Chemical and pharmacological studies of saponins with a focus on American ginseng.


:Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) are the two most recognized ginseng botanicals. It is believed that the ginseng saponins called ginsenosides are the major active constituents in both ginsengs. Although American ginseng is not as extensively studied as Asian ginseng, it is one of the best selling herbs in the U.S., and has garnered increasing attention from scientists in recent years. In this article, after a brief introduction of the distribution and cultivation of American ginseng, we discuss chemical analysis of saponins from these two ginsengs, i.e., their similarities and differences. Subsequently, we review pharmacological effects of the saponins, including the effects on the cardiovascular system, immune system, and central nervous system as well as the antidiabetes and anti-cancer effects. These investigations were mainly derived from American ginseng studies. We also discuss evidence suggesting that chemical modifications of ginseng saponins would be a valuable approach to develop novel compounds in drug discovery.


J Ginseng Res


Yuan CS,Wang CZ,Wicks SM,Qi LW




Has Abstract


2010-09-01 00:00:00












  • Molecular discrimination of Panax ginseng cultivar K-1 using pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene.

    abstract:Background:The mixed-cultivation of different Panax ginseng cultivars can cause adverse effects on stability of yield and quality. K-1 is a superior cultivar with good root shape and stronger disease resistance. DNA markers mined from functional genes are clearly desirable for K-1, as they may associate with major trai...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang H,Xu F,Wang X,Kwon WS,Yang DC

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Ginsenoside Rg3 and Korean Red Ginseng extract epigenetically regulate the tumor-related long noncoding RNAs RFX3-AS1 and STXBP5-AS1.

    abstract:Background:Ginsenoside Rg3, a derivative of steroidal saponins abundant in ginseng, has a range of effects on cancer cells, including anti-cell proliferation and anti-inflammation activity. Here, we investigate two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), STXBP5-AS1 and RFX3-AS1, which are hypomethylated and hypermethylated in t...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ham J,Jeong D,Park S,Kim HW,Kim H,Kim SJ

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Optimal fertilizer application for Panax notoginseng and effect of soil water on root rot disease and saponin contents.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Blind and excessive application of fertilizers was found during the cultivation of Panax notoginseng in fields, as well as increase in root rot disease incidence. METHODS:Both "3414" application and orthogonal test designs were performed at Shilin county, Yunnan province, China, for NPK (nitrogen, phosphoru...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xia P,Guo H,Zhao H,Jiao J,Deyholos MK,Yan X,Liu Y,Liang Z

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ginseng berry polysaccharides on inflammation-associated colon cancer: inhibiting T-cell differentiation, promoting apoptosis, and enhancing the effects of 5-fluorouracil.

    abstract:Background:Ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in treating various medical conditions. Chronic gut inflammation is a recognized factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this project, Asian ginseng berry polysaccharide preparations were used to assess their effects on CRC and related immune regul...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang CZ,Hou L,Wan JY,Yao H,Yuan J,Zeng J,Park CW,Kim SH,Seo DB,Shin KS,Zhang CF,Chen L,Zhang QH,Liu Z,Sava-Segal C,Yuan CS

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng), urushiol (Rhus vernicifera Stokes), and probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052) on the gut-liver axis of alcoholic liver disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Roles of immune reaction and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) have widely been established in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS:We evaluated the biologic efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG), urushiol, and probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052) in...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bang CS,Hong SH,Suk KT,Kim JB,Han SH,Sung H,Kim EJ,Kim MJ,Kim MY,Baik SK,Kim DJ

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Protective effect of ginsenoside-Rb2 from Korean red ginseng on the lethal infection of haemagglutinating virus of Japan in mice.

    abstract::Korean red ginseng has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. However, little is known about antiviral activity of ginsenosides of Korean red ginseng. Here, we investigated the protective effect by oral administration of various ginsenosides on the lethal infection of haemagglutinating virus of Japa...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoo YC,Lee J,Park SR,Nam KY,Cho YH,Choi JE

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of glucosidases of Aspergillus niger strain comparing with other glucosidases in transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenosides Rg3.

    abstract::The transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into a specific minor ginsenoside using Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239, as well as the identification of the transformed products and the pathway via thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated to develop a new biologically active material. Th...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang KH,Jo MN,Kim KT,Paik HD

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-aging effects of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) in differentiated embryo chondrocyte (DEC) knockout mice.

    abstract:Background:The circadian rhythm is the internal clock that controls sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, cognition, and several processes in the body, and its disruption has been associated with aging. The differentiated embryo chondrocyte (Dec) gene is related to circadian rhythm. To our knowledge, there are no reports of t...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nam YH,Jeong SY,Kim YH,Rodriguez I,Nuankaew W,Bhawal UK,Hong BN,Kang TH

