From current vaccine recommendations to everyday practices: An analysis in five sub-Saharan African countries.


BACKGROUND:Estimates of WHO and UNICEF vaccination coverage may provide little insight into the extent to which vaccinations are administered on time. Yet, lack of adherence to the recommended age to receive a specific vaccination may have detrimental health consequences. For example, delays in receiving vaccination will prolong the risk of lack of protection, often when disease risk is highest, such as during early infancy. We estimated the reported age at vaccination, and vaccine coverage at different ages in children from five sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS:We analyzed data from the latest Demographic and Health Programme databases available for Burkina Faso 2010 (n=15,044 observations), Ghana 2008 (n=2992), Kenya 2008-9 (n=6079), Senegal 2010-11 (n=12,326), and Tanzania 2010 (n=8023). We assessed, amongst vaccinees, the exact age when vaccine was administered for the three infant doses of pentavalent vaccine (DTP) and the first dose of measles-containing-vaccine (MCV), as well as the proportion of children immunized with these antigens by a certain age. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) coverage was evaluated as a potential contact visit for vaccine introduction. RESULTS:For all DTP doses, the median intervals between recommended and actual ages of receiving vaccination ranged from 12, 17 and 23 days in Kenya, to 22, 33 and 45 days in Senegal. MCV was mostly given during the recommended age of 9 months. In each country, there was a large discrepancy in the median age at DTP vaccination between regions. VAS coverage in young children ranged from 30.3% in Kenya to 78.4% in Senegal, with large variations observed between areas within each study country. CONCLUSION:In the context of new vaccine introduction, age of children at vaccination should be monitored to interpret data on vaccine-preventable disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and vaccine safety, and to adapt targeted interventions and messages.






Delrieu I,Gessner BD,Baril L,Roset Bahmanyar E




Has Abstract


2015-12-16 00:00:00
















  • Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza illness among children aged 6-59 months, October 2011-September 2012: A matched test-negative case-control study in Suzhou, China.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Seasonal influenza infections among young children in China lead to substantial numbers of hospitalizations and financial burden. This study assessed the seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory confirmed medically attended influenza illness among children in Suzhou, China, from Octob...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang Y,Zhang T,Chen L,Greene C,Ding Y,Cheng Y,Yang C,Zeng S,Hua J,Zhou S,Song Y,Luan L,Zhang J,Zhao G

    更新日期:2016-05-05 00:00:00

  • Correlates of immunity for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    abstract::The purpose of the NIAID/FDA joint workshop, "correlates of immunity for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs)," was to discuss the present understanding of protective immunity against invasive pneumococcal disease and identify in vitro measures that may represent immunologic correlates in future clinical trials. Ani...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lee LH,Frasch CE,Falk LA,Klein DL,Deal CD

    更新日期:2003-05-16 00:00:00

  • Adjuvant effects of protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol saponins from ginseng roots on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice.

    abstract::Protopanaxadiol saponins (Rg3, Rd, Rc, Rb1 and Rb2) and protopanaxatriol saponins (Rg1, Re and Rg2) isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer were evaluated for their adjuvant effects on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected twice at a 3-week interval with 1...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun J,Hu S,Song X

    更新日期:2007-01-22 00:00:00

  • Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate bioconjugate vaccine against Shigella dysenteriae type 1 administered to healthy adults: A single blind, partially randomized Phase I study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Shigellae cause severe disease in endemic countries, especially in children. Several efficacy trials have been conducted with candidate vaccines against Shigellae, but the lack of protection, the safety concerns, or manufacturing challenges hindered successful market approval. Conjugated vaccines have been s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hatz CF,Bally B,Rohrer S,Steffen R,Kramme S,Siegrist CA,Wacker M,Alaimo C,Fonck VG

    更新日期:2015-08-26 00:00:00

  • Dramatic decline of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Catalonia (Spain) after a mass vaccination campaign with meningococcal C conjugated vaccine.

    abstract::In the last quarter of the year 2000, the meningococcal C conjugated vaccine was incorporated into the routine vaccination schedule in Catalonia (at 2, 4 and 6 months). In addition a vaccination campaign was carried out in children <6 years of age, with a coverage of 96.2%. The effectiveness of the vaccination in this...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salleras L,Domínguez A,Cardeñosa N

