet light, N-nitroso-N'-methyl-N-nitrosoguanidine, and N-nitroso-N-methylurethane were effective mutagens which induced stable auxotrophs. N-nitroso-N-methylurethane produced the largest number and variety of mutants. Nitrous acid and hydroxylamine...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Savage N,Balish E

    更新日期:1971-01-01 00:00:00

  • Separation of chromosomes of Cryptococcus neoformans by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

    abstract::Chromosomes from Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated yeast pathogen, were separated by contour-clamped homogeneous field gel electrophoresis. Seven strains representing all four serotypes were studied. It was found that each strain had a unique, reproducible pattern of chromosome bands which could potentially be ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perfect JR,Magee BB,Magee PT

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Role of adult worm antigen-specific immunoglobulin E in acquired immunity to Schistosoma mansoni infection in baboons.

    abstract::Allergic-type immune responses, particularly immunoglobulin E (IgE), correlate with protective immunity in human schistosomiasis. To better understand the mechanisms of parasite elimination we examined the immune correlates of protection in baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis), which are natural hosts for Schistosoma m...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nyindo M,Kariuki TM,Mola PW,Farah IO,Elson L,Blanton RE,King CL

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Resistance to Babesia spp. and Plasmodium sp. in mice pretreated with an extract of Coxiella burnetii.

    abstract::Mice injected intravenously with a commercially available extract of Coxiella burnetii prepared for use as the antigen in the complement fixation diagnostic test for Q fever were subsequently resistant to infection with Babesia microti, Babesia rodhaini, and Plasmodium vinckei petteri. The parasites appeared to die in...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clark IA

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • Carboxypeptidases B of Anopheles gambiae as targets for a Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine.

    abstract::Anopheles gambiae is the major African vector of Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly species of human malaria parasite and the most prevalent in Africa. Several strategies are being developed to limit the global impact of malaria via reducing transmission rates, among which are transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs)...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lavazec C,Boudin C,Lacroix R,Bonnet S,Diop A,Thiberge S,Boisson B,Tahar R,Bourgouin C

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Delayed mortality and attenuated thrombocytopenia associated with severe malaria in urokinase- and urokinase receptor-deficient mice.

    abstract::We explored the role of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activators (uPA and tPA), as well as the uPA receptor (uPAR; CD87) in mouse severe malaria (SM), using genetically deficient (-/-) mice. The mortality resulting from Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection was delayed in uPA(-/-) and uPAR(-/-) mice but was simila...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Piguet PF,Da Laperrousaz C,Vesin C,Tacchini-Cottier F,Senaldi G,Grau GE

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Tryptophan Codon-Dependent Transcription in Chlamydia pneumoniae during Gamma Interferon-Mediated Tryptophan Limitation.

    abstract::In evolving to an obligate intracellular niche, Chlamydia has streamlined its genome by eliminating superfluous genes as it relies on the host cell for a variety of nutritional needs like amino acids. However, Chlamydia can experience amino acid starvation when the human host cell in which the bacteria reside is expos...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ouellette SP,Rueden KJ,Rucks EA

    更新日期:2016-08-19 00:00:00

  • Immune interferon induced by phytohemagglutinin in nude mouse spleen cells.

    abstract::Phytohemagglutinin is able to trigger interferon synthesis in spleen cell cultures from nude (nu/nu) mice as effectively as in splenic cell cultures from haired, control (nu/+), thymus-bearing mice. A minor theta-bearing cell population present in the spleen of nude mice appears essential to phytohemagglutinin interfe...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wietzerbin J,Stefanos S,Falcoff R,Lucero M,Catinot L,Falcoff E

    更新日期:1978-09-01 00:00:00

  • Mutant of Bordetella pertussis which lacks ability to produce filamentous hemagglutinin.

    abstract::Mutant cultures that lacked the ability to produce filamentous hemagglutinin were obtained by UV irradiation of Bordetella pertussis strain 18-323. Various biological activities of these mutants were compared with those of the parent culture. It was found that the leukocytosis-promoting, histamine-sensitizing, and mou...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watanabe M,Nakase Y

    更新日期:1982-03-01 00:00:00

  • Activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa effectors secreted by the Type III secretion system in vitro and during infection.

    abstract::Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes a number of distinct pathways to secrete proteins that play various roles during infection. These include the type II secretion system, which is responsible for the secretion of the majority of exoproducts into the surrounding environment, including toxins and degradative enzymes. In co...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee VT,Smith RS,Tümmler B,Lory S

