Genetic predispositions and childhood cancer.


:This article provides an overview of the problem of genetic susceptibility to childhood cancer with a particular emphasis on problems with ascertaining inherited cancer risk and the role of tumor-suppressor gene mutations in cancer predispositions. The association between neurofibromatosis type 1 and childhood leukemia is used to illustrate some of the issues faced by molecular biologists and genetic epidemiologists in identifying and analyzing at-risk individuals. The problem of incomplete penetrance in cancer susceptibility is presented and potential models are discussed. The article concludes with a number of tentative conclusions from existing data and speculations for future studies.


Shannon K




Has Abstract


1998-06-01 00:00:00








106 Suppl 3


  • Multiple mechanisms for the carcinogenic effects of asbestos and other mineral fibers.

    abstract::Asbestos and other mineral fibers are carcinogenic to humans and animals but differ from many carcinogens in that they do not induce gene mutations. An understanding of these interesting human carcinogens, therefore, is an important problem in cancer research. Asbestos and other fibers induce predominantly two types o...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barrett JC,Lamb PW,Wiseman RW

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • The hydrogeological role of an aquitard in preventing drinkable water well contamination: a case study.

    abstract::Groundwater pollution has become a worrisome phenomenon, mainly for aquifers underlying industrialized areas. In order to evaluate the risk of pollution, a model of the aquifer is needed. Herewith, we describe a quasi-tridimensional model, which we applied to a multilayered aquifer where a phreatic aquifer was coupled...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ponzini G,Crosta G,Giudici M

    更新日期:1989-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of a recombinant yeast cell estrogen screening assay.

    abstract::A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures derived from plant and environmental origins are reported to have hormonal activity. The potential for appreciable exposure of humans to such substances prompts the need to develop sensitive screening methods to quantitate and evaluate the risk to the public. Yeast cel...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coldham NG,Dave M,Sivapathasundaram S,McDonnell DP,Connor C,Sauer MJ

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma organochlorines and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men: a nested case-control study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may contribute to the development of prostate cancer, few investigations have used biological samples to classify exposure to specific organochlorines. To our knowledge, this is the first p...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawada N,Iwasaki M,Inoue M,Itoh H,Sasazuki S,Yamaji T,Shimazu T,Tsugane S,Japan Public Health Center Based Prospective (JPHC) Study Group.

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Respiratory morbidity in office workers in a water-damaged building.

    abstract::We conducted a study on building-related respiratory disease and associated social impact in an office building with water incursions in the northeastern United States. An initial questionnaire had 67% participation (888/1,327). Compared with the U.S. adult population, prevalence ratios were 2.2-2.5 for wheezing, life...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cox-Ganser JM,White SK,Jones R,Hilsbos K,Storey E,Enright PL,Rao CY,Kreiss K

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Barrier capacity of human placenta for nanosized materials.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Humans have been exposed to fine and ultrafine particles throughout their history. Since the Industrial Revolution, sources, doses, and types of nanoparticles have changed dramatically. In the last decade, the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology has led to an increase of engineered nanoparticles with ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wick P,Malek A,Manser P,Meili D,Maeder-Althaus X,Diener L,Diener PA,Zisch A,Krug HF,von Mandach U

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • The work environment and workers' health in four large office buildings.

    abstract::We conducted a 1-year epidemiologic study in Boston, Massachusetts, beginning May 1997, to examine the associations between environmental factors and office workers' health. We recruited 98 subjects (81 females and 17 males) in 21 offices in four office buildings. We conducted environmental sampling every 6 weeks and ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chao HJ,Schwartz J,Milton DK,Burge HA

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolic activation of toxins: tissue-specific expression and metabolism in target organs.

    abstract::Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes catalyze the generation of reactive species capable of binding with cellular macromolecules, leading to acute and delayed toxicity. Since individual CYP forms differ markedly in their substrate preferences and regulation, the expression profiles of CYP in various cell types are important ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pelkonen O,Raunio H

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Modification of the interleukin-6 response to air pollution by interleukin-6 and fibrinogen polymorphisms.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Evidence suggests that cardiovascular effects of air pollution are mediated by inflammation and that air pollution can induce genetic expression of the interleukin-6 gene (IL6). OBJECTIVES:We investigated whether IL6 and fibrinogen gene variants can affect plasma IL-6 responses to air pollution in patients ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ljungman P,Bellander T,Schneider A,Breitner S,Forastiere F,Hampel R,Illig T,Jacquemin B,Katsouyanni K,von Klot S,Koenig W,Lanki T,Nyberg F,Pekkanen J,Pistelli R,Pitsavos C,Rosenqvist M,Sunyer J,Peters A