    更新日期:2003-01-30 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of Jeryl Lynn-containing vaccine in Spanish children.

    abstract::We evaluated the effectiveness of the Jeryl Lynn strain vaccine in a large outbreak of mumps in Navarre, Spain, 2006-2008. Each of the 241 cases of mumps occurring in children over 15 months of age born between 1998 and 2005 was compared with 5 controls individually matched by sex, birth date, district of residence an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castilla J,García Cenoz M,Arriazu M,Fernández-Alonso M,Martínez-Artola V,Etxeberria J,Irisarri F,Barricarte A

    更新日期:2009-03-26 00:00:00

  • Priming of measles virus-specific humoral- and cellular-immune responses in macaques by DNA vaccination.

    abstract::Although the currently used live attenuated measles vaccines are safe and effective, they are dependent on cold chain maintenance and are often ineffective in young infants due to interference by maternal antibody. Therefore, besides vector-based vaccines, different new generation non-replicating candidate measles vac...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stittelaar KJ,de Swart RL,Vos HW,van Amerongen G,Sixt N,Wild TF,Osterhaus AD

    更新日期:2002-05-15 00:00:00

  • Achieving a "Grand Convergence" in global health by 2035.

    abstract::Historical evidence demonstrates the validity of the concept "Grand Convergence". The Lancet commission identified the major challenges facing low and lower middle income countries including the unfinished agenda, non-communicable diseases and injuries and an approach to funding and achieving these objectives along wi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahmoud A

    更新日期:2017-01-20 00:00:00

  • Time and motion study to compare electronic and hybrid data collection systems during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination campaign.

    abstract::During the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination campaign, vaccine providers collected immunization data using hybrid (paper-based and electronic methods) and electronic data systems. We measured staff time in seconds spent on data collection tasks to compare system efficiencies. The sample consisted of 38 organizations ac...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Quach S,Hamid JS,Pereira JA,Heidebrecht CL,Foisy J,Bettinger JA,Rosella L,Crowcroft NS,Deeks SL,Quan SD,Finkelstein M,Guay M,Buckeridge DL,Sikora CA,Kwong JC,Public Health Agency of Canada\/Canadian Institutes of Health Res

    更新日期:2011-02-24 00:00:00

  • The choice of analytical methodology can alter conclusions regarding herd effects of paediatric pneumococcal vaccination programmes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Estimation of the magnitude of the herd effect on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is important when evaluating health benefits and cost-effectiveness of paediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programmes and may influence policy makers' decisions on PCV use. Several epidemiological, programmatic,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pirçon JY,Talarico CA,Bollaerts K,Hausdorff WP,Clarke CJ

    更新日期:2018-11-12 00:00:00

  • Repeated dose intramuscular injection of the CIMAvax-EGF vaccine in Sprague Dawley rats induces local and systemic toxicity.

    abstract::CIMAvax-EGF consists of a human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF), coupled to P64k, a recombinant carrier protein from N. meningitis, and Montanide ISA 51 as adjuvant. The vaccine immunization induces a specific antibody production, inhibiting the EGF/EGF-R interaction through EGF deprivation. The objective of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mancebo A,Casacó A,González B,Ledón N,Sorlozabal J,León A,Gómez D,González Y,Bada AM,González C,Arteaga ME,Ramírez H,Fuentes D

    更新日期:2012-05-09 00:00:00

  • National survey of invasive pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan under partial PCV7 vaccination in 2007: emergence of serotype 19A with high invasive potential.

    abstract::We conducted an active, population-based laboratory surveillance study to evaluate the epidemiologic features of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Taiwan. Concurrently, nasopharyngeal colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae was evaluated among 1128 healthy children aged


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Hsieh YC,Lin PY,Chiu CH,Huang YC,Chang KY,Liao CH,Chiu NC,Chuang YC,Chen PY,Chang SC,Liu JW,Yen MY,Wang JH,Liu CY,Lin TY

