Five winters of pneumococcal serotype replacement in UK carriage following PCV introduction.


:The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was added to the UK national immunisation programme in September 2006. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in April 2010. As carriage precedes disease cases this study collected carried pneumococci from children each winter from 2006/7 to 2010/11 over PCV introduction. Conventional microbiology and whole genome sequencing were utilised to characterise pneumococcal strains. Overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage remained stable. Vaccine serotypes (VT) decreased (p<0.0001) with concomitant increases in non-vaccine serotypes (NVT). In winter 2010/11 only one isolate of PCV7 VT was observed (6B). PCV13 unique VTs decreased between winters immediately preceding and following PCV13 introduction (p=0.04). Significant decreases for VTs 6B, 19F, 23F (PCV7) and 6A (PCV13) and increases for NVT 21, 23B, 33F and 35F were detected. The serotype replacement was accompanied by parallel changes in genotype prevalence for associated sequence types with clonal expansion contributing to replacement. By winter 2010/11, serotype coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 was 1% and 11% respectively. VT replacement was observed for PCV7 and PCV13 serotypes. Conjugate vaccine design and use requires continuous monitoring and revision.






Gladstone RA,Jefferies JM,Tocheva AS,Beard KR,Garley D,Chong WW,Bentley SD,Faust SN,Clarke SC




Has Abstract


2015-04-21 00:00:00
















  • Immunogenicity and efficacy of two candidate human metapneumovirus vaccines in cynomolgus macaques.

    abstract::Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory tract disease for which the development of vaccine candidates is warranted. We have previously described the generation of an iscom matrix-adjuvanted HMPV fusion protein subunit vaccine (Fsol) and a live-attenuated vaccine (HMPVM11). Here, we eval...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herfst S,Schrauwen EJ,de Graaf M,van Amerongen G,van den Hoogen BG,de Swart RL,Osterhaus AD,Fouchier RA

    更新日期:2008-08-05 00:00:00

  • Achieving a "Grand Convergence" in global health by 2035.

    abstract::Historical evidence demonstrates the validity of the concept "Grand Convergence". The Lancet commission identified the major challenges facing low and lower middle income countries including the unfinished agenda, non-communicable diseases and injuries and an approach to funding and achieving these objectives along wi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahmoud A

    更新日期:2017-01-20 00:00:00

  • Protein-prime/modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector-boost vaccination overcomes tolerance in high-antigenemic HBV-transgenic mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Therapeutic vaccination is a novel treatment approach for chronic hepatitis B, but only had limited success so far. We hypothesized that optimized vaccination schemes have increased immunogenicity, and aimed at increasing therapeutic hepatitis B vaccine efficacy. METHODS:Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Backes S,Jäger C,Dembek CJ,Kosinska AD,Bauer T,Stephan AS,Dišlers A,Mutwiri G,Busch DH,Babiuk LA,Gasteiger G,Protzer U

    更新日期:2016-02-10 00:00:00

  • Simple differentiation method of mumps Hoshino vaccine strain from wild strains by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).

    abstract::Mumps virus is still circulating and annual mumps outbreaks occur with fluctuating magnitudes in Japan. Aseptic meningitis has been reported after vaccination and it would be of importance to determine whether this was related to the vaccination. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive, specific and rap...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoshida N,Fujino M,Ota Y,Notomi T,Nakayama T

    更新日期:2007-01-26 00:00:00

  • Propagation of Brazilian Zika virus strains in static and suspension cultures using Vero and BHK cells.

    abstract::The recent spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and the Pacific has reached alarming levels in more than 60 countries. However, relatively little is known about the disease on a virological and epidemiological level and its consequences for humans. Accordingly, a large demand for in vitro derived Brazilian ZIKV...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nikolay A,Castilho LR,Reichl U,Genzel Y

    更新日期:2018-05-24 00:00:00

  • Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase I Clinical Trial of the therapeutical antituberculous vaccine RUTI.

    abstract::A Phase I interventional Clinical Trial was performed with a potential tuberculosis vaccine, based on detoxified cellular fragments of M. tuberculosis, named RUTI. The objective was to evaluate the safety profile and T-cell immune responses over a 6-month period following subcutaneous inoculation. The double-blind, ra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Vilaplana C,Montané E,Pinto S,Barriocanal AM,Domenech G,Torres F,Cardona PJ,Costa J

    更新日期:2010-01-22 00:00:00

  • A quality improvement initiative to increase Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis) vaccination coverage among direct health care providers at a children's hospital.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Health care providers (HCP) are at high risk of acquiring and transmitting pertussis to susceptible family members, co-workers, and patients. Public health authorities recommend administering a single dose of Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine to all adults, inc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiang C,Whitmore-Sisco L,Gaur AH,Adderson EE,Tdap Working Group.