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Conference on health consequences of environmental controls: impact of mobile emissions controls. Conference objectives.

    abstract::The past and current EPA research and regulatory programs as they relate to non-regulated emissions from light-duty motor vehicles are reviewed. Provisions of Sections 202(a) and 211 of the 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments are discussed and their relationships to the nonregulated emissions issue detailed. The EPA positio...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moran JB

    更新日期:1975-04-01 00:00:00

  • Mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    abstract::The rapid development of the chemical industry, combustion of fossil fuels, and smoking of tobacco have resulted in contact of the general population with benzo(a)pyrene and other carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons. Persons especially at risk occupationally are those engaged in thermal processing of oil shale, coal, a...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pashin YV,Bakhitova LM

    更新日期:1979-06-01 00:00:00

  • Benzene and leukemia: an epidemiologic risk assessment.

    abstract::To assess quantitatively the association between benzene and leukemia, we evaluated the rate of mortality experienced by a cohort occupationally exposed to benzene. Using data from historical air sampling surveys, we estimated the daily benzene exposure for each member of the cohort. The expected number of leukemia de...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rinsky RA

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Factors affecting adrenocortical hormone function.

    abstract::This paper will briefly outline those elements which must be considered in assessing the effects of any given compound which might impinge on the actions of adrenocortical steroids. Considerations that ought to be taken into account include the following: the delivery to the affected cells of corticosteroids, the upta...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thompson EB

    更新日期:1981-04-01 00:00:00

  • Biological markers of intermediate outcomes in studies of indoor air and other complex mixtures.

    abstract::Biological markers of intermediate health outcomes sometimes provide a superior alternative to traditional measures of pollutant-related disease. Some opportunities and methodologic issues associated with using markers are discussed in the context of exposures to four complex mixtures: environmental tobacco smoke and ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilcosky TC

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.

    abstract::We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 8...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goldsmith JR,Grossman CM,Morton WE,Nussbaum RH,Kordysh EA,Quastel MR,Sobel RB,Nussbaum FD

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • A current genotoxicity database for heterocyclic thermic food mutagens. I. Genetically relevant endpoints.

    abstract::Cooking, heat processing, or pyrolysis of protein-rich foods induce the formation of a series of structurally related heterocyclic aromatic bases that have been found to be mutagens. The primary genetic assay utilized to detect and isolate these mutagens has been the his reversion assay in Salmonella typhimurium. The ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hatch FT

    更新日期:1986-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chrysotile in water.

    abstract::The problems of quantitating chrysotile in water by fiber count techniques are reviewed briefly and the use of mass quantitation is suggested as a preferable measure. Chrysotile fiber has been found in almost every sample of natural water examined, but generally transmission electron miscroscopy (TEM) is required beca...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Speil S

    更新日期:1974-12-01 00:00:00

  • What Can Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about the Impact of Chemical Mixtures on Human Health?

    abstract::Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental chemicals: Some of these may be toxic, and many others have unknown or poorly characterized health effects. There is intense interest in determining the impact of exposure to environmental chemical mixtures on human health. As the study of mixtures continues to evo...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Braun JM,Gennings C,Hauser R,Webster TF

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mycotoxins: toxicity, carcinogenicity, and the influence of various nutritional conditions.

    abstract::Toxicologic diseases of man and animals, associated with molds growing on foods, have been recognized for centuries. Only in recent years, however, have these mycotoxicoses received the attention of many laboratories and skilled scientists around the world in a broad inter-disciplinary effort. This review covers the l...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Newberne PM

    更新日期:1974-12-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms Underlying Latent Disease Risk Associated with Early-Life Arsenic Exposure: Current Research Trends and Scientific Gaps.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Millions of individuals worldwide, particularly those living in rural and developing areas, are exposed to harmful levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in their drinking water. Inorganic As exposure during key developmental periods is associated with a variety of adverse health effects, including those that are...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bailey KA,Smith AH,Tokar EJ,Graziano JH,Kim KW,Navasumrit P,Ruchirawat M,Thiantanawat A,Suk WA,Fry RC

