Irritant contact stomatitis: a review of the condition.


:Several different types of interactions are possible between a chemical, a mixture of chemicals, and associated extrinsic factors (i.e., mechanical irritation) in the oral mucosa. These interactions can be broadly classified as irritative or allergenic in nature. In each case, the pathology usually includes mucosal inflammation. The information compiled and reviewed in this article suggests that, given the broad definition of surface lesions/mucosal abnormalities, there may be a continuum of irritation that can be termed "irritant contact stomatitis." This may be due to the fact that the mouth is lined with highly vascular mucosa that turns over rapidly compared to the skin, and may or may not be covered by keratin. Some regions in the mouth are uniquely sensitive to irritants because they can penetrate through the tissue easily. Key factors involved in the potential development of irritation are: inherent irritation potential of the agent, amount of exposure (concentration, duration, and frequency), ability to penetrate the tissue, and inherent reactivity of the subject as well as other extrinsic factors. Irritation leading to oral mucosal alterations is a common occurrence caused by a wide variety of exposures and insults to the oral cavity. Various irritants such as foods, chemicals, friction, thermal/mechanical injury, metals, spices, and oral care products have been documented to cause irritant reactions in susceptible individuals, particularly if used under exaggerated exposure conditions. It is important to note that most irritation in the oral cavity tends to reverse quickly when the causative agent is removed. Oral irritation is a commonly occurring phenomenon. Thus, it is important that the clinician be aware of the clinical manifestations and etiology of the condition.


J Periodontol


Davis CC,Squier CA,Lilly GE




Has Abstract


1998-06-01 00:00:00












  • Enhancing effects of areca nut extracts on the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The habit of chewing areca quid (AQ) has been implicated in oral pathogenesis, including periodontal disease. Little is understood about the roles of AQ in the cytokine secretion by immune cells. The study examined the effects of areca nut, the major ingredient of AQ, on the production of interleukin (IL)-6 ...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang LY,Wan HC,Lai YL,Liu TY,Hung SL

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of CD4+ cells in vivo on the induction of the immune response to Porphyromonas gingivalis in mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:It has previously been suggested that CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in regulating the immune response to periodontal pathogens. The aim of the present study therefore was to determine delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), spleen cell proliferation, serum and splenic anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis antibody l...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sosroseno W,Bird PS,Gemmell E,Seymour GJ

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of oral contraceptive effectiveness by concurrent antibiotic administration. A review.

    abstract::The use of antibiotics in periodontal therapy has received increasing attention in recent years. Although generally safe, certain antibiotics, including tetracycline and ampicillin, have been shown to interact indirectly with oral contraceptives, with a resultant decrease in oral contraceptive efficacy. This paper rev...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barnett ML

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Periodontal and systemic responses in various mice models of experimental periodontitis: respective roles of inflammation duration and Porphyromonas gingivalis infection.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The great variability of periodontal and systemic responses to experimental periodontitis reflects the inherent pathogenic complexity of mice models and could limit the resulting interpretations and their extension to human diseases. This study compared the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) infection a...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saadi-Thiers K,Huck O,Simonis P,Tilly P,Fabre JE,Tenenbaum H,Davideau JL

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Subgingival microflora in Turkish patients with periodontitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:No information exists on periodontitis-associated subgingival microbiota from Turkey. We determined the occurrence, interspecies relationships, and clonal characteristics for a group of periodontal bacteria in a Turkish study population. METHODS:Subgingival microbial samples were obtained from patients with...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Doğan B,Antinheimo J,Cetiner D,Bodur A,Emingil G,Buduneli E,Uygur C,Firatli E,Lakio L,Asikainen S

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Gingival overgrowth and dental alveolar alterations: possible mechanisms of cyclosporin-induced tooth migration. An experimental study in the rat.

    abstract::The inter-incisal distance and dimension of the interdental papilla between the mandibular incisors were examined in cyclosporin A (CSA) fed rats over 6 weeks. Rats in the test group received CSA daily in mineral oil by gastric feeding (30 mg/kg body weight); the control group received mineral oil only. The inter-inci...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fu E,Nieh S,Wikesjö UM,Lin FG,Shen EC

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of caspase-8, caspase-9, and apoptosis inducing factor in periodontal disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Caspases are key mediators of apoptosis. Caspase-8 mediates extrinsic, and caspase-9 initiates the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), a mitochondrial proapoptotic protein, mediates cell death by a caspase-independent process. Because apoptosis is involved in periodontal disease,...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aral K,Aral CA,Kapila Y

