Five winters of pneumococcal serotype replacement in UK carriage following PCV introduction.


:The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was added to the UK national immunisation programme in September 2006. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in April 2010. As carriage precedes disease cases this study collected carried pneumococci from children each winter from 2006/7 to 2010/11 over PCV introduction. Conventional microbiology and whole genome sequencing were utilised to characterise pneumococcal strains. Overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage remained stable. Vaccine serotypes (VT) decreased (p<0.0001) with concomitant increases in non-vaccine serotypes (NVT). In winter 2010/11 only one isolate of PCV7 VT was observed (6B). PCV13 unique VTs decreased between winters immediately preceding and following PCV13 introduction (p=0.04). Significant decreases for VTs 6B, 19F, 23F (PCV7) and 6A (PCV13) and increases for NVT 21, 23B, 33F and 35F were detected. The serotype replacement was accompanied by parallel changes in genotype prevalence for associated sequence types with clonal expansion contributing to replacement. By winter 2010/11, serotype coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 was 1% and 11% respectively. VT replacement was observed for PCV7 and PCV13 serotypes. Conjugate vaccine design and use requires continuous monitoring and revision.






Gladstone RA,Jefferies JM,Tocheva AS,Beard KR,Garley D,Chong WW,Bentley SD,Faust SN,Clarke SC




Has Abstract


2015-04-21 00:00:00
















  • Safety and immunogenicity of fully liquid DTaP₅-IPV-Hib pediatric combination vaccine (Pediacel®) compared to DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix® Hexa) when coadministered with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) as a booster at 11-18 months of age

    abstract::This study compared the safety and immunogenicity of DTaP₅-IPV-Hib vaccine (followed by monovalent hepatitis B vaccine [HBV]) and DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines, both coadministered with PCV7, as a fourth-dose booster in toddlers 11-18 months who had a hexavalent vaccine primary series. The fever rate within 4 days of DTa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Berner R,Boisnard F,Thomas S,Mwawasi G,Reynolds D

    更新日期:2012-07-27 00:00:00

  • Pertussis before and after the introduction of acellular pertussis vaccines in Finland.

    abstract::In Finland, the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was replaced with acellular pertussis vaccine in the national immunisation schedule in 2005. Adolescent booster vaccinations were also included in the programme. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of these changes on the epidemiology and strain characteristic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elomaa A,He Q,Minh NN,Mertsola J

    更新日期:2009-09-04 00:00:00

  • Modulation of cellular and humoral immune responses to a multiepitopic HIV-1 DNA vaccine by interleukin-18 DNA immunization/viral protein boost.

    abstract::In this study, the impact of Th1-inducing cytokine gene co-delivery and antigen boosting on humoral and cellular responses induced by multiepitopic DNA immunization in mice have been investigated. Intramuscular injection of mixed DNA constructs encoding for HIV-1 Gag, Tat and Nef proteins, co-administered with the DNA...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Billaut-Mulot O,Idziorek T,Loyens M,Capron A,Bahr GM

    更新日期:2001-04-06 00:00:00

  • The Global Meningococcal Initiative: recommendations for reducing the global burden of meningococcal disease.

    abstract::The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is composed of an international group of scientists, clinicians and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal immunology, epidemiology and prevention. The primary goal of the GMI is the promotion of the global prevention of invasive meningococcal disease through ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harrison LH,Pelton SI,Wilder-Smith A,Holst J,Safadi MA,Vazquez JA,Taha MK,LaForce FM,von Gottberg A,Borrow R,Plotkin SA

    更新日期:2011-04-18 00:00:00

  • Immunogenic properties of chimeric protein from espA, eae and tir genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    abstract::Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) comprise an important group of enteric pathogens causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. These bacteria need EspA (E) as a conduct for Tir (T) delivery to the host cell and surface arrayed intimin (I) which docks the bacterium to the translocated Tir. This p...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amani J,Salmanian AH,Rafati S,Mousavi SL

    更新日期:2010-10-04 00:00:00

  • Serological responses of rams to a Brucella ovis-vitamin E adjuvant vaccine.

    abstract::Rams which were vaccinated at 6-8 months of age with a water-in-oil Brucella ovis-vitamin E adjuvant vaccine had significantly higher serum antibody levels than rams vaccinated with a commercial B. ovis bacterin or B. melitensis Rev 1. The adjuvant vaccine did not cause abscesses at the site of injection as some water...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tengerdy RP,Ameghino E,Riemann H

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Age-related immunogenicity and reactogenicity of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: McCarty JM,Lock MD,Bennett S,Hunt KM,Simon JK,Gurwith M

    更新日期:2019-03-07 00:00:00

  • Effect of influenza immunization on CYP3A4 activity.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayney MS,Hammes RJ,Fine JP,Bianco JA

