Widening awareness of hyperglycemia unawareness.


:Hyperglycemia unawareness is the term suggested to me (M. Muggeo, personal communication, 1997) to encompass very broadly all of the stages in diabetes mellitus from the onset of any degree of hyperglycemia until the diagnosis is actually made. Diabetes and its handmaiden, obesity, are growing in epidemic proportions in the US and worldwide. In contrast to obesity where the diagnosis is recognized quite early by the patient, the family and the physician, the diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed from 5 to 15 years after its onset1-5. A significant minority of adults, when newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, have definable evidence of macrovascular or microvascular complications. Presumably those same individuals, were we able to examine their cells and organs, would show additional evidence of the complications of diabetes. Likewise, with the recognition that hyperglycemia per se is a very powerful determinant of the complications of diabetes, we suspect that even those people with the delayed recognition of hyperglycemia but without evidence of complications at the time of diagnosis already have sustained some of the underlying damage typical of diabetic complications. This is supported by the finding that in this group of patients, there are those who will have an 'accelerated rate' of onset of diabetic complications2 (relative to patients with Type 1 diabetes where the onset of hyperglycemia is very close to the time of the diagnosis). Our interpretation is that the progress of the disease may not really be especially rapid; rather, the dating of the onset has been incorrect.


Diabetes Metab Res Rev


Roth J





Has Abstract


2000-07-01 00:00:00














  • The metabolic demands of driving for drivers with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The active cognitive-motor demands of driving may have a significant metabolic demand that could contribute to the development of hypoglycemia. Conversely, symptoms caused by the stress of driving may be confused with hypoglycemia and lead to false alarms. This study examined the metabolic demand and the phy...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cox DJ,Gonder-Frederick LA,Kovatchev BP,Clarke WL

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • The shape of plasma glucose concentration curve during OGTT predicts future risk of type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between the shape of plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and future risk for T2DM. METHODS:2445 non-diabetic subjects from the Botnia study received an OGTT at baseline and after 7-8 years of follow-up. RESULTS:NGT and IFG subjects who returned th...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdul-Ghani MA,Lyssenko V,Tuomi T,Defronzo RA,Groop L

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Interpreting the results of the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test: accounting for false-positive answers in the international consensus on the diabetic foot protocol by a new model.

    abstract:AIMS:The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament is the most widely used test to diagnose the loss of protective sensation. The commonly used protocol of the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot includes a 'sham' application that allows for false-positive answers. We sought to study the heretofore unexamined significance...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slater RA,Koren S,Ramot Y,Buchs A,Rapoport MJ

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of muscle malonyl-CoA levels in the nutritionally insulin-resistant desert gerbil, Psammomys obesus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Malonyl-CoA, an allosteric inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyl transferase, controls the oxidation of fatty acids in muscle and other tissues by regulating their entrance into mitochondria. The level of malonyl-CoA in muscle is influenced by the uptake of energy substrates such as glucose, the precursor of its ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shafrir E,Ziv E,Saha AK,Ruderman NB

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • A multi-centre randomized trial of two different doses of nicotinamide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (the IMDIAB VI).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Intensive insulin therapy is the gold standard by which Type 1 diabetes is treated. In addition to this therapy, administration of nicotinamide (NA) can be beneficial. This concept is reinforced by the results of a recent meta-analysis of the use of NA in patients with recent-onset Type 1 diabetes. METHODS:...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Visalli N,Cavallo MG,Signore A,Baroni MG,Buzzetti R,Fioriti E,Mesturino C,Fiori R,Lucentini L,Matteoli MC,Crinò A,Corbi S,Spera S,Teodonio C,Paci F,Amoretti R,Pisano L,Suraci C,Multari G,Sulli N,Cervoni M,De Mat

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic and therapeutic arterial interventions in the ulcerated diabetic foot.

    abstract::Whether diabetic foot ulcerations arise from an amalgam of neuro-ischemic factors or because of arterial occlusive disease alone, the arterial circulation must be thoroughly evaluated. Clinical evaluation is foremost, but numerous non-invasive diagnostic options such as duplex ultrasonography and MRA are often enliste...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Andros G

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with type 2 diabetes and markers of insulin resistance in a general older population in Finland.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Vitamin D insufficiency and type 2 diabetes are both common in Finland, and low vitamin D status has been suggested as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to study the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of vitamin D status, and glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabete...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hurskainen AR,Virtanen JK,Tuomainen TP,Nurmi T,Voutilainen S