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Proteomics reveals open reading frames in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv not predicted by genomics.

    abstract::Genomics revealed the sequence of 3924 genes of the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proteomics complements genomics in showing which genes are really expressed, and here we show the expression of six genes not predicted by genomics, as proved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser des...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jungblut PR,Müller EC,Mattow J,Kaufmann SH

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Functional expression of falcipain, a Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteinase, supports its role as a malarial hemoglobinase.

    abstract::Erythrocytic malaria parasites degrade hemoglobin as a principal source of amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. We have previously shown that a Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite cysteine proteinase, now termed falcipain, is required for hemoglobin degradation, and we have hypothesized that this proteinase is re...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salas F,Fichmann J,Lee GK,Scott MD,Rosenthal PJ

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 in human peripheral blood leukocytes exposed to human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent or recombinant major surface protein P44.

    abstract::Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is an emerging febrile systemic disease caused by the HGE agent, an obligatory intracellular bacterium of granulocytes. The pathogenicity- and immunity-related mechanisms of HGE are unknown. In this study, several cytokines generated in human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) inc...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim HY,Rikihisa Y

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to dextran synthesized in the presence of extracellular dextransucrase.

    abstract::Live or heat-killed cells of Streptococcus mutans specifically adhere to dextran previously synthesized on glass surfaces by the action of extracellular dextransucrase. ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuramitsu HK

    更新日期:1974-04-01 00:00:00

  • Serological, electrophoretic, and biological properties of Cryptococcus neoformans antigens.

    abstract::We compared a cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen referred to as CneF with chemically defined cryptococcal antigen fractions isolated by Cherniak and co-workers by using double immunodiffusion gels, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblots, and footpad reactivity of immunized mice. The three previously descri...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murphy JW,Mosley RL,Cherniak R,Reyes GH,Kozel TR,Reiss E

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cation flux studies of the lesion induced in human erythrocyte membranes by the thermostable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    abstract::Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important agent of seafood-borne gastroenteritis, expresses several putative virulence factors that could account for the disease symptoms of infected humans, namely, diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramps. The pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus correlates well with the Kanagawa phenomeno...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huntley JS,Hall AC,Sathyamoorthy V,Hall RH

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fluoride uptake by Streptococcus mutans 6715.

    abstract::The short-term kinetics of fluoride uptake by cells from 20- to 22-h cultures of Streptococcus mutans strain 6715 were studied using rapid filtration and centrifugation techniques. Saline-suspended organisms were diluted with fluoride-containing solutions buffered at four different pH values (2.0, 4.0, 5.5, and 8.2). ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whitford GM,Schuster GS,Pashley DH,Venkateswarlu P

    更新日期:1977-12-01 00:00:00

  • K+ efflux is required for histone H3 dephosphorylation by Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O and other pore-forming toxins.

    abstract::Chromatin modification triggered by bacteria is a newly described mechanism by which pathogens impact host transcription. Listeria monocytogenes dephosphorylates histone H3 through the action of listeriolysin O (LLO); however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that an unrelated pore-forming toxin, Aero...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamon MA,Cossart P

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Immunobiologically active lipid A analogs synthesized according to a revised structural model of natural lipid A.

    abstract::Synthetic lipid A analogs which have two amide-bound and two ester-bound (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl groups at the C-2 and -2' and C-3 and -3' positions of beta(1-6)glucosamine disaccharide mono- or diphosphates showed high activities in most in vitro assays, and the lethality of a diphosphate derivative to galactosami...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kotani S,Takada H,Tsujimoto M,Ogawa T,Harada K,Mori Y,Kawasaki A,Tanaka A,Nagao S,Tanaka S

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Trichomonas vaginalis surface proteinase activity is necessary for parasite adherence to epithelial cells.

    abstract::The role of cysteine proteinases in adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to HeLa and human vaginal epithelial cells was evaluated. Only pretreatment of trichomonads, but not epithelial cells, with N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), an inhibitor of trichomonad cysteine proteinases, greatly dimin...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arroyo R,Alderete JF

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Purification and characterization of Helicobacter mustelae urease.

    abstract::Helicobacter mustelae is a urease-rich bacterium associated with gastritis in ferrets. The ureases of H. mustelae and Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium implicated in human gastritis, share many characteristics. Helicobacter sp. ureases appear to be unique among bacterial enzymes in exhibiting submillimolar Km values an...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dunn BE,Sung CC,Taylor NS,Fox JG

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00