    更新日期:2018-01-04 00:00:00

  • A randomized controlled trial of low-dose recombinant human interferons alpha-2b nasal spray to prevent acute viral respiratory infections in military recruits.

    abstract::The military population has a high disease burden of acute viral respiratory infections in China. To assess the efficacy and safety of a low-dose recombinant human interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) nasal spray in preventing acute viral respiratory infections in military population, we performed this randomized contro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Gao L,Yu S,Chen Q,Duan Z,Zhou J,Mao C,Yu D,Zhu W,Nie J,Hou Y

    更新日期:2010-06-17 00:00:00

  • Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Data collection, analysis and reporting results.

    abstract::The case-control methodology is frequently used to evaluate vaccine effectiveness post-licensure. The results of such studies provide important insight into the level of protection afforded by vaccines in a 'real world' context, and are commonly used to guide vaccine policy decisions. However, the potential for bias a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Verani JR,Baqui AH,Broome CV,Cherian T,Cohen C,Farrar JL,Feikin DR,Groome MJ,Hajjeh RA,Johnson HL,Madhi SA,Mulholland K,O'Brien KL,Parashar UD,Patel MM,Rodrigues LC,Santosham M,Scott JA,Smith PG,Sommerfelt H,Tate

    更新日期:2017-06-05 00:00:00

  • Characterization of size, structure and purity of serogroup X Neisseria meningitidis polysaccharide, and development of an assay for quantification of human antibodies.

    abstract::Serogroup X Neisseria meningitidis (MenX) has recently emerged as a cause of localized disease outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to prepare for vaccine development, MenX polysaccharide (MenX PS) was purified by standard methods and analyzed for identity and structure by NMR spectroscopy. This study presents th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xie O,Bolgiano B,Gao F,Lockyer K,Swann C,Jones C,Delrieu I,Njanpop-Lafourcade BM,Tamekloe TA,Pollard AJ,Norheim G

    更新日期:2012-08-31 00:00:00

  • Penton base induces better protective immune responses than fiber and hexon as a subunit vaccine candidate against adenoviruses.

    abstract::Human adenoviruses (AdVs) have been extensively studied as vectors for gene therapy and vaccination. However, little attention has been paid to AdV vaccine development and treatment. Currently, there is a lack of information concerning the immunogenicity of AdV major capsid proteins. Here, using AdV7 as a model, we co...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu K,Fu M,Guan X,Zhang D,Deng X,Xiao Y,Chen R,Liu H,Hu Q

    更新日期:2018-07-05 00:00:00

  • Immunologic synergism with IL-2 and effects of cCHMIs on mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in chicken peripheral T lymphocyte.

    abstract::Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) were prepared, respectively, with epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (cCHMIs 1) and astragalus polysaccharide plus ginsenoside (cCHMIs 2). In animal immune experiment, Newcastle disease vaccine was mixed, respectively, with two cCHMIs and IL-2 to v...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang D,Li X,Xu L,Hu Y,Zhang B,Liu J

    更新日期:2006-11-30 00:00:00

  • Complete protection against lethal challenge of novel H7N9 virus with heterologous inactivated H7 vaccine in mice.

    abstract::A prototype H7 influenza vaccine constructed based on the H7N7 outbreak in 2003 was tested for the protective efficacy against the novel H7N9 virus in a lethal murine challenge model. Serum samples from vaccinated mice showed significant neutralizing activity against the H7N9 virus and the mice were completely protect...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tang LH,Lim JH,Kuah LF,Lau YF

