Benchmarking Controlled Trial--a novel concept covering all observational effectiveness studies.


:The Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a novel concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess effectiveness. BCTs provide evidence of the comparative effectiveness between health service providers, and of effectiveness due to particular features of the health and social care systems. BCTs complement randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the sources of evidence on effectiveness. This paper presents a definition of the BCT; compares the position of BCTs in assessing effectiveness with that of RCTs; presents a checklist for assessing methodological validity of a BCT; and pilot-tests the checklist with BCTs published recently in the leading medical journals.


Ann Med


Annals of medicine


Malmivaara A




Has Abstract


2015-06-01 00:00:00












  • Target intervention against multiple-risk markers to reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    abstract::The risk of cardiovascular disease is markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes with a prevalence twice as high compared to the background population. With the recognition of multiple concomitant risk factors for both microvascular as well as cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients, treatment stra...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gaede P,Pedersen O

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Disease susceptibility genes for autism.

    abstract::Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment in social interaction accompanied by a delay or lack of language, restricted interests, stereotyped behavior, and repetitive movement. Genetic predisposition to autism is evident from family and twin studies, and heritability in idiopathic aut...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bespalova IN,Buxbaum JD

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antibody titres in Helicobacter pylori infection: implications in the follow-up of antimicrobial therapy.

    abstract::Regular presence and persistence of specific serum antibodies in Helicobacter pylori infection gives an excellent tool for diagnostic work. Eradication of the infection leads to gradual disappearance of the gastritis and decrease of specific serum antibodies. The fall of IgG and IgA antibody titres can be followed wit...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kosunen TU

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic options in treatment-resistant depression.

    abstract::The phenomenon of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), described as the occurrence of an inadequate response after an adequate treatment with antidepressant agents (in terms of dose, duration, and adherence), is very common in clinical practice. It has been broadly defined in the context of unipolar major depression,...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vieta E,Colom F

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Decreased androgen levels and obesity in men.

    abstract::Obesity in males is accompanied by a significant decrease in testosterone levels. This decrease is essentially a consequence of the decrease of the sex hormone binding hormone (SHBG) binding capacity, itself probably the consequence of the increased insulin levels. In moderate obesity, free testosterone levels are nor...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vermeulen A

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • What is a pathogen?

    abstract::The question 'what is a pathogen?' derives from pathogen-centered views of microbial pathogenesis that invoke microbial characteristics to explain virulence. However, virulence cannot be an independent microbial variable since it is only expressed in a susceptible host. Hence, the question 'what is a pathogen?' cannot...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Casadevall A,Pirofski LA

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Quantitative risk factors as indices of alcoholism susceptibility.

    abstract::Alcoholism is a complex disorder involving both genetic and environmental factors and interactions between them. Localizing and characterizing the genetic influences on susceptibility to alcohol dependence may provide new insights into pathology and new avenues for treatment and prevention. However, because of the com...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Almasy L

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Personalised medicine in hypercholesterolaemia: the role of pharmacogenetics in statin therapy.

    abstract::Statins are the first-line choice in Lipid-lowering therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk. In a continuous attempt to optimise treatment success, there is a need for additional research on genes and related molecular pathways that can determine the efficacy and toxicity of lipid-lowering drugs. Several variations with...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahangari N,Doosti M,Ghayour Mobarhan M,Sahebkar A,Ferns GA,Pasdar A

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Complement and atherogenesis: the unknown connection.

    abstract::The question why low-density lipoprotein (LDL) stranded in the subendothelium of arteries should acquire the proinflammatory properties that initiate and sustain atherogenesis has puzzled researchers for decades. The most popular concept contends that oxidative processes are crucial because oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) produ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Bhakdi S

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of endothelial (dys)function in atrial fibrillation.

    abstract::Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity from stroke and thromboembolism. Endothelial damage or dysfunction may contribute to this increased risk of thromboembolism via the mediation of a prothrombotic or hypercoagulable state. However, the precise pathophysiological mec...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Krishnamoorthy S,Lim SH,Lip GY