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Fermentation of red ginseng extract by the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P: ginsenoside conversion and antioxidant effects.

    abstract:Background:Ginsenosides, which are bioactive components in ginseng, can be converted to smaller compounds for improvement of their pharmacological activities. The conversion methods include heating; acid, alkali, and enzymatic treatment; and microbial conversion. The aim of this study was to determine the bioconversion...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jung J,Jang HJ,Eom SJ,Choi NS,Lee NK,Paik HD

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems.

    abstract:Background:Recently, we identified a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid receptor ligand, called gintonin. We showed that gintonin induces [Ca2+]i transient-mediated morphological changes, proliferation, and migration in cells expressing lysophosphatidic acid receptors and that oral administration of gintonin e...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee BH,Choi SH,Kim HJ,Park SD,Rhim H,Kim HC,Hwang SH,Nah SY

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of Korean Red Ginseng in chronic liver disease.

    abstract::Chronic liver disease, one of the most common diseases, typically arises from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, there is a pressing need for improved treatment strategies. Korean Red Ginseng has been known to have positive effect...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Park TY,Hong M,Sung H,Kim S,Suk KT

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Nuclear factor kappa-B- and activator protein-1-mediated immunostimulatory activity of compound K in monocytes and macrophages.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Compound K (CK) is a bioactive derivative of ginsenoside Rb1 in Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng). Its biological and pharmacological activities have been studied in various disease conditions, although its immunomodulatory role in innate immunity mediated by monocytes/macrophages has been poorly understood. In...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang WS,Yi YS,Kim D,Kim MH,Park JG,Kim E,Lee SY,Yoon K,Kim JH,Park J,Cho JY

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Biotransformation of major ginsenosides in ginsenoside model culture by lactic acid bacteria.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Some differences have been reported in the biotransformation of ginsenosides, probably due to the types of materials used such as ginseng, enzymes, and microorganisms. Moreover, most microorganisms used for transforming ginsenosides do not meet food-grade standards. We investigated the statistical conversion...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park SE,Na CS,Yoo SA,Seo SH,Son HS

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory Effects of Total Ginseng Saponin on Catecholamine Secretion from the Perfused Adrenal Medulla of SHRs.

    abstract::There seems to be some controversy about the effect of total ginseng saponin (TGS) on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) from the adrenal gland. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether TGS can affect the CA release in the perfused model of the adrenal medulla isolated from spontaneously hypertensive ...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jang SJ,Lim HJ,Lim DY

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in the Contents of Prosapogenin in the Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Depending on Steaming Batches.

    abstract::This study compared the contents of ginsenosides depending on steaming conditions of red ginsengs to provide basic information for developing functional foods using red ginsengs. The red ginseng steamed eight times at 98℃ ranked atop the amounts of prosapogenins ever detected in red ginsengs (ginsenoside Rg2, Rg3, Rg5...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee SA,Jo HK,Im BO,Kim S,Whang WK,Ko SK

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Korean Red Ginseng exhibits no significant adverse effect on disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    abstract:Background:Panax ginseng is a well-known immune modulator, and there is concern that its immune-enhancing effects may negatively affect patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by worsening symptoms or increasing the risk of adverse effects from other drugs. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, we evaluated the...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cho SK,Kim D,Yoo D,Jang EJ,Jun JB,Sung YK

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Korean Red Ginseng enhances cardiac hemodynamics on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats.

    abstract:Background:Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been known to possess many ginsenosides. These ginsenosides are used for curing cardiovascular problems. The present study show the protective potential of KRG against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial dysfunction, by assessing electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, and biochemica...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jang YJ,Lee D,Hossain MA,Aravinthan A,Kang CW,Kim NS,Kim JH

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of Korean Red Ginseng on full-thickness skin wound healing in rats.

    abstract:Background:Panax ginseng is regarded as one of the best compounds for promoting health, and it has been used traditionally as a medicinal herb. Recently, Korean Red Ginseng (RG) has been shown to protect skin from aging and wrinkling; it can also relieve atopic dermatitis and allergy symptoms. This study aimed to evalu...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park KS,Park DH

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Enzymatic formation of compound-K from ginsenoside Rb1 by enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of Armillaria mellea.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Minor saponins or human intestinal bacterial metabolites, such as ginsenosides Rg3, F2, Rh2, and compound K, are more pharmacologically active than major saponins, such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc. In this work, enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1 was studied using enzyme preparations from cultured ...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Upadhyaya J,Kim MJ,Kim YH,Ko SR,Park HW,Kim MK

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Antimelanogenesis and skin-protective activities of Panax ginseng calyx ethanol extract.