    更新日期:2009-09-04 00:00:00

  • Immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine IXIARO® in elderly subjects: Open-label, uncontrolled, multi-center, phase 4 study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:IXIARO® is a Vero cell-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine licensed mainly in western countries for children and adults traveling to JE endemic areas. Limited immunogenicity and safety data in elderly travelers have been available. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate safety and immunogenicity of IXIA...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Cramer JP,Dubischar K,Eder S,Burchard GD,Jelinek T,Jilma B,Kollaritsch H,Reisinger E,Westritschnig K

    更新日期:2016-08-31 00:00:00

  • Governments, off-patent vaccines, smallpox and universal childhood vaccination.

    abstract::WHO is now celebrating more than 30 years of freedom from smallpox. What was originally seen as a victory over an ancient scourge can now be viewed as an epidemiologically driven programme to overcome governmental inertia and under-achievement in delivering an off-patent vaccine. Though efforts are accelerating global...


    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Music S

    更新日期:2010-01-22 00:00:00

  • Safe vaccination of children with a virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine.

    abstract::A post-marketing study was conducted in 26 paediatric practices in Germany to collect safety information on the virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine Inflexal V (in Germany marketed as Infectovac Flu). Children aged 6 months to 6 years received one or two doses. Adverse events were documented by parents/legal guardia...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Künzi V,Dornseiff M,Horwath J,Hartmann K

    更新日期:2009-02-18 00:00:00

  • MDP-Lys(L18), a lipophilic derivative of muramyl dipeptide, inhibits the metastasis of haematogenous and non-haematogenous tumours in mice.

    abstract::The antimetastatic effects of MDP-Lys(L18), a lipophilic derivative of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), against three different types of highly metastatic murine tumour cells, B16-BL6 melanoma, colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma and L5178Y-ML25 T lymphoma, were examined in C57BL/6, Balb/c and CDF1 mice, respectively. The administration ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoo YC,Saiki I,Sato K,Azuma I

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Comparing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine schedules based on 3 and 2 primary doses: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) were first licensed for use with 3 primary doses in infancy and a booster dose. The evidence for the effects of different schedules was examined in this systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS:We searched 12 databases and trial registers up to March 2010. We select...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Scott P,Rutjes AW,Bermetz L,Robert N,Scott S,Lourenço T,Egger M,Low N

    更新日期:2011-12-06 00:00:00

  • Clinical effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in men: California Men's Health Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) among approximately 40,000 community-dwelling men aged 45 years and older in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS) cohort. METHODS:All participants completed an extensive questionnaire at baseline (2002-2003) and were followed for t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hechter RC,Chao C,Jacobsen SJ,Slezak JM,Quinn VP,Van Den Eeden SK,Tseng HF

    更新日期:2012-08-17 00:00:00

  • Past, present and future of HIV vaccine trials in developing countries.

    abstract::A safe, effective and accessible preventive vaccine is our best long-term hope for the control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The first phase I trial of an HIV vaccine was conducted in the US in 1987. Since then, >30 candidate vaccines have been tested in over 60 phase I/II clinical trials, involving >8000 healthy human vo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Esparza J,Osmanov S,Pattou-Markovic C,Touré C,Chang ML,Nixon S

    更新日期:2002-05-06 00:00:00

  • Protection capability of recombinant plasmid DNA vaccine containing VP2 gene of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus in chickens adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide.

    abstract::In the present study the efficacy of recombinant plasmids DNA vaccine encoding VP2 gene of very virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolated from Pakistan was investigated with or without coadministration of cytocine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) to protect the chickens again...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahmood MS,Siddique M,Hussain I,Khan A,Mansoor MK

    更新日期:2006-05-29 00:00:00

  • Safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy: a review of subsequent maternal obstetric events and findings from two recent cohort studies.

    abstract::Pregnant women and their infants are vulnerable to severe disease and secondary complications from influenza infection. For this reason, annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all pregnant women in the United States. Women frequently cite concerns about vaccine safety as a barrier to vaccination. This review ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Naleway AL,Irving SA,Henninger ML,Li DK,Shifflett P,Ball S,Williams JL,Cragan J,Gee J,Thompson MG,Vaccine Safety Datalink and Pregnancy and Influenza Project.