    更新日期:2001-12-12 00:00:00

  • Assessing vaccine potency using TCRmimic antibodies.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neethling FA,Ramakrishna V,Keler T,Buchli R,Woodburn T,Weidanz JA

    更新日期:2008-06-13 00:00:00

  • Influenza during pregnancy: Incidence, vaccination coverage and attitudes toward vaccination in the French web-based cohort G-GrippeNet.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Pregnancy is a risk factor for severe influenza. However, data on influenza incidence during pregnancy are scarce. Likewise, no data are available on influenza vaccine coverage in France since national recommendation in 2012. We aimed to assess these points using a novel nationwide web-based surveillance s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loubet P,Guerrisi C,Turbelin C,Blondel B,Launay O,Bardou M,Goffinet F,Colizza V,Hanslik T,Kernéis S,GGNET study group.

    更新日期:2016-04-29 00:00:00

  • Neurovirulence tests of type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine manufactured by Lederle Laboratories, 1964-1988.

    abstract::Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is tested for safety by evaluation of neurovirulence in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. After intraspinal or intrathalamic injection of varying doses of vaccine, monkeys are followed for 17-21 days, killed, and a histopathological evaluation is made of the severity of poliomyelitis lesion...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nathanson N,Horn SD

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ex vivo human placenta models: transport of immunoglobulin G and its subclasses.

    abstract::The comparison between fetal and maternal levels of immunoglobulins indicate that the human placenta during pregnancy develops a specific transport mechanism for IgG in the maternal to fetal direction. There are differences for the four subclasses, with preferential transfer of IgG(1) while the slowest transfer is see...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Malek A

    更新日期:2003-07-28 00:00:00

  • Status of vaccine research and development for norovirus.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Riddle MS,Walker RI

    更新日期:2016-06-03 00:00:00

  • Intranasal vaccination with ebola virus GP amino acids 258-601 protects mice against lethal challenge.

    abstract::Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) leads to lethal hemorrhagic fever with a case fatality rate as high as 90%, thus posing a serious global public health concern. However, while several vaccines based on the EBOV glycoprotein have been confirmed to be effective in animal experiments, no licensed vaccines or effective tr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Su QD,He SH,Yi Y,Qiu F,Lu XX,Jia ZY,Meng QL,Fan XT,Tian RG,Audet J,Qiu XG,Bi SL

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic vaccination of rabbits with a ubiquitin-fused papillomavirus E1, E2, E6 and E7 DNA vaccine.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brandsma JL,Shlyankevich M,Zelterman D,Su Y

    更新日期:2007-08-14 00:00:00

  • Monoclonal antibodies for prophylactic and therapeutic use against viral infections.

    abstract::Neutralizing antibodies play an essential part in antiviral immunity and are instrumental in preventing or modulating viral diseases. Polyclonal antibody preparations are increasingly being replaced by highly potent monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Cocktails of mAbs and bispecific constructs can be used to simultaneously...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Both L,Banyard AC,van Dolleweerd C,Wright E,Ma JK,Fooks AR

    更新日期:2013-03-15 00:00:00

  • Internationally adopted children: what vaccines should they receive?

    abstract::It is of paramount importance to know the vaccination status in internationally adopted children, so that they can be correctly immunized. This study ascertains the seroprotection rate for vaccine-preventable diseases and the validity of the immunization cards in 637 adopted children. The absence of the immunization c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cilleruelo MJ,de Ory F,Ruiz-Contreras J,González-González R,Mellado MJ,García-Hortelano M,Villota J,García-Ascaso M,Piñeiro R,Martín-Fontelos P,Herruzo R

    更新日期:2008-10-29 00:00:00

  • Chikungunya virus vaccines: Current strategies and prospects for developing plant-made vaccines.

    abstract::Chikungunya virus is an emerging pathogen initially found in East Africa and currently spread into the Indian Ocean Islands, many regions of South East Asia, and in the Americas. No licensed vaccines against this eminent pathogen are available and thus intensive research in this field is a priority. This review presen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Salazar-González JA,Angulo C,Rosales-Mendoza S

    更新日期:2015-07-17 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in North America.

    abstract::Although the USA is considered an area of 'low' endemicity for hepatitis B infection, the incidence of new cases, the prevalence of carriers, and the burden of acute and chronic disease place hepatitis B among the most important communicable diseases. It is estimated that 300,000 new cases of hepatitis B infection occ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kane M

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity assessment of Clostridium difficile toxins in rodent models and protection of vaccination.

    abstract::Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, also known as C. difficile associated diarrhea. The two major toxins, toxin A and toxin B are produced by most C. difficile bacteria, but some strains, such as BI/NAP1/027 isolates, produce a third toxin called binary toxin. The precise biologic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang S,Rustandi RR,Lancaster C,Hong LG,Thiriot DS,Xie J,Secore S,Kristopeit A,Wang SC,Heinrichs JH

