Strategies for the use of nonstatin therapies.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Dyslipidaemias are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); in particular, high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have been associated to a higher cardiovascular risk. Reducing LDL-C levels decreases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and the greater the LDL-C reduction, the greater the decrease in cardiovascular risk. Although statins represent the first line lipid-lowering therapy, many patients do not reach the recommended goals or exhibit adverse side effects leading to therapy discontinuation; in addition, a significant percentage of statin-treated patients continue to experience cardiovascular events even in the presence of well controlled LDL-C levels, because of alterations in other lipid/lipoprotein classes, including triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. RECENT FINDINGS:These conditions require further therapeutic interventions to achieve the recommended lipid goals. Several drugs have been developed to address these needs. Recent studies have shown that the association of ezetimibe with rosuvastatin or atorvastatin results in a better hypolipidaemic effect; in addition to this, PCSK9 inhibitors significantly reduce LDL-C levels and cardiovascular events. SUMMARY:For patients who are intolerant to statins or not able to reach the recommended LDL-C levels, despite maximal tolerated dose of statin, or exhibiting additional lipid alterations, several drugs are available that can be used either in monotherapy or on top of the maximally tolerated dose of statins.


Curr Opin Lipidol


Pirillo A,Norata GD,Catapano AL




Has Abstract


2017-12-01 00:00:00












  • Carotenoids and cardiovascular disease: what research gaps remain?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Dietary and blood carotenoids, including alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin, have been examined in a number of epidemiological studies in recent years for the risk of cardiovascular disease. This review assimilated the existing and recent literature on c...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sesso HD

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Living up to a name: the role of the VLDL receptor in lipid metabolism.

    abstract::The VLDL receptor (VLDLR) is a member of the LDL receptor family. The VLDLR was hypothesized to mediate fatty acid entry into peripheral tissues, on the basis of its expression in tissues that are active in fatty acid metabolism and its capacity to bind apolipoprotein-E-rich VLDL in vitro. This hypothesis initially pr...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tacken PJ,Hofker MH,Havekes LM,van Dijk KW

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Lipoprotein receptors in the vascular wall.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:We will discuss the diverse roles of lipoprotein receptors that contribute to the maintenance and integrity of the vascular wall. RECENT FINDINGS:Lipoprotein receptors function not only as transporters for cholesterol and other lipids. They also act as sensors and signal transducers through which the...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Herz J,Hui DY

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • The ever-expanding saga of the proprotein convertases and their roles in body homeostasis: emphasis on novel proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin number 9 functions and regulation.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The nine members of the proprotein convertase family play major physiological roles during development and in the adult, and their dysregulation leads to various diseases. The primary objective of this article is to review recent findings on the clinical importance of some of these convertases concent...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Seidah NG,Chrétien M,Mbikay M

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Endocannabinoids and the regulation of their levels in health and disease.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Endocannabinoids are defined as endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors, that is, of the two G-protein-coupled receptors for the Cannabis psychoactive principle Delta-tetra-hydrocannabinol. Two such endogenous mediators have been most thoroughly studied so far: anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycer...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Di Marzo V,Petrosino S

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • PCSK9 inhibitors.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize the therapeutic strategies to inhibit PCSK9 and to describe the main results obtained in phase I and II trials with monoclonal antibodies targeting PCSK9. RECENT FINDINGS:Among the various approaches for PCSK9 inhibition, human data are only available for inhibition of PCSK9 binding to L...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Farnier M

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Fibroblast growth factors in control of lipid metabolism: from biological function to clinical application.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Several members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have been identified as key regulators of energy metabolism in rodents and nonhuman primates. Translational studies show that their metabolic actions are largely conserved in humans, which led to the development of various FGF-based drugs, i...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Struik D,Dommerholt MB,Jonker JW

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Intestinal phospholipid and lysophospholipid metabolism in cardiometabolic disease.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Phospholipids are major constituents in the intestinal lumen after meal consumption. This article highlights current literature suggesting the contributory role of intestinal phospholipid metabolism toward cardiometabolic disease manifestation. RECENT FINDINGS:Group 1b phospholipase A2 (PLA2g1b) cata...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hui DY

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Time to ditch HDL-C as a measure of HDL function?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Epidemiological and clinical studies link low levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, genetic polymorphisms linked to HDL-C do not associate consistently with CVD risk, and randomized clinical studies of drugs that elevate HDL-C v...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ronsein GE,Heinecke JW

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Lipid-driven immunometabolic responses in atherosclerosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which subendothelial infiltration of lipoproteins leads to inflamed lesions in arteries. Despite improvements in secondary prevention, most cardiovascular events cannot be avoided with current therapies. This review focuses on novel mechanistic insi...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gisterå A,Ketelhuth DFJ

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Apolipoprotein A-I-containing lipoproteins and atherosclerosis.

    abstract::Apolipoprotein A-I-containing lipoproteins represent a heterogeneous group of lipoparticles. Recent studies suggest that a specific subpopulation within the lipoprotein (AI) subclass may be more effective than other lipoproteins in promoting cholesterol efflux from cells and in the different steps of reverse cholester...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Leroy A,Dallongeville J,Fruchart JC

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • HDL modification: recent developments and their relevance to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In the last 2 years, significant advances in the understanding of HDL particle structure and the associations between particle structure, function, and atherosclerosis have been made. We will review and provide clinical and epidemiological context to these recent advances. RECENT FINDINGS:Several rec...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wilkins JT,Seckler HS