    更新日期:2014-05-30 00:00:00

  • A response to Fu et al.'s "Educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance".

    abstract::This commentary is a response to a systematic review, recently published in Vaccine, which investigates the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine. The systematic review by Fu et al. (2014) enhances the field's understanding of human papillomavirus vaccine i...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Shapiro GK,Joyal-Desmarais K,Perez S,Rosberger Z

    更新日期:2014-11-12 00:00:00

  • Intranasal immunization with recombinant gD2 reduces disease severity and mortality following genital challenge with herpes simplex virus type 2 in guinea pigs.

    abstract::The ability of a genetically detoxified mutant of heat labile enterotoxin (LTK63) to act as a mucosal adjuvant following intranasal immunization with recombinant gD2 has previously been reported in mice [Ugozzoli M, O'Hagan DT, Ott GS. Intranasal immunization of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 recombinant gD2: t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Hagan D,Goldbeck C,Ugozzoli M,Ott G,Burke RL

    更新日期:1999-05-04 00:00:00

  • AIDS and HIV vaccines.

    abstract::In spite of extensive prevention programs, the HIV epidemics is still spreading worldwide, in particularly in developing countries where clade C viruses predominate. WHO estimates that there are 16, 000 new cases of HIV infection daily and that 100 M individuals will be infected by the end of the next decade. In spite...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Klein M

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of Schistosoma mansoni 44.7/56.8 kDa egg antigens recognized by human monoclonal antibodies which induce protection against experimental infection and proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from schistosomiasis patients.

    abstract::We described here the characterization of Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens recognized by human monoclonal antibodies B10 (HmAb-B10) and D5 (HmAb-D5). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis revealed that these monoclonals recognized two antigens of M W 44.7/56.8 kDa, with pI of 7.0 and 7.8, respectively. The passive transf...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirsch C,Almeida CA,Doughty BL,Goes AM

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Colinear synthesis of an antigen-specific B-cell epitope with a 'promiscuous' tetanus toxin T-cell epitope: a synthetic peptide immunocontraceptive.

    abstract::Carrier conjugation is commonly used to provide T-cell help for small, linear peptides containing antigen-specific B-cell epitopes. However, carrier conjugation is expensive, variable and often results in adverse side effects if the conjugate is administered repeatedly. To eliminate the need for carrier conjugation, w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Hern PA,Liang ZG,Bambra CS,Goldberg E

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • The immunogenicity-enhancing effect of emulsion vaccine adjuvants is independent of the dispersion type and antigen release rate--a revisit of the role of the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value.

    abstract::Effective antigen delivery is one of the most important issues in vaccine development. It has been suggested that adjuvant action results from a depot effect by prolonging the duration of the interaction between antigen and cells, and thus is related to the antigen-releasing properties of emulsion adjuvants. The objec...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang YW,Wei AC,Shen SS

    更新日期:2005-04-08 00:00:00

  • Progress towards a vaccine against Ebola to meet emergency medical countermeasure needs.

    abstract::The Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa proved to be the largest in the history of filovirus outbreaks, causing the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of international concern in August of 2014. In collaboration with domestic and international partners, the Biomedical Advanced Research and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolfe DN,Zarrabian AG,Disbrow GL,Espeland EM

    更新日期:2019-11-15 00:00:00

  • Influence of elemental impurities in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on the stability of inactivated Japanese Encephalitis vaccine, IXIARO®.

    abstract::Aluminum hydroxide is a critical raw material in the production of many vaccines. It is used as an adjuvant in the formulation of the final bulk vaccine, and for this it must meet the specifications of the European Pharmacopeia Monograph. We investigated whether vaccine stability was affected by the presence of trace ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schlegl R,Weber M,Wruss J,Low D,Queen K,Stilwell S,Lindblad EB,Möhlen M

    更新日期:2015-11-04 00:00:00

  • Genetic to genomic vaccination.

    abstract::Our development of genetic immunization (unfortunately named 'DNA'-immunization at times) seems to have great promise as a vaccine delivery system. However, one is still left with the often formidable problem of discovering what gene of the pathogen to include in the genetic immunization vector. The is particularly a ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnston SA,Barry MA

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00