    abstract:Background:The antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng have been reported in several articles; however, little is known about the antimelanogenesis effect, skin-protective effect, and cellular mechanism of Panax ginseng, especially of P. ginseng calyx. To understand how an ethanol extract of P. ginseng berry calyx (Pg-C-E...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee JO,Kim E,Kim JH,Hong YH,Kim HG,Jeong D,Kim J,Kim SH,Park C,Seo DB,Son YJ,Han SY,Cho JY

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Antidepressant effects of ginsenoside Rf on behavioral change in the glial degeneration model of depression by reversing glial loss.

    abstract:Background:Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disease that shows astrocyte pathology. Ginsenoside Rf (G-Rf) is a saponin found in Panax ginseng which has been used to treat neuropsychiatric diseases. We aimed to investigate antidepressant properties of G-Rf when introduced into the L-alpha-aminoadipic acid (L-AAA)...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim Y,Lee HY,Choi YJ,Cho SH

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Ginsenosides: potential therapeutic source for fibrosis-associated human diseases.

    abstract::Tissue fibrosis is an eventual pathologic change of numerous chronic illnesses, which is characterized by resident fibroblasts differentiation into myofibroblasts during inflammation, coupled with excessive extracellular matrix deposition in tissues, ultimately leading to failure of normal organ function. Now, there a...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Li X,Mo N,Li Z

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Up-regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Korean Red Ginseng Water Extract as a Cytoprotective Effect in Human Endothelial Cells.

    abstract::Korean red ginseng (KRG) is used worldwide as a popular traditional herbal medicine. KRG has shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. Up-regulation of a cytoprotective protein, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, is considered to augment the cellular defense against ...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang H,Lee SE,Jeong SI,Park CS,Jin YH,Park YS

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Ginsenoside Rb1 ameliorates liver fat accumulation by upregulating perilipin expression in adipose tissue of db/db obese mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1), the major active constituent of ginseng, improves insulin sensitivity and exerts antidiabetic effects. We tested whether the insulin-sensitizing and antidiabetic effects of G-Rb1 results from a reduction in ectopic fat accumulation, mediated by inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes. ...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu X,Ye L,Zhang H,Zhao J,Wang G,Guo C,Shang W

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Panax ginseng Meyer prevents radiation-induced liver injury via modulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Radiotherapy is one of the most important modalities in cancer treatment; however, normal tissue damage is a serious concern. Drug development for the protection or reduction of normal tissue damage is therefore a clinical issue. Herein, we evaluated the protective properties of Panax ginseng Meyer and its c...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim HG,Jang SS,Lee JS,Kim HS,Son CG

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Complete (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectral assignment of five malonyl ginsenosides from the fresh flower buds of Panax ginseng.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Ginsenosides are the major effective ingredients responsible for the pharmacological effects of ginseng. Malonyl ginsenosides are natural ginsenosides that contain a malonyl group attached to a glucose unit of the corresponding neutral ginsenosides. METHODS:Medium-pressure liquid chromatography and semiprep...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang YS,Jin YP,Gao W,Xiao SY,Zhang YW,Zheng PH,Wang J,Liu JX,Sun CH,Wang YP

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Ginseng saponins and the treatment of osteoporosis: mini literature review.

    abstract::The ginseng plant (Panax ginseng Meyer) has a large number of active ingredients including steroidal saponins with a dammarane skeleton as well as protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, commonly known as ginsenosides, which have antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-adipocyte, and sexual enhancing effects. Though...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Siddiqi MH,Siddiqi MZ,Ahn S,Kang S,Kim YJ,Sathishkumar N,Yang DU,Yang DC

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular Diseases and Panax ginseng: A Review on Molecular Mechanisms and Medical Applications.

    abstract::Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginseng may also be potentially valuable in treating cardiovascular diseases. Research concerning cardiovascular disease is focusing on purified individual ginsenoside constitue...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim JH

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Melanogenesis inhibition activity of floralginsenoside A from Panax ginseng berry.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Panax ginseng is a traditional herb used for medicinal purposes in eastern Asia. P. ginseng contains various ginsenosides with pharmacological effects. In this study, floralginsenoside A (FGA), ginsenoside Rd (GRD), and ginsenoside Re (GRE) were purified from P. ginseng berry. METHODS:Chemical structures of...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee DY,Lee J,Jeong YT,Byun GH,Kim JH

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical and bioactive comparison of Panax notoginseng root and rhizome in raw and steamed forms.

    abstract:Background:The root and rhizome are historically and officially utilized medicinal parts of Panax notoginseng (PN) (Burk.) F. H. Chen, which in raw and steamed forms are used differently in practice. Methods:To investigate the differences in chemical composition and bioactivities of PN root and rhizome between raw and...

    journal_title:Journal of ginseng research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiong Y,Chen L,Man J,Hu Y,Cui X

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00