Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and type 2 diabetes. A reciprocal relationship?

Abstract:

:Epidemiological data suggest that sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is independently associated with the development of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Moreover, despite significant methodological limitations, some studies report a high prevalence of SAHS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A recent meta-analysis shows that moderate-severe SAHS is associated with an increased risk of DM2 (relative risk=1.63 [1.09 to 2.45]), compared to the absence of apneas and hypopneas. Common alterations in various pathogenic pathways add biological plausibility to this relationship. Intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, caused by successive apnea-hypopnea episodes, induce several intermediate disorders, such as activation of the sympathetic nervous system, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, alterations in appetite-regulating hormones and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which, in turn, favor the development of insulin resistance, its progression to glucose intolerance and, ultimately, to DM2. Concomitant SAHS seems to increase DM2 severity, since it worsens glycemic control and enhances the effects of atherosclerosis on the development of macrovascular complications. Furthermore, SAHS may be associated with the development of microvascular complications: retinopathy, nephropathy or diabetic neuropathy in particular. Data are still scant, but it seems that DM2 may also worsen SAHS progression, by increasing the collapsibility of the upper airway and the development of central apneas and hypopneas.

journal_name

Arch Bronconeumol

authors

Martínez Cerón E,Casitas Mateos R,García-Río F

doi

10.1016/j.arbres.2014.06.017

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2015-03-01 00:00:00

pages

128-39

issue

3

eissn

0300-2896

issn

1579-2129

pii

S0300-2896(14)00274-9

journal_volume

51

pub_type

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