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • One stage full- versus partial-mouth disinfection in the treatment of chronic adult or generalized early-onset periodontitis. II. Long-term impact on microbial load.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent studies showed the clinical benefits of a one stage full-mouth disinfection, when compared to the worldwide standard treatment strategy of consecutive root planings per quadrant without proper disinfection of the remaining intraoral niches. The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbiologi...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Quirynen M,Mongardini C,Pauwels M,Bollen CM,Van Eldere J,van Steenberghe D

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Commentary: A Translational Medicine Approach to Tooth Transplantation.

    abstract::The autogenous tooth transplantation approach to replace missing teeth has been in use for a long time. Different surgical techniques have been developed to improve prognosis and longevity of transplanted teeth with complete root formation. Many factors reportedly affected short- and long-term success of the procedure...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Prato GP,Zuccati G,Clauser C

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Periodontal regeneration of human intrabony defects. IV. Determinants of healing response.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to identify factors which might affect the healing response in intrabony defects treated with guided tissue regeneration. Selected sites presented with deep periodontal lesions with 1, 2, and 3 wall combination intrabony component of 6.1 +/- 2.5 mm. The significance of patient, tooth, and...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tonetti MS,Pini-Prato G,Cortellini P

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Gingivitis and periodontitis are related to repeated high levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several studies have indicated a relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the circulating proinflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta, prostaglandin E(2), serotonin, rheumatoid ...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nilsson M,Kopp S

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of periodontal treatment on serum leptin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies suggest that periodontitis is closely related to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Leptin, a pleiotrophic hormone produced by adipose tissue, has been reported to be related to periodontitis. This study investigates the effects of periodontal treatment on the serum levels of leptin and other c...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shimada Y,Komatsu Y,Ikezawa-Suzuki I,Tai H,Sugita N,Yoshie H

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-mediated experimental bone loss model for aggressive periodontitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bacterial constituents, such as Gram-negative derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can initiate inflammatory bone loss through induction of host-derived inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to establish a model of aggressive inflammatory alveolar bone loss in rats using LPS derived from the periodo...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rogers JE,Li F,Coatney DD,Rossa C,Bronson P,Krieder JM,Giannobile WV,Kirkwood KL

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic Control of the Immune Response in Pathogenesis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Epidemiological studies have suggested that there is a genetic component to susceptibility to chronic periodontitis. Studies in humans and in animal models have suggested that some of the important components may be polymorphisms in key immunological genes. METHODS:This paper summarizes previously published...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baker PJ

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of Human Gingival Tissue and Gingival Crevicular Fluid β-Glucuronidase Activity in Specific Periodontal Diseases.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:β-glucuronidase (βG) is one of the enzymes involved in the destruction of non-collagenous components of the extracellular matrix. It is also considered an indicator or predictor of periodontal disease activity. The present study was conducted to determine the presence and the levels of βG activity in gingiva...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Layik M,Yamalik N,Çaglayan F,Kilinç K,Etikan I,Eratalay K

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Coronally advanced flap procedure for root coverage. Treatment of root surface: root planning versus polishing.

    abstract::This clinical study was designed to determine if mechanical instrumentation (root planing) of the exposed root is useful in treating gingival recession caused by traumatic toothbrushing following a coronally advanced flap (CAF). Ten patients with high levels of oral hygiene (full-mouth plaque score <20%), from 25 to 5...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Pini-Prato G,Baldi C,Pagliaro U,Nieri M,Saletta D,Rotundo R,Cortellini P

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Bone sialoprotein gene transfer to periodontal ligament cells may not be sufficient to promote mineralization in vitro or in vivo.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To improve regenerative therapies, it is important to understand the cells and factors modulating periodontal tissues. Our group has focused on bone sialoprotein (BSP), a mineralized tissue-selective protein considered to be involved in the initiation of cementogenesis and osteogenesis. In this study, we exa...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hakki SS,Wang D,Franceschi RT,Somerman MJ

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • The secretion of PGE2, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF alpha by adherent mononuclear cells from early onset periodontitis patients.

    abstract::The secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by adherent mononuclear cells (AMNC) from 28 patients with early-onset periodontitis was studied. The early onset-periodontitis patients consisted of 12 patients with localized ju...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shapira L,Soskolne WA,Sela MN,Offenbacher S,Barak V

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Periodontal-endodontic lesion of a three-rooted maxillary premolar: report of a case.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A 43-year-old African American male initially presented for a dental evaluation of a recurrent swelling on the buccal aspect of tooth #12. His medical history was unremarkable except for a 20-pack year history of smoking. He was eventually diagnosed as having a necrotic pulp #12, and received root canal trea...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blanchard SB,Almasri A,Gray JL

