Glucose monitoring by reverse iontophoresis.


:Glucose can be extracted through intact skin by electro-osmotic flow (a process called 'reverse iontophoresis') upon the application of a low-level electrical current. Recently we have combined iontophoretic extraction with an in situ glucose sensor in a device called the GlucoWatch biographer. Clinical results with this device show close tracking of blood glucose over a range of 2.2 to 22.2 mmol/l for up to 12 h using a single blood glucose value as calibration. The biographer readings lag behind blood glucose values by an average of 18 min. An analysis of data from 92 diabetic subjects in a controlled clinical setting shows a linear relationship (r=0.88) between GlucoWatch biographer readings and blood glucose. The mean absolute relative difference between the two measurements was 15.6% and more than 96% of the data fell in the (A+B) regions of the Clarke error grid. Similar results have been obtained from subjects using the GlucoWatch biographer in an uncontrolled home environment. The automatic, frequent, and non-invasive measurements obtained with the GlucoWatch biographer provide substantially more information about glucose levels than do the current fingerstick methods. This information can be used for improved decisions about all aspects of diabetes management.


Diabetes Metab Res Rev


Potts RO,Tamada JA,Tierney MJ





Has Abstract


2002-01-01 00:00:00










18 Suppl 1


  • Skeletal involvement in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::Studies on skeletal involvement in patients with diabetes mellitus have generated conflicting results, largely because of the pathogenetic complexity of the condition. Several mechanisms may contribute to skeletal damage, including the increased urinary excretion coupled with the lower intestinal absorption of calcium...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carnevale V,Romagnoli E,D'Erasmo E

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Both glycaemic control and insulin dose during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes are associated with neonatal anthropometric measures and placental weight.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To investigate longitudinal associations of maternal glucose/HbA1c and insulin dose with birthweight-related outcomes in women with type 1 diabetes. METHODS:We performed a cohort study including 473 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes with singleton pregnancies. We investigated maternal self-monitored blood...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: García-Patterson A,Ovejero D,Miñambres I,Chico A,Gil PA,Martínez MJ,Adelantado JM,de Leiva A,Gich I,Desoye G,de Mouzon SH,Corcoy R

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Association between bone mineral density and type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    abstract::A few studies have investigated the relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) values. This meta-analysis was performed to explore differences between T1DM and healthy individuals in BMD values measured at five bone sites.We searched the database of PubMed for cross-sectional s...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Pan H,Wu N,Yang T,He W

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Leptin decreases apoptosis and alters BCL-2 : Bax ratio in clonal rodent pancreatic beta-cells.

    abstract:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The adipocyte derived peptide hormone leptin is known to regulate apoptosis and cell viability in several cells and tissues, as well as having several pancreatic islet beta-cell specific effects such as inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This study investigated the effects of leptin upo...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown JE,Dunmore SJ

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Thymic expression of insulin-related genes in an animal model of autoimmune type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Insulin and multiple other autoantigens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes, but the origin of immunological self-reactivity specifically oriented against insulin-secreting islet beta-cells remains obscure. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the h...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kecha-Kamoun O,Achour I,Martens H,Collette J,Lefebvre PJ,Greiner DL,Geenen V

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Serum ferritin and glucose homeostasis: change in the association by glycaemic state.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Data on the association between body iron and glucose homeostasis by the three glycaemic states are scarce. Thus, we investigated the association between body iron as assessed by a serum ferritin concentration and glucose homeostasis using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) a...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aregbesola A,Virtanen JK,Voutilainen S,Mursu J,Lagundoye A,Kauhanen J,Tuomainen TP

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of long-term normoglycemia without medication in Korean type 2 diabetes patients after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Our previous studies showed that some Korean type 2 diabetic patients could maintain long-term normal blood glucose control without any medication, referred to as remission after a certain period of normalization of blood glucose level by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treatment. In this stu...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park S,Choi SB

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Blood group AB is protective factor for gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective population-based study in Tianjin, China.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The ABO blood types are associated with cancers, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they are also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. We examined the relationship between the ABO blood types and the risk of GDM in a prospective population-based Chines...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang C,Li Y,Wang L,Sun S,Liu G,Leng J,Guo J,Lv L,Li W,Zhang C,Hu G,Yu Z,Yang X

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Early transcriptional regulation by C-peptide in freshly isolated rat proximal tubular cells.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Clinical studies have shown that proinsulin C-peptide exerts renoprotective effects in type 1 diabetes, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. As C-peptide has been shown to induce several intracellular events and to localize to nuclei, we aimed to determine whether gene transcription is a...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lindahl E,Nordquist L,Müller P,El Agha E,Friederich M,Dahlman-Wright K,Palm F,Jörnvall H