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Fatty acid-induced effect on glucagon secretion is mediated via fatty acid oxidation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:While the effect of fatty acids and ectopic triglyceride storage in pancreatic beta cells has been well-defined, only limited information is available on alpha cells. This study evaluates the long-term impact of fatty acids on alpha cell function and proliferation as well as fatty acid oxidation. METHODS:Cl...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hong J,Jeppesen PB,Nordentoft I,Hermansen K

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Can molecular DNA-based techniques unravel the truth about diabetic foot infections?

    abstract::Diabetes foot infections are a common condition and a major causal pathway to lower extremity amputation. Identification of causative pathogens is vital in directing antimicrobial therapy. Historically, clinicians have relied upon culture-dependent techniques that are now acknowledged as both being selective for micro...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Malone M,Gosbell IB,Dickson HG,Vickery K,Espedido BA,Jensen SO

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Combination therapy with insulin and oral agents: optimizing glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) showed that tight glycemic control with any of several therapeutic regimens has the potential to significantly reduce the risk for long-term microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes. An important question that remains to be answered is what is the best approa...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yki-Järvinen H

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Renin angiotensin system inhibitors may attenuate low LDL cholesterol-related cancer risk in type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In type 2 diabetes (T2D), copresence of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) < 2.8 mmol/L with triglyceride < 1.7 mmol/L or with albuminuria synergistically increased cancer risk. We tested whether use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors attenuated the increased cancer risk associated with these tw...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang X,Ma RC,So WY,Wang Y,Kong AP,Ozaki R,Xu G,Chan JC

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • The development of a World Health Organisation international standard for islet cell antibodies: the aims and design of an international collaborative study.

    abstract::Islet cell antibodies (ICA) are a specific marker for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. ICA are found in the serum of over 80% of newly diagnosed patients and the levels of ICA are directly of prognostic value. Standardisation of ICA and the uniform reporting of ICA levels in international units is critica...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mire-Sluis AR,Das RG,Lernmark A

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of undiagnosed dysglycemia in an emergency department observation unit.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The proposed 2015 US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines recommend diabetes screening for individuals ≥45 years or demonstrating other risk factors for dysglycemia. Still, many patients with dysglycemia remain undiagnosed, and opportunities for early intervention are lost. METHODS:To test novel approa...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silverman RA,Schleicher MG,Valente CJ,Kim M,Romanenko Y,Schulman RC,Tiberio A,Greenblatt B,Rentala M,Salvador-Kelly AV,Kwon NS,Jornsay DL

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise training restores abnormal myocardial glucose utilization and cardiac function in diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Clinical and experimental studies have shown that a reduction in myocardial glucose utilization is a factor contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study determined whether exercise training could prevent the depression in glucose utilization observed in the diabetic rat heart. METHODS:Diabetes was in...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Broderick TL,Poirier P,Gillis M

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Thiazolidinediones: effects on the development and progression of type 2 diabetes and associated vascular complications.

    abstract::In addition to reducing hyperglycaemia, the metabolic actions of TZDs (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) in theory might improve the prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it appears from recent data that pioglitazone and rosiglitazone have different cardiovascular risk profiles. The scope of this paper is...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Krentz A

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Risk factors in V-shaped risk associations with all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes-The Hong Kong Diabetes Registry.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Body mass index (BMI) is associated with death in a V-shaped manner in general populations but it is unknown whether BMI or other risk factors also exhibit V-shaped relationships with death in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS:A prospective cohort of 7534 Chinese, type 2 diabetic patients enrolled since 199...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: So WY,Yang X,Ma RC,Kong AP,Lam CW,Ho CS,Cockram CS,Ko GT,Chow CC,Wong V,Tong PC,Chan JC

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Classification systems for lower extremity amputation prediction in subjects with active diabetic foot ulcer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:AIM:We systematically review the available systems used to classify diabetic foot ulcers in order to synthesize their methodological qualitative issues and accuracy to predict lower extremity amputation, as this may represent a critical point in these patients' care. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Two investigators searched, in...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Monteiro-Soares M,Martins-Mendes D,Vaz-Carneiro A,Sampaio S,Dinis-Ribeiro M

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Platelet mean volume, distribution width, and count in type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Platelet activation contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetic conditions. Mean platelet volume is an easy-to-measure platelet parameter that has been associated with CVD. We sought to assess mean platelet volume, platelet distributi...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Zaccardi F,Rocca B,Pitocco D,Tanese L,Rizzi A,Ghirlanda G

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Independent markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a gentrifying population-based Chinese cohort.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in developing countries, but its causes are not known. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of NAFLD in a new largely unmedicated population-based cohort from the rapidly gentrifying region of Pinggu, China. METHODS:We ran...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou X,Li Y,Zhang X,Guan YY,Puentes Y,Zhang F,Speliotes EK,Ji L