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Association of thyroid hormone concentrations with levels of organochlorine compounds in cord blood of neonates.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Thyroid hormones are important regulators of brain development. During critical periods of development, even transient disorders in thyroid hormone availability may lead to profound neurologic impairment. Animal experiments have shown that certain environmental pollutants, including heavy metals and organoch...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maervoet J,Vermeir G,Covaci A,Van Larebeke N,Koppen G,Schoeters G,Nelen V,Baeyens W,Schepens P,Viaene MK

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • The Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Variation According to Farming Practices in Punjab, India.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Agricultural use of antimicrobials in subtherapeutic concentrations is increasing in response to the rising demand for food animal products worldwide. In India, the use of antimicrobials in food animal production is unregulated. Research suggests that many clinically important antimicrobials are used indiscr...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brower CH,Mandal S,Hayer S,Sran M,Zehra A,Patel SJ,Kaur R,Chatterjee L,Mishra S,Das BR,Singh P,Singh R,Gill JPS,Laxminarayan R

    更新日期:2017-07-20 00:00:00

  • Blood lead levels and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in peripubertal boys.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Childhood lead exposure has been associated with growth delay. However, the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has not been characterized in a large cohort with low-level lead exposure. METHODS:We recruited 394 boys 8-9 years of age from an industrial Russi...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fleisch AF,Burns JS,Williams PL,Lee MM,Sergeyev O,Korrick SA,Hauser R

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of chlorocamphene on the isoenzyme spectrum of lactate dehydrogenase in rat serum and liver.

    abstract::Rats were used to study the general activity and the isoenzyme spectrum of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during single-instance and long-term introduction of polychlorocamphene. Total lactate dehydrogenase activity decreases in the liver during the single-instance introduction of half the LD50 (120 mg/kg). The isoenzyme...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuz'minskaya UA,Alekhina SM

    更新日期:1976-02-01 00:00:00

  • Air pollution and blood markers of cardiovascular risk.

    abstract::Recent studies have linked air pollution to tens of thousands of premature cardiovascular deaths per year. The mechanisms of such associations remain unclear. In this study we examine the association between blood markers of cardiovascular risk and air pollution in a national sample of the U.S. population. Air polluti...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwartz J

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • General subcellular effects of lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic.

    abstract::This working paper summarizes the known ultrastructural and biochemical effects of lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic on subcellular organelle systems following in vivo administration. Documented metal-induced alterations in nuclear, mitochondrial, microsomal, and lysosomal functions are discussed in relation to thei...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fowler BA

    更新日期:1978-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of mass screening for uterine cancer in Japan: the potential years of life lost.

    abstract::To evaluate the effectiveness of mass screening for uterine cancer in Japan, we compared the changes in the age-adjusted rates of potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to uterine cancer between 1969 and 1972 to 1973 through 1977 between the high coverage-rate (intensively screened) areas and the comparable control a...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuroishi T,Hirose K,Tominaga S

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Proliferative lesions of the exocrine pancreas in male F344/N rats.

    abstract::While the rat pancreas is susceptible to experimental cancer induction, the spontaneous incidence of pancreatic cancer in this species is reported to be very low. However, we observed unusually high incidences of focal acinar hyperplasia and acinar adenoma in vehicle control male F344/N rats of some NCI/NTP 2-year tox...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boorman GA,Eustis SL

    更新日期:1984-06-01 00:00:00

  • Residential Exposure to Natural Background Radiation and Risk of Childhood Acute Leukemia in France, 1990-2009.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Exposures to high-dose ionizing radiation and high-dose rate ionizing radiation are established risk factors for childhood acute leukemia (AL). The risk of AL following exposure to lower doses due to natural background radiation (NBR) has yet to be conclusively determined. METHODS:AL cases diagnosed over 19...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Demoury C,Marquant F,Ielsch G,Goujon S,Debayle C,Faure L,Coste A,Laurent O,Guillevic J,Laurier D,Hémon D,Clavel J

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Emergence of delayed methylmercury toxicity after perinatal exposure in metallothionein-null and wild-type C57BL mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although a long latency period of toxicity after exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) is known to exist in humans, few animal studies have addressed this issue. Substantiation of delayed MeHg toxicity in animals would affect the risk evaluation of MeHg. OBJECTIVES:Our goal in this study was to demonstrate the e...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoshida M,Shimizu N,Suzuki M,Watanabe C,Satoh M,Mori K,Yasutake A

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00