Infections, Anti-infective Agents, and Risk of Deliberate Self-harm and Suicide in a Young Cohort: A Nationwide Study.


BACKGROUND:Evidence links infections to mental disorders and suicidal behavior. However, knowledge is sparse regarding less severe infections, anti-infective treatment, and deliberate self-harm. Using nationwide Danish longitudinal registers, we estimated associations between infections treated with anti-infective agents and infections requiring hospitalization with the risk of deliberate self-harm. METHODS:A total of 1.3 million people born between 1977 and 2002 were followed during the period from 1995 to 2013. In total, 15,042 individuals were recorded with deliberate self-harm (92% had been treated with anti-infective agents and 19% had been hospitalized for infections) and 114 died by suicide (64% had been treated with anti-infective agents and 13% had been hospitalized for infections). Hazard rate ratios were obtained while adjusting for age, gender, calendar period, education, hospitalizations with infections, prescribed anti-infective agents during childhood, parental mental disorders, and parental deliberate self-harm. RESULTS:Individuals with infections treated with anti-infective agents had an increased risk of deliberate self-harm with a hazard rate ratio of 1.80 (95% confidence interval = 1.68-1.91). The associations fitted a dose-response relationship (p < .001) and remained significant up to 5 years after last infection. An additive effect was found for individuals with an additional hospitalization for infections with an increased hazard rate ratio of 3.20 (95% confidence interval = 2.96-3.45) for deliberate self-harm. CONCLUSIONS:An increased risk of deliberate self-harm was found among individuals with infections treated with anti-infective agents in temporal and dose-response associations. These results add to the growing literature on a possible link between infections and the pathophysiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior.


Biol Psychiatry


Biological psychiatry


Gjervig Hansen H,Köhler-Forsberg O,Petersen L,Nordentoft M,Postolache TT,Erlangsen A,Benros ME




Has Abstract


2019-05-01 00:00:00














  • Sexually dimorphic relationship of a 5-HT2A promoter polymorphism with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In an earlier analysis of 73 subjects from this study, the reduced activity catechol O-methyltransferase variant was shown to be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in men only. We hypothesized that the 5-HT2A promoter polymorphism, -1438G>A, previously associated with anorexia nervosa, would be mo...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Enoch MA,Greenberg BD,Murphy DL,Goldman D

    更新日期:2001-02-15 00:00:00

  • Impaired recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during encoding in bipolar disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of the present study was to examine the functional neuroanatomy of episodic memory impairment in euthymic subjects with bipolar I disorder. There is evidence that individuals with bipolar disorder have cognitive impairments not only during mood episodes but also when they are euthymic. The most consi...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deckersbach T,Dougherty DD,Savage C,McMurrich S,Fischman AJ,Nierenberg A,Sachs G,Rauch SL

    更新日期:2006-01-15 00:00:00

  • The cognitive neuroscience of response inhibition: relevance for genetic research in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    abstract::Psychological functions that are behaviorally and neurally well specified may serve as endophenotypes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research. Such endophenotypes, which lie between genes and symptoms, may relate more directly to relevant genetic variability than does the clinical ADHD syndrome it...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Aron AR,Poldrack RA

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • EEG signs of brain impairment in alcoholism.

    abstract::EEGs were recorded for two groups of chronic alcoholics who scored at opposite extremes on the Shipley Institute of Living Scale. The groups were matched in terms of age and drinking history variables and were compared to age-matched control subjects for left and right precentral (F-T) and postcentral (C-O) placements...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coger RW,Dymond AM,Serafetinides EA,Lowenstam I,Pearson D

    更新日期:1978-12-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagamoto HT,Adler LE,Waldo MC,Freedman R

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Neural Correlates Associated With Suicide and Nonsuicidal Self-injury in Youth.

    abstract::There is no definitive neural marker of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) or nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and relative to adults, research in youth is more limited. This comprehensive review focuses on magnetic resonance imaging studies reporting structural and functional neural correlates of STBs and NSSI in ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Auerbach RP,Pagliaccio D,Allison GO,Alqueza KL,Alonso MF

    更新日期:2021-01-15 00:00:00

  • Plasma corticotropin-releasing factor in depressed patients before and after the dexamethasone suppression test.