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • The challenges of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin-9 inhibitors for lipid guidelines and models of care.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The article reviews the challenges facing cardiovascular disease (CVD) guidelines committees. RECENT FINDINGS:Clinical trials in high-risk populations have shown additional CVD event reduction with ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin-9 inhibitors. These trials recruit middle-aged sec...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wierzbicki AS

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Endocannabinoid system in food intake and metabolic regulation.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:As the incidence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome has increased, research has focused on the importance of the endocannabinoid system in the brain and peripheral tissues. Rimonabant, an inverse agonist of the CB1 receptor is being used therapeutically. This review presents recent advances in endo...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jesudason D,Wittert G

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Potential tissue selectivity of dietary phytoestrogens and estrogens.

    abstract::The recent discovery of a second estrogen receptor subtype, estrogen receptor-beta, may significantly advance our understanding of tissue specific effects of estrogenic compounds, both natural and synthetic. Although specific effects mediated by estrogen receptor beta in vivo remain to be elucidated, hypothetically th...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cassidy A

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis.

    abstract::The metabolism of chylomicrons and their remnants is a highly facilitated route to distribute energy from the diet for storage in adipose tissue or immediate use in the muscles. It has been proposed that chylomicron remnants are atherogenic, and a delayed clearance of chylomicron remnants seems to be associated with c...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Karpe F,Hamsten A

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • n-3 Fatty acid supplementation and proresolving mediators of inflammation.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The review presents recent developments in the identification of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) of inflammation following supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in humans. RECENT FINDINGS:A number of reports have measured SPMs in human plasma after n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Although st...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barden AE,Mas E,Mori TA

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular genetics of the fibrinolytic and coagulation systems in haemostasis, thrombogenesis, restenosis and atherosclerosis.

    abstract::The plasminogen and coagulation systems have been extensively characterized at the biochemical level. Recent gene targeting and gene transfer studies have provided novel insights into their role in the formation of blood vessels and in the pathogenesis of blood vessel disorders including thrombosis, restenosis and ath...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carmeliet P,Collen D

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular genetics of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and postsqualene sterol metabolism.

    abstract::The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a disorder of morphogenesis resulting from an enzymatic defect in the last step of cholesterol metabolism (reduction of 7-dehydrocholesterol). Analysis of the defective gene and identification of mutations therein have paved the way for the study of the molecular genetics of the disor...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fitzky BU,Glossmann H,Utermann G,Moebius FF

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Chromatin modification by lipids and lipoprotein components: an initiating event in atherogenesis?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review examines recent evidence proposing that lipids and lipoproteins can act as nuclear factors regulating chromatin structure. These novel data broaden our understanding of the mechanisms by which lipoproteins can affect basic biological phenomena such as transcription, genome stability, and c...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zaina S,Døssing KB,Lindholm MW,Lund G

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Inherited lipodystrophies and hypertriglyceridemia.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Inherited lipodystrophies are rare autosomal recessive and dominant disorders characterized by selective, but variable, loss of adipose tissue. Marked hypertriglyceridemia is a common feature of these disorders and highlights the role of adipose tissue in lipid homeostasis. In the last decade, advance...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Simha V,Garg A

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • High-density lipoprotein subclasses.

    abstract::This review describes recent advances that have been made in the separation of HDL subfractions by physicochemical and immunological methods and the relationship between the particles obtained by the different procedures. The metabolic interconversions that occur as a result of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Skinner ER

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism.

    abstract::Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes that are involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes that are involved in important processes in lipid meta...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Callow MJ,Rubin EM

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the molecular circadian clock in human energy homeostasis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The aim of this review is to present the latest findings on the role of the circadian clock in the control of metabolism, and the therapeutic potential of chronotherapy to regulate energy homeostasis in humans. RECENT FINDINGS:We summarized the recent advances related to circadian clock regulation of...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dollet L,Pendergrast LA,Zierath JR

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of dietary cholesterol on macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue: implications for systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:It is well recognized that adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by macrophage accumulation and local inflammation. This review summarizes current evidence regarding dietary cholesterol on adipose tissue macrophage accrual, systemic inflammation and its potential link to atherosclerosis. RECENT ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Subramanian S,Chait A

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • CIDE proteins and metabolic disorders.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) family proteins, comprising three members, Cidea, Cideb, and Fsp27 (Cidec), have emerged as important regulators for various aspects of metabolism. This review summarizes our current understanding about the physiological roles of CIDE proteins, their ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gong J,Sun Z,Li P

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Genes involved in initial steps of bile acid synthesis.

    abstract::The mechanism and regulation of the degradation of cholesterol into bile acids has attracted increased interest, in particular after the recent discovery that nuclear receptors (farnesoid X receptor and liver X receptor) are involved in the regulation of bile acid synthesis. Recently, it has also been shown that the b...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Björkhem I,Eggertsen G

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Phenotype vs. genotype in severe familial hypercholesterolemia: what matters most for the clinician?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with a high lifetime risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, this risk is variable. This review evaluates recent evidence related to ASCVD risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia considering aspects of phenotype and geno...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Santos RD

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Novel B-cell subsets in atherosclerosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The number of deaths associated with cardiovascular disease remains high, despite great advances in treating the associated high levels of cholesterol. The main underlying pathology of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, which is recognized as a chronic autoimmune-like inflammatory disease. Hen...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Douna H,Kuiper J

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Recent advances in liver-directed gene therapy: implications for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

    abstract::Somatic gene therapy for the treatment of dyslipidemia is an area of active investigation. A substantial body of data indicates that the transfer of various lipid-lowering genes to the liver is an effective method of restoring normal plasma lipids in animal models of dyslipidemia. Most studies have used adenoviral vec...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Oka K,Davis AR,Chan L

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00