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of the interleukin-1 genotype on outcomes of regenerative periodontal therapy with bone replacement grafts.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have shown an association between a specific genotype for the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 and the severity of periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the IL-1 genotype on the outcomes of periodontal surgical regenerative treatment with bone r...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weiss OI,Caton J,Blieden T,Fisher SG,Trafton S,Hart TC

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Localization of fibronectin in gingival connective tissue of the beagle dog. Ultrastructural detection with ferritin and peroxidase-conjugated antibodies.

    abstract::Ferritin and peroxidase-conjugated antibodies were used in an indirect antibody method to localize fibronectin in gingival connective tissues. Fibronectin was found in the basal lamina beneath the epithelium and endothelium. Collagen fibrils associated with the basement membranes were also heavily coated by fibronecti...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cho MI,Lee YL,Garant PR

    更新日期:1986-07-01 00:00:00

  • Serum lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ and C-reactive protein levels in association with periodontal disease and hyperlipidemia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of serum lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in association with periodontal disease and hyperlipidemia. METHODS:A total of 123 subjects with hyperlipidemia and 68 systemically healthy controls ...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fentoğlu O,Köroğlu BK,Kara Y,Doğan B,Yılmaz G,Sütçü R,Ay ZY,Tonguç MÖ,Orhan H,Tamer MN,Kırzıoğlu FY

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Combined periodontal regenerative technique in human intrabony defects by collagen membranes and anorganic bovine bone. A controlled clinical study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Combined periodontal regenerative technique (CPRT) is a surgical procedure that combines the use of barrier membranes with a filling material in the treatment of periodontal defects. The effectiveness of CPRT has been evaluated in many studies in comparison to GTR with membranes alone, but conflicting result...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Paolantonio M

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Experimental gingivitis in ODU plaque-susceptible rats. V. On the vascular permeability factor of dental plaque.

    abstract::Plaque-induced inflammation has been documented from various aspects, but is still not well understood. In an effort to clarify the physicochemical properties of dental plaque and to isolate the active factor which give rise to inflammation, we studied a factor in plaque which may be a direct and local cause of gingiv...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsuda K,Yamanaka Y,Shen CT,Mori M

    更新日期:1980-07-01 00:00:00

  • Axonal transport of fluorescent carbocyanine dyes allows mapping of peripheral nerve territories in gingiva.

    abstract::Sensory innervation of gingival tissue can cause neurogenic inflammation that depends on the extent of the branching area of the peripheral nerve fibers. We designed the present study to determine whether single trigeminal axons branch to both the buccal and palatal gingiva of maxillary molars of adult rats. Accumulat...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sugaya A,Chudler EH,Byers MR

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of periodontal treatment on the protein composition of whole and parotid saliva.

    abstract::Cystatins are physiological inhibitors of cysteine proteinases and widely distributed in human tissues and fluids including saliva. Cystatins S, SA, SN, and D are only found in glandular saliva and tear fluid whereas cystatin C has been detected in all tested biological fluids. Previous studies demonstrated that total...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Henskens YM,van der Weijden FA,van den Keijbus PA,Veerman EC,Timmerman MF,van der Velden U,Amerongen AV

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the oral mucosa: report of a case with multiple gingival localizations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Metastases to the oral mucosa are rare, representing less than 1% of the tumors at this site. Most of these metastatic neoplasms originate in the lungs, kidneys, and liver. METHODS:The clinicopathologic features of an occult hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic to the oral mucosa, are reported. The patient,...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maiorano E,Piattelli A,Favia G

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Crestal bone changes around implants with reduced abutment diameter placed non-submerged and at subcrestal positions: a 1-year radiographic evaluation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is limited information about two-part implants placed in subcrestal positions. The aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the 1-year outcome of implants placed non-submerged and in a subcrestal position. METHODS:Records of 50 consecutive partially edentulous patients restored with dental imp...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Donovan R,Fetner A,Koutouzis T,Lundgren T

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin production by peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharides isolated from periodontopathogenic bacteria.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Recent studies have revealed the existence of 2 isozymes of cyclooxygenase (COX), called COX-1 and COX-2. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of COX-1 and COX-2 to PGE2 production by hum...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Noguchi K,Yanai M,Shitashige M,Nishihara T,Ishikawa I

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of guided tissue regeneration membrane placement on healthy periodontal sites.

    abstract::This study investigates the effects of the placement of a bioresorbable Type I collagen barrier on clinically healthy sites. Ten human subjects, with at least one pair of matched periodontal defects included in a previous study, were investigated for the effect of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane placement on...

    journal_title:Journal of periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stein MD,Salkin LM,Freedman AL

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00