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity--a review.

    abstract::Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are recognized as conditions of growing biomedical importance to societies worldwide. Despite this, lack of understanding concerning the processes which normally serve to maintain weight and to regulate glucose concentrations, and ignorance about the mechanisms by which these homeosta...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jafar-Mohammadi B,McCarthy MI

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Electrical remodeling and arrhythmias in long-QT syndrome: lessons from genetic models in mice.

    abstract::Mutations in cardiac voltage-gated K+ channels cause long-QT syndrome (LQTS) and sudden death. We have created a mouse with a long-QT phenotype by overexpression of truncated K+ channels in the heart and have investigated the phenotype of these mice. These mice have long-QT phenotype, and spontaneous and inducible arr...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koren G

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Admission hyperglycaemia as a predictor of mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 regardless of diabetes status: data from the Spanish SEMI-COVID-19 Registry.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hyperglycaemia has emerged as an important risk factor for death in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between blood glucose (BG) levels and in-hospital mortality in non-critically patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS:This is a retrospective mu...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carrasco-Sánchez FJ,López-Carmona MD,Martínez-Marcos FJ,Pérez-Belmonte LM,Hidalgo-Jiménez A,Buonaiuto V,Suárez Fernández C,Freire Castro SJ,Luordo D,Pesqueira Fontan PM,Blázquez Encinar JC,Magallanes Gamboa JO,de la Peña Fernánde

    更新日期:2021-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of probiotics consumption on lowering lipids and CVD risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    abstract::This meta-analysis examined the effect of probiotics on the reduction of lipid components and coexisting risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. All randomized controlled trials published in English on PubMed and Scopus from 2000 to 2014 were systematically searched. Using the PEDro scale to assess the qu...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Sun J,Buys N

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Both depression and the metabolic syndrome are frequently found among patients with type 1 diabetes, but their potential association has not yet been investigated. In this paper the relationship between depression and the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 1 diabetes was evaluated. METHODS:A total ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahola AJ,Thorn LM,Saraheimo M,Forsblom C,Groop PH,Finndiane Study Group.

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • High risk of abnormal QT prolongation in the early morning in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with severe hypoglycemia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several studies have suggested that the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia during sleep may be more dangerous for cardiac arrhythmia than that in the day-time. METHODS:We performed a retrospective study between January 2006 and March 2012 to assess electrocardiograms during severe hypoglycemia in patients wi...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsujimoto T,Yamamoto-Honda R,Kajio H,Kishimoto M,Noto H,Hachiya R,Kimura A,Kakei M,Noda M

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Leukotriene receptors in atherosclerosis.

    abstract::Leukotriene-forming enzymes are expressed within atherosclerotic lesions and locally produced leukotrienes exert pro-inflammatory actions within the vascular wall by means of cell surface receptors of the BLT and CysLT receptor subtypes. The migration and accumulation of inflammatory cells that follow leukotriene rece...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bäck M,Hansson GK

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a paradigm of the cardiac hypertrophic response to injury.

    abstract::Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins. It is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of an increased external load, and myofibrillar disarray. While hypertrophy is a common cardiac response to injury, disarray is the pathologi...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Marian AJ,Roberts R

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic basis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC).

    abstract::Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) represents the most common form of genetic predisposition to colon cancer. Even in kindreds with several affected members it is, however, difficult to rule out chance clustering and other nonhereditary factors since colon cancer is so common in the general population. ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peltomäki PT

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Current evidence of peripheral vestibular symptoms secondary to otitis media.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The association between otitis media and vestibular symptoms has been hypothesized in the past. Thus, in this study, we aimed to critically analyze (based in a systematic review of the literature) whether patients who have otitis media are at greater risk of developing vestibular impairment or not. METHODS:...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monsanto RDC,Kasemodel ALP,Tomaz A,Paparella MM,Penido NO