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Normal renal function 8 to 13 years after cyclosporin A therapy in 285 diabetic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cyclosporin A (CyA) may induce acute nephrotoxicity. The question has been raised of the possible long-term unfavorable course of CyA-induced lesions. Advantage was taken of a large cohort of diabetic patients treated for several months using moderate CyA dosage to evaluate the long-term evolution of renal f...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Assan R,Blanchet F,Feutren G,Timsit J,Larger E,Boitard C,Amiel C,Bach JF

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Toxin-based selection of insulin-producing cells with improved defense properties for islet cell transplantation.

    abstract::Insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells are known to be extremely susceptible to destruction, primarily by autoimmune mechanisms, infectious agents, and by chemical toxins that cause overt type I diabetes. As development of highly protected insulin-producing cells would be important for successful cell therapy of diab...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bloch K,Vardi P

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of antiretroviral agents on carbohydrate metabolism in HIV-1 infected pregnant women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite the correlation between the use of protease inhibitors (PI) and adverse metabolic glycemic events, no prospective study has examined these parameters in pregnant women who use these drugs. METHODS:A prospective study was conducted on 57 pregnant women to investigate the effect of antiretroviral drug...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: El Beitune P,Duarte G,Foss MC,Montenegro RM Jr,Spara P,Quintana SM,Figueiró-Filho EA,da Costa AG,Filho FM

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of impaired 50-gram oral glucose challenge test on fetal abdominal wall thickness.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with impaired 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) have not been investigated for fetal anterior abdominal wall thickness until now. We aimed to investigate patients with impaired 50-g OGCT, but not gestational diabetes and match them with healthy uneventful pregnant participants for anterior abd...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aksoy H,Aksoy U,Açmaz G,Tutuş S

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Establishing a multidisciplinary diabetic foot team in a large tertiary hospital: a workshop.

    abstract::Every year, over 1 million people with diabetes lose a leg due to diabetic foot disease. Most amputations are preceded by a foot ulcer. Causes for the development of foot ulcers are generally multifactorial and may include neuropathy, peripheral vasculopathy, abnormal foot mechanics and infection. Multidisciplinary ap...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cahn A,Elishuv O,Olshtain-Pops K

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Identification and functional analysis of a novel G310D variant in the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) gene associated with type 2 diabetes in American Indians.

    abstract:AIMS:Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is involved in cell growth and glucose homeostasis. In the current study, the IGF1R locus was analysed as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in American Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Whole genome sequence data from 335 American Indians identified 3 novel miss...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muller YL,Skelton G,Piaggi P,Chen P,Nair A,Kobes S,Hsueh WC,Knowler WC,Hanson RL,Baier LJ,Bogardus C

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Continuous glucose monitoring: current clinical use.

    abstract::Four kinds of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) machines have been currently introduced in clinical practice. These machines exhibit real-time glucose on the monitor every 5 minutes and have alarms to indicate hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. However, thus far, there is no clear consensus about the cli...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kim HS,Shin JA,Chang JS,Cho JH,Son HY,Yoon KH

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Widening awareness of hyperglycemia unawareness.

    abstract::Hyperglycemia unawareness is the term suggested to me (M. Muggeo, personal communication, 1997) to encompass very broadly all of the stages in diabetes mellitus from the onset of any degree of hyperglycemia until the diagnosis is actually made. Diabetes and its handmaiden, obesity, are growing in epidemic proportions ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 评论,社论


    authors: Roth J

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Case series of a hybrid closed-loop system used in pregnancies in clinical practice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hybrid closed-loop (HCL) therapy is rarely studied in pregnancy. We present three cases of women with type 1 diabetes who used the Medtronic 670G HCL system for most or all of gestation. METHODS:The Medtronic 670G system has a manual mode (no automated insulin delivery) and an auto mode (AM, HCL therapy). W...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Polsky S,Akturk HK

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Polyneuropathy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: comparison of nerve conduction studies, thermal perception thresholds and intraepidermal nerve fibre densities.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To evaluate possible differences in distal polyneuropathy (PN) characteristics and degree of abnormalities for various small and large fibre parameters in diabetes type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2). METHODS:Sixty-six DM1 and 57 DM2 patients with or without PN symptoms were included. Nerve conduction studies (NC...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Løseth S,Mellgren SI,Jorde R,Lindal S,Stålberg E