    更新日期:2014-09-22 00:00:00

  • Vaccination of sheep against M. paratuberculosis: immune parameters and protective efficacy.

    abstract::Johne's disease in ruminants is caused by the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). Currently available Map commercial vaccines protect against clinical disease but not infection. In this study, the proprietary Johne's vaccine Neoparasec and an aqueous formulation of Map 316F (Aqu...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Begg DJ,Griffin JF

    更新日期:2005-10-10 00:00:00

  • Prevenar experience.

    abstract::Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading bacterial pathogens causing invasive disease and non-invasive infections at both extremes of life: in children younger than 5 years and in elderly persons of 65 years or more. Pneumococcal infections result in substantial morbidity and mortality among children under 5 yea...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arguedas A,Soley C,Abdelnour A

    更新日期:2011-09-14 00:00:00

  • Romurtide, a synthetic muramyl dipeptide derivative, accelerates peripheral platelet recovery in nonhuman primate chemotherapy model.

    abstract::We investigated the therapeutic effects of romurtide, a synthetic muramyl dipeptide derivative, on experimental thrombocytopenia induced by carboplatin in cynomolgus monkeys. A prolonged thrombocytopenia due to a severe myelosuppression was induced by carboplatin. Romurtide given subcutaneously elevated significantly ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Namba K,Nitanai H,Otani T,Azuma I

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Low varicella-related consultation rate in the Netherlands in primary care data.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In the Netherlands, a relatively low varicella disease burden compared to other European countries is observed within routine surveillance. To validate this, we estimated the varicella-related consultation rate using The Integrated Primary Care Information database. METHODS:In this retrospective cohort stud...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Lier A,van Erp J,Donker GA,van der Maas NA,Sturkenboom MC,de Melker HE

    更新日期:2014-06-12 00:00:00

  • Is getting influenza vaccine coverage data out during mid-season feasible? Evidence from a national survey of U.S. adults.

    abstract::We demonstrated the feasibility of collecting and disseminating mid-season estimates of influenza vaccine coverage. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 3972) via the Internet about use of influenza vaccination as of mid-November 2008. Findings were presented on 10 December 2008 to the me...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harris KM,Maurer J,Lurie N

    更新日期:2009-06-08 00:00:00

  • Comparative evaluation of ELPylated virus-like particle vaccine with two commercial PCV2 vaccines by experimental challenge.

    abstract::Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important swine pathogen and vaccination is the primary tool for the disease control. Previously, we developed a more cost-effective PCV2 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine by using ELPylation technology. In the present study, we compared the ELPylated VLP (ELP-VLP) P...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Y,Lin Y,Xin G,Zhou X,Lu H,Zhang X,Xia X,Sun H

    更新日期:2020-05-13 00:00:00

  • Changes in prevalence of ovine paratuberculosis following vaccination with Gudair®: Results of a longitudinal study conducted over a decade.

    abstract::Since its registration in 2002, Gudair® vaccine has become the key tool for managing paratuberculosis in sheep in Australia. This study was conducted to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing paratuberculosis prevalence in 12 flocks over more than one decade. Flocks with variable initial prevalence (5, 4 and 3 with lo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dhand NK,Eppleston J,Whittington RJ,Windsor PA

    更新日期:2016-09-30 00:00:00

  • Peroxiredoxin 1 protein interacts with influenza virus ribonucleoproteins and is required for efficient virus replication.

    abstract::Cellular proteins that support influenza virus infection represent potential therapeutic targets. Cytoplasmic egress intermediates of influenza A/WSN/33 were isolated and shown to be associated with the cellular enzymes peroxiredoxins-1 (Prdx-1) during glycerol gradient fractionation. Prdx-1 also co-localizes with inf...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dai X,Li N,Roller RJ

    更新日期:2018-07-16 00:00:00

  • Reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease after general vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Germany.

    abstract::General vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was recommended in Germany in July 2006 for all children <2 years. The proportion of reported invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by vaccine serotypes before vaccine introduction was considerably lower than in the US. We report data from natio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rückinger S,van der Linden M,Reinert RR,von Kries R,Burckhardt F,Siedler A