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    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galard R,Catalán R,Castellanos JM,Gallart JM

    更新日期:2002-03-15 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pakkenberg B

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of antidepressants on the thyroid axis in depression.

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    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shelton RC,Winn S,Ekhatore N,Loosen PT

    更新日期:1993-01-15 00:00:00

  • Heritability of aggression and irritability: a twin study of the Buss-Durkee aggression scales in adult male subjects.

    abstract::To determine the degree of genetic and environmental influences on assessments of aggression and irritability in male subjects, the "Motor Aggression" subscales of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) were mailed to 1208 male twins in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Data from monozygotic 182 and 118 dizygotic twi...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Coccaro EF,Bergeman CS,Kavoussi RJ,Seroczynski AD

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Fighting Females: Neural and Behavioral Consequences of Social Defeat Stress in Female Mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite the twofold higher prevalence of major depressive and posttraumatic stress disorders in women compared with men, most clinical and preclinical studies have focused on male subjects. We used an ethological murine model to study several cardinal symptoms of affective disorders in the female targets of ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newman EL,Covington HE 3rd,Suh J,Bicakci MB,Ressler KJ,DeBold JF,Miczek KA

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Baseline expression of alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors predicts motivation to self-administer nicotine.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Marked interindividual differences in vulnerability to nicotine dependence exist, but factors underlying such differences are not well understood. The midbrain alpha4beta2* subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has been implicated in mediation of the reinforcing effects of nicotine responsibl...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Le Foll B,Chefer SI,Kimes AS,Shumway D,Stein EA,Mukhin AG,Goldberg SR

    更新日期:2009-04-15 00:00:00

  • Loss of Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 Immunoreactivity Linked to Dendritic Spine Loss in Schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) is a neuronal protein that plays a role in maintaining dendritic structure through its interaction with microtubules. In schizophrenia (Sz), numerous studies have revealed that the typically robust immunoreactivity (IR) of MAP2 is significantly reduced across several c...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shelton MA,Newman JT,Gu H,Sampson AR,Fish KN,MacDonald ML,Moyer CE,DiBitetto JV,Dorph-Petersen KA,Penzes P,Lewis DA,Sweet RA

    更新日期:2015-09-15 00:00:00

  • Selective breeding for increased cholinergic function: development of a new animal model of depression.

    abstract::Two lines of rats that were selectively bred to vary in their sensitivity to the anticholinesterase DFP exhibited different degrees of behavioral depression after injection of the muscarinic agonist arecoline (2 mg/kg). The line of rats with increased behavioral depression after arecoline (the Flinders sensitive or S-...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Overstreet DH

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Replication of ketamine's antidepressant efficacy in bipolar depression: a randomized controlled add-on trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Currently, no pharmacological treatments for bipolar depression exist that exert rapid (within hours) antidepressant or antisuicidal effects. We previously reported that intravenous administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine produced rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Zarate CA Jr,Brutsche NE,Ibrahim L,Franco-Chaves J,Diazgranados N,Cravchik A,Selter J,Marquardt CA,Liberty V,Luckenbaugh DA

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weinberger SB,Killam EK

    更新日期:1979-06-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with duration of survival in Alzheimer's disease.

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    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barclay LL,Zemcov A,Blass JP,McDowell FH

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sex-specific neuroanatomical correlates of fear expression in prefrontal-amygdala circuits.

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    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gruene TM,Roberts E,Thomas V,Ronzio A,Shansky RM

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. To determine whether the 4977-base-pair deletion in mtDNA is more frequent in affective disorders, we quantitated the concentration of this deletion in leukocyte mtDNA in 34 probands with affective disorders (20 bipola...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Kato T,Winokur G,McMahon FJ,DePaulo JR,Crowe RR

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • An electrophysiological study on the effects of tryptophan and cortisol on schizophrenic and other mentally ill patient groups and on normal subjects.

    abstract::Direct current potentials measured on the scalp suprajacent to the midline prefrontal cortex appear to monitor the metabolic activity, via CO2 production, of this portion of the cerebrum. Changes in the frontal potential 90 min after oral administration of 2.0 g L-tryptophan and of 50 mg cortisol were studied in group...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cowen MA