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Epstein-Barr virus infections and their association with human malignancies: some key questions.

    abstract::Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses genes that stimulate cells to divide in culture. This property, coupled with the close association of the virus with numerous malignancies, has prompted its designation as a human DNA tumour virus. Before human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, alternatively KS virus) was discovered, EBV was uni...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Griffin BE,Xue SA

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Hospital discharge register data in the assessment of trends in acute myocardial infarction. FINMONICA AMI Register Study Team.

    abstract::We evaluated the reliability hospital discharge register data in the assessment of acute myocardial infarction trends. In the FINMONICA study areas, trends in age standarized attack rates for the years 1983-90 were calculated independently from two sources: the nationwide Finnish hospital discharge register and the FI...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mähönen M,Miettinen H,Pyörälä K,Molarius A,Salomaa V,Kuulasmaa K

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiometabolic diseases of civilization: history and maturation of an evolving global threat. An update and call to action.

    abstract::Despite striking extensions of lifespan, leading causes of death in most countries now constitute chronic, degenerative diseases which outpace the capacity of health systems. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in both developed and undeveloped countries. In America, nearly half of the adult popul...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kones R,Rumana U

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Visceral pain: mechanisms of peripheral and central sensitization.

    abstract::This paper describes the responses of peripheral and central visceral nociceptive systems to acute injury and discusses these observations in relation to the concept of 'pre-emptive analgesia'. Visceral nociceptors are known to respond to injury but are also known to become sensitized to non-noxious stimuli during the...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cervero F

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • How far is the Belgian population from the recommended nutritional goals and ideal serum cholesterol? Belgian Interuniversity Research on Nutrition and Health Study Group.

    abstract::In a national Belgian nutritional study (the B.I.R.N.H. Study), the authors review how far the Belgian population is from the recommended nutritional goals and ideal serum cholesterol. They also make comparisons between genders and look at differences according to the linguistic background (French- or Dutch-speaking s...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kornitzer MD,Dramaix MM

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adjuvant hormone therapy in breast cancer.

    abstract::Recent results from controlled trials of adjuvant tamoxifen and oophorectomy in early breast cancer are reviewed. The results of the statistical overview performed by the Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group are summarised, and some important questions left open by this overview are discussed. These inclu...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Blomqvist CP,Elomaa I,Rissanen P

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of individual lifestyle interventions in reducing cardiovascular disease and risk factors.

    abstract::In order to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors, morbidity and mortality among working-age adults, we undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of various lifestyle interventions (diet, exercise, smoking cessation, alcohol intake reduc...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Ketola E,Sipilä R,Mäkelä M

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Identification and confirmation of haptoglobin as a potential serum biomarker in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using proteomic approaches.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Aiming at identifying biomarkers for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the serum proteome was explored through a two-dimensional gel-based proteomic approach (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry and database interrogation. METHODS:Serum samples from 20 male HCM patients and their sex- and age-matched...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orenes-Piñero E,Hernández-Romero D,de Torre C,Vilchez JA,Martínez M,Romero-Aniorte AI,Climent V,García-Honrubia A,Valdés M,Marín F

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Field cancerization: are multiple primary cancers monoclonal or polyclonal?

    abstract::Second primary cancers are a difficult problem in the upper aerodigestive tract and in several other organ sites. Among patients with early stage head and neck cancers, second primary tumours are a primary cause of death. It has been postulated that such second cancers represent new tumours developing from carcinogen-...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 社论,评审


    authors: Carey TE

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Total elimination of measles in Finland.

    abstract::On average, 15,000 cases of measles occurred annually in Finland before the initiation of a vaccination programme in 1975. Because of insufficient activity, the vaccination coverage failed to reach the required level of over 90%, and cases continued to occur. The policy was revolutionized in 1982 by launching a projec...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Heinonen OP,Paunio M,Peltola H

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00