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • The incidence of mild and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sulfonylureas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using sulfonylurea derivatives or insulin may experience hypoglycaemia. However, recent data regarding the incidence of hypoglycaemia are scarce. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that experien...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Schopman JE,Simon AC,Hoefnagel SJ,Hoekstra JB,Scholten RJ,Holleman F

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Endothelin-mediated remodeling in aortas of diabetic rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Smooth muscle cells proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition are key features of diabetic macroangiopathy. In the present study, we have studied the role of endothelin(A) (ET(A)) receptor, the predominant receptor on smooth muscle cells, in diabetes-induced vascular hypertrophy and rem...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukuda G,Khan ZA,Barbin YP,Farhangkhoee H,Tilton RG,Chakrabarti S

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Renin angiotensin system inhibitors may attenuate low LDL cholesterol-related cancer risk in type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In type 2 diabetes (T2D), copresence of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) < 2.8 mmol/L with triglyceride < 1.7 mmol/L or with albuminuria synergistically increased cancer risk. We tested whether use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors attenuated the increased cancer risk associated with these tw...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang X,Ma RC,So WY,Wang Y,Kong AP,Ozaki R,Xu G,Chan JC

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Global DNA methylation as a possible biomarker for diabetic retinopathy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We evaluated whether global levels of DNA methylation status were associated with retinopathy as well as providing a predictive role of DNA methylation in developing retinopathy in a case-control study of 168 patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:The 5-methylcytosine content was assessed by reversed-phase ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maghbooli Z,Hossein-nezhad A,Larijani B,Amini M,Keshtkar A

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of hyperglycaemia in singleton versus twin pregnancy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is conflicting information regarding the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in twin pregnancies. This study was conducted to determine whether the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus is higher in pregnant Japanese women with twin versus singleton pregnancy. METHODS:The prevalence of gestational d...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morikawa M,Yamada T,Akaishi R,Kojima T,Nishida R,Koyama T,Cho K,Minakami H

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Association between serum leptin concentration and white blood cell count in middle-aged Japanese men and women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Leptin's hematopoietic or proinflammatory role has been experimentally reported. We investigated whether serum leptin concentrations are associated with white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. METHODS:Serum leptin concentrations of Japanese civil servants aged 40 to 59 years (1082 men and 200 women) were a...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mabuchi T,Yatsuya H,Tamakoshi K,Otsuka R,Nagasawa N,Zhang H,Murata C,Wada K,Ishikawa M,Hori Y,Kondo T,Hashimoto S,Toyoshima H

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetic fatty liver disease is associated with specific changes in blood-borne markers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to assess if plasma markers associated with NAFLD are increased in people with concomitant diabetes compared with those withou...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma S,Barrett F,Adamson J,Todd A,Megson IL,Zentler-Munro PL,MacRury SM

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Self glucose monitoring and physical exercise in diabetes.

    abstract::Cardiorespiratory fitness, which is determined mainly by the level of physical activity, is inversely related to mortality in the general population as well as in subjects with diabetes, the incidence of which is also increased by low exercise capacity. Exercise is capable of promoting glucose utilization in normal su...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pugliese G,Zanuso S,Alessi E,Simonelli P,Fallucca S,Fallucca F,Balducci S

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Low-intensity exercise increases skeletal muscle protein expression of PPARdelta and UCP3 in type 2 diabetic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Physical exercise provides health benefits for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, partly by enhancing skeletal muscle insulin action. We tested the hypothesis that changes in expression of key genes in skeletal muscles relate to exercise-induced improvements in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS:We determ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fritz T,Krämer DK,Karlsson HK,Galuska D,Engfeldt P,Zierath JR,Krook A

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Independent markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a gentrifying population-based Chinese cohort.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in developing countries, but its causes are not known. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of NAFLD in a new largely unmedicated population-based cohort from the rapidly gentrifying region of Pinggu, China. METHODS:We ran...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou X,Li Y,Zhang X,Guan YY,Puentes Y,Zhang F,Speliotes EK,Ji L

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • A linkage study of 12 IDDM susceptibility loci in the Finnish population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:HLA region is the major locus (IDDM1) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility. It explains approximately 50% of the genetic background of T1D, indicating additional genetic determinants. Genome scans and candidate gene studies have generated several chromosomal candidate regions that may have a role in T1D d...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Laine AP,Nejentsev S,Veijola R,Korpinen E,Sjöroos M,Simell O,Knip M,Akerblom HK,Ilonen J

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00