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Outcomes of hyperglycemia in patients with and without diabetes hospitalized for infectious diseases.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the prognostic implications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the importance of glycemic control during hospitalization for infectious diseases. METHODS:Historical prospectively collected data of patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2013. Infection-related hospitalizations were classified according ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Akirov A,Diker-Cohen T,Masri-Iraqi H,Duskin-Bitan H,Shimon I,Gorshtein A

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • New insights into the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in Mediterranean countries.

    abstract::In Mediterranean countries, the incidence (per 100,000 per year) of Type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years shows wide variation from country to country, ranging from 2.45 in Macedonia to 34.4 in Sardinia. By interacting with environmental factors such as diet, toxins or viral infections, the HLA plus non-HLA ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Muntoni S,Muntoni S

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Economic aspects of diabetic foot care in a multidisciplinary setting: a review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the economic aspects of diabetic foot care in a multidisciplinary setting. METHOD:A review of the English language literature, published from 1966 to November 2005. RESULTS:The results of available studies on the cost-of-illness of diabetic foot problems are difficult to compare. Nevertheless t...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Matricali GA,Dereymaeker G,Muls E,Flour M,Mathieu C

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of clinical and genetic factors on the development of obesity in children with type 1 diabetes.

    abstract::The exact cause of the obesity epidemic remains unknown; however, both environmental and genetic factors are involved. People at risk of developing obesity include children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which in turn increases their cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we discuss the clinical and genetic factors...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Łuczyński W,Głowińska-Olszewska B,Bossowski A

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) improves glycaemic control in oral hypoglycaemic agent (OHA)-treated type 2 diabetes (SMBG-OHA study).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We conducted a clinical research study to determine the effect of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) on glycaemic control and the value of a putatively less painful blood sampling technique on SMBG in oral hypoglycaemic agent-treated type 2 diabetes patients; SMBG has not been broadly applied in non-ins...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Harashima S,Fukushima T,Sasaki M,Nishi Y,Fujimoto S,Ogura M,Yamane S,Tanaka D,Harada N,Hamasaki A,Nagashima K,Nakahigashi Y,Seino Y,Inagaki N

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • MicroRNA-296-5p promotes healing of diabetic wound by targeting sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Diabetic wounds are refractory and very difficult to heal. We aimed to use miRNA to identify novel and specific molecular markers for diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis and treatment. METHODS:The expression level of miR-296-5p was determined in tissue samples of 12 DM patients. The effect of miR-296-5p on pro...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu X,Wang Y,Zhang X,Zhang X,Guo J,Zhou J,Chai Y,Ma ZL

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Should we change the target blood pressure in diabetic patients?

    abstract::Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Guidelines recommend lowering blood pressure (BP) to less than 130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients. These recommendations are based on several studies in diabetic patients that showed the benefit of intensive B...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shlomai G,Grossman E

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Immunization with an insulin peptide-MHC complex to prevent type 1 diabetes of NOD mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Mutating the insulin B:9-23 peptide prevents diabetes in NOD mice. Thus, the trimolecular complex of I-Ag7-insulin B:9-23 peptide-TCR may be essential for the development of spontaneous diabetes. Pathogenic T cells recognize the B:9-23 peptide presented by I-Ag7 in what is termed register 3, with the B22 bas...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang L,Stadinski BD,Michels A,Kappler JW,Eisenbarth GS

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Head-to-head comparison of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors and sulfonylureas - a meta-analysis from randomized clinical trials.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitors and sulfonylureas are two important second-line anti-diabetic agents. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DPP-4 inhibitors compared with sulfonylureas by meta-analytic approach of available randomized studies. METHODS:We search...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Zhang Y,Hong J,Chi J,Gu W,Ning G,Wang W

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of unhealthy childhood and unfavorable parents' characteristics on adiposity in schoolchildren.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Childhood obesity is encouraged by low physical activity (PA), time spent using screens (screen time, ST), and by sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (SSBc). It is also influenced by unfavorable parents' characteristics, such as a high body mass index (BMI) and low education level (EL). Our aim was to evalu...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vinciguerra F,Tumminia A,Roppolo F,Romeo LC,La Spina N,Baratta R,Parrino C,Sciacca L,Vigneri R,Frittitta L

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Association of iron indices and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    abstract::The literature on the role of body iron status in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans is inconsistent. We aimed to assess the association between iron indices and T2D by a meta-analysis of previously published studies. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Observational stud...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Orban E,Schwab S,Thorand B,Huth C

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00