    更新日期:1976-08-01 00:00:00

  • Patients with premenstrual syndrome have decreased saccadic eye velocity compared to control subjects.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prior neurophysiological studies on patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) have revealed sleep electroencephalographic alterations in both cycle phases. We report on a study evaluating saccadic eye movements in PMS patients. METHODS:Saccadic eye movements were examined in 21 women with and 21 women witho...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Sundström I,Bäckström T

    更新日期:1998-10-15 00:00:00

  • Psychological risk factors for HIV pathogenesis: mediation by the autonomic nervous system.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Epidemiologic studies have identified psychological risk factors for specific physical diseases, but the biological mechanisms mediating these relationships remain poorly defined. METHODS:Social inhibition and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were assessed on multiple occasions in 54 gay men with asy...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cole SW,Kemeny ME,Fahey JL,Zack JA,Naliboff BD

    更新日期:2003-12-15 00:00:00

  • Serum iron in catatonic and noncatatonic psychotic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Since low serum iron has been reported in a variety of neuropsychiatric motor disorders, this study was conducted to examine serum iron in patients with a catatonic disorder. METHODS:Forty catatonic and 40 noncatatonic psychotic patients were studied in relation to serum iron levels. The association of seru...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peralta V,Cuesta MJ,Mata I,Serrano JF,Perez-Nievas F,Natividad MC

    更新日期:1999-03-15 00:00:00

  • Smaller orbital frontal cortex volumes associated with functional disability in depressed elders.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Depression is associated with significant functional impairment. Recent evidence has linked the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) with depression. We examined the relationship between OFC volumes in older subjects and impairment in the basic (BADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living. METHODS:The ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taylor WD,Steffens DC,McQuoid DR,Payne ME,Lee SH,Lai TJ,Krishnan KR

    更新日期:2003-01-15 00:00:00

  • Multimodal Brain Imaging Reveals Structural Differences in Alzheimer's Disease Polygenic Risk Carriers: A Study in Healthy Young Adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci that jointly make a considerable contribution to risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because neuropathological features of AD can be present several decades before disease onset, we investigated whether effects of polygenic risk are...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foley SF,Tansey KE,Caseras X,Lancaster T,Bracht T,Parker G,Hall J,Williams J,Linden DE

    更新日期:2017-01-15 00:00:00

  • Tics moderate treatment outcome with sertraline but not cognitive-behavior therapy in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The presence of a comorbid tic disorder may predict a poorer outcome in the acute treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS:Using data from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) that compared cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), med...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: March JS,Franklin ME,Leonard H,Garcia A,Moore P,Freeman J,Foa E

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • The Val66Met coding variant of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene does not contribute toward variation in the personality trait neuroticism.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The val66met variant located within the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) has previously been associated with human neuroticism, a dimension of personality strongly predictive of depressive illness. METHODS:Here we report an attempt to replicate this association using three populations of extrem...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willis-Owen SA,Fullerton J,Surtees PG,Wainwright NW,Miller S,Flint J

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Striatal enlargement in rats chronically treated with neuroleptic.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Striatal enlargement with chronic neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been reported by several investigators. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of patients suggest that changes in striatal volume may be caused by treatment with antipsychotic medication. METHODS:We have examined...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chakos MH,Shirakawa O,Lieberman J,Lee H,Bilder R,Tamminga CA

    更新日期:1998-10-15 00:00:00

  • PET in generalized anxiety disorder.

    abstract::Positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of cerebral glucose use were made in 18 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) during a passive viewing task off medication, and an active vigilance viewing task before and after medication or placebo treatment. In the passive viewing task, patients with GAD we...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Wu JC,Buchsbaum MS,Hershey TG,Hazlett E,Sicotte N,Johnson JC

    更新日期:1991-06-15 00:00:00

  • Cortical thinning in cingulate and occipital cortices in first episode schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Postmortem studies examining discrete regions show reduced cortical thickness in schizophrenia. Computational image analysis methods allow spatially detailed cortical thickness measurements across the entire cortex in 3D, but have not addressed thickness changes in cingulate or other cortices bordering the m...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Narr KL,Toga AW,Szeszko P,Thompson PM,Woods RP,Robinson D,Sevy S,Wang Y,Schrock K,Bilder RM

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00