    更新日期:2009-06-24 00:00:00

  • Quantifying outcome misclassification in multi-database studies: The case study of pertussis in the ADVANCE project.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The Accelerated Development of VAccine beNefit-risk Collaboration in Europe (ADVANCE) is a public-private collaboration aiming to develop and test a system for rapid benefit-risk (B/R) monitoring of vaccines using European healthcare databases. Event misclassification can result in biased estimates. Using di...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gini R,Dodd CN,Bollaerts K,Bartolini C,Roberto G,Huerta-Alvarez C,Martín-Merino E,Duarte-Salles T,Picelli G,Tramontan L,Danieli G,Correa A,McGee C,Becker BFH,Switzer C,Gandhi-Banga S,Bauwens J,van der Maas NAT,Spiteri

    更新日期:2020-12-22 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic immunisation plus cytokine and hormone therapy improves CD4 T-cell counts, restores anti-HIV-1 responses and reduces immune activation in treated chronic HIV-1 infection.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This randomised, open label, phase I, immunotherapeutic study investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-2, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), and therapeutic immunisation (a Clade B DNA vaccine) on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Herasimtschuk A,Downey J,Nelson M,Moyle G,Mandalia S,Sikut R,Adojaan M,Stanescu I,Gotch F,Imami N

    更新日期:2014-12-05 00:00:00

  • DNA vaccines in sheep: CTLA-4 mediated targeting and CpG motifs enhance immunogenicity in a DNA prime/protein boost strategy.

    abstract::DNA vaccines have proven to be an efficient means of inducing immune responses in small laboratory animals; however, their efficacy in large out-bred animal models has been much less promising. In addressing this issue, we have investigated the ability of ovine cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) mediated targetin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kennedy NJ,Spithill TW,Tennent J,Wood PR,Piedrafita D

    更新日期:2006-02-13 00:00:00

  • Murine cytomegalovirus inactivated by sodium periodate is innocuous and immunogenic in mice and protects them against death and infection.

    abstract::Sodium periodate (10 mM, 4 degrees C) inactivated murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) very rapidly (loss of 2 to 3 log of viral infectivity per minute). Periodate-treated MCMV (PI-MCMV) was shown to be innocuous in mice, as determined by the inability of the virus to replicate. PI-MCMV induced a strong humoral immune respon...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geoffroy F,Moachon N,Rodwell J,Quash GA

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Mucosal immunization with a replication-deficient adenovirus vector expressing murine cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B induces mucosal and systemic immunity.

    abstract::The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) glycoprotein B (gB) gene was expressed in an adenovirus replication-deficient vector. This virus, designated Ad-gB, was used to immunize BALB/c and B6 mice by the intranasal (i.n.) route to induce an immune response. Following primary immunization, antibody was detected in serum of 10...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shanley JD,Wu CA

    更新日期:2003-06-02 00:00:00

  • Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies amongst children in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Poliomyelitis is endemic in Northern Nigeria where there is continuous transmission of wild poliovirus 1 and 3 (WPV1 and 3) and circulating vaccine derived poliovirus 2 (cVDPV2) resulting in a high number of cases of children with acute flaccid paralysis. The seroprevalence of antibodies to polio serotypes w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giwa FJ,Olayinka AT,Ogunshola FT

    更新日期:2012-11-06 00:00:00

  • STING pathway stimulation results in a differentially activated innate immune phenotype associated with low nitric oxide and enhanced antibody titers in young and aged mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:One of the most concerning public health issues, related to vaccination and disease prevention, is the inability to induce durable immune responses following a single-dose immunization. In this regard, the nature of the inflammatory environment induced by vaccine adjuvants can negatively impact the resulting...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Darling RJ,Senapati S,Kelly SM,Kohut ML,Narasimhan B,Wannemuehler MJ

    更新日期:2019-05-06 00:00:00

  • Investigating adverse events following immunisation with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine using electronic General Practice data.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In early 2011, following an increased number of reports of severe vaccine-related injection site reactions, Australian authorities recommended against administering repeat doses of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) in otherwise healthy adults. The aim of this study was to assess a so...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trinh L,Macartney K,McIntyre P,Chiu C,Dey A,Menzies R

    更新日期:2017-03-13 00:00:00