    更新日期:2016-03-04 00:00:00

  • Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    abstract::Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination aga...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gupta G,Giannino V,Rishi N,Glueck R

    更新日期:2016-09-07 00:00:00

  • Prenatal Tdap immunization and risk of maternal and newborn adverse events.

    abstract::Many countries recommend combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis immunization (Tdap) during pregnancy to stimulate transplacental transmission of pertussis antibodies to newborns. The immune system can be altered during pregnancy, potentially resulting in differing immunization risks...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Layton JB,Butler AM,Li D,Boggess KA,Weber DJ,McGrath LJ,Becker-Dreps S

    更新日期:2017-07-24 00:00:00

  • Improving the stability of recombinant anthrax protective antigen vaccine.

    abstract::Development of recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccines has been hindered by a lack of stability of the vaccines associated with spontaneous deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residues of the rPA antigen during storage. In this study, we explored the role that two deamidation-prone Asn residues located...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verma A,Burns DL

    更新日期:2018-10-15 00:00:00

  • No effect of an additional early dose of measles vaccine on hospitalization or mortality in children: A randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Non-specific effects (NSEs) of vaccines have increasingly gained attention in recent years. Recent studies suggest that live vaccines, such as measles vaccine (MV), have beneficial effects on health, while inactivated vaccines, such as the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, may have harmful effects....


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Schoeps A,Nebié E,Fisker AB,Sié A,Zakane A,Müller O,Aaby P,Becher H

    更新日期:2018-04-05 00:00:00

  • Needle-free delivery of DNA: Targeting of hemagglutinin to MHC class II molecules protects rhesus macaques against H1N1 influenza.

    abstract::Conventional influenza vaccines are hampered by slow and limited production capabilities, whereas DNA vaccines can be rapidly produced for global coverage in the event of an emerging pandemic. However, a drawback of DNA vaccines is their generally low immunogenicity in non-human primates and humans. We have previously...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mooij P,Grødeland G,Koopman G,Andersen TK,Mortier D,Nieuwenhuis IG,Verschoor EJ,Fagrouch Z,Bogers WM,Bogen B

    更新日期:2019-02-04 00:00:00

  • United States of America Department of Health and Human Services support for advancing influenza vaccine manufacturing in the developing world.

    abstract::Since 2005, the Government of the United States of America has provided more than US$ 50 million to advance influenza vaccine development in low-resourced countries. This programme has provided a unique opportunity for the US Government to develop a comprehensive view of, and to understand better the challenges and fu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Perdue ML,Bright RA

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Familial clustering of hepatitis B virus infections and prevention of perinatal transmission by immunization with a reduced number of doses in an area of intermediate endemicity (Tunisia).

    abstract::Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected in 3.3% of 7162 pregnant Tunisian women tested and HBeAg in 9.6% of the HBsAg-positive mothers. Family members of 46 of these HBsAg-positive mothers (33 husbands and 61 children aged 1-6 years) were investigated for the presence of HBV markers. HBsAg was detected in 21%...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coursaget P,Gharbi Y,Khrouf N,Depril N,Boukhris N,Fritzell B,Kastally R

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Novel Adenovirus type 5 vaccine platform induces cellular immunity against HIV-1 Gag, Pol, Nef despite the presence of Ad5 immunity.

    abstract::Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been used as vaccine platforms in numerous animal and human clinical studies. The immune response induced by Ad5 vaccines can be mitigated due to pre-existing Ad5 immunity. We previously reported the use of a novel Ad5 platform to induce cellular immune responses (C...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gabitzsch ES,Xu Y,Yoshida LH,Balint J,Amalfitano A,Jones FR

    更新日期:2009-10-30 00:00:00

  • UV-inactivated vaccinia virus (VV) in a multi-envelope DNA-VV-protein (DVP) HIV-1 vaccine protects macaques from lethal challenge with heterologous SHIV.

    abstract::The pandemic of HIV-1 has continued for decades, yet there remains no licensed vaccine. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a multi-envelope, multi-vectored HIV-1 vaccine in a macaque-SHIV model, illustrating a potential means of combating HIV-1. Specifically, recombinant DNA, vaccinia virus (VV) a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones BG,Sealy RE,Zhan X,Freiden PJ,Surman SL,Blanchard JL,Hurwitz JL

    更新日期:2012-05-02 00:00:00

  • The suitability of yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis vaccines for immunization against West Nile virus.

    abstract::Seven volunteers involved in flavivirus studies have been immunized with commercial Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever vaccines JE-VAX and YF-VAX. Strong homologous and cross-reactive with West Nile virus (WNV) antibody responses with titers 1:1600 to 1:51200 were found in all donors. All donors developed high lev...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamshchikov G,Borisevich V,Kwok CW,Nistler R,Kohlmeier J,Seregin A,Chaporgina E,Benedict S,Yamshchikov V

    更新日期:2005-09-15 00:00:00