What can development teach us about menopause?


:Development and aging are often mirror image processes and this may be equally true in the effects of estradiol, a potent endogenous steroid regulating brain development as well as a therapeutic used to relieve the negative components of perimenopause. Both the developing and perimenopausal brain are characterized by a sensitive period of hormone responsiveness, and in both cases, the neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate, as well as synaptogenesis and cell proliferation are major hormone targets. This review compares and contrasts the effects of estradiol on the developing and aging brain and highlights new avenues of exploration and therapeutic development.


Brain Res


Brain research


McCarthy MM




Has Abstract


2011-03-16 00:00:00












  • Axonal transport of neurofilament is accelerated in peripheral nerve during 2,5-hexanedione intoxication.

    abstract::The neurotoxic compound 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) causes an axonopathy characterized by the presence of neurofilament (NF)-containing enlargements in the preterminal segments of central and peripheral axons. The 2,5-HD axonopathy is a good model for human acquired and inherited giant axonal neuropathies. Recently, we r...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monaco S,Jacob J,Jenich H,Patton A,Autilio-Gambetti L,Gambetti P

    更新日期:1989-07-10 00:00:00

  • Anti-nociceptive effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in nucleus raphe magnus of rats: an effect attenuated by naloxone.

    abstract::The present study investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on nociception in nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the interaction between CGRP and opioid peptides in NRM of rats. CGRP-like immunoreactivity was found at a concentration of 6.0+/-0. 77 pmol/g in NRM tissue of ten samples of rats, suggest...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang Y,Brodda-Jansen G,Lundeberg T,Yu LC

    更新日期:2000-08-04 00:00:00

  • Regional differences in the regulation of dopamine and noradrenaline release in medial frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen: a microdialysis study in the rat.

    abstract::Dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) extracellular levels have been measured by microdialysis in the medial frontal cortex (MFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate-putamen (CP) under baseline conditions in awake and halothane-anaesthetized rats, and after application of three types of stimuli which are likely to act...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cenci MA,Kalén P,Mandel RJ,Björklund A

    更新日期:1992-05-29 00:00:00

  • Memantine selectively blocks extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in rat substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    abstract::Recent studies suggest that selective block of extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might protect against neurodegeneration. We recorded whole-cell currents with patch pipettes to characterize the ability of memantine, a low-affinity NMDA channel blocker, to block synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA recepto...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu YN,Johnson SW

    更新日期:2015-04-07 00:00:00

  • Induction of the c-fos proto-oncogene during opiate withdrawal in the locus coeruleus and other regions of rat brain.

    abstract::Opiate regulation of the nuclear proto-oncogene c-fos was studied in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions of rat brain by immunoblotting, northern blotting, and in situ hybridization procedures. Precipitation of opiate withdrawal in rats, which is known to increase LC firing rates 4-fold, led to a two- to three-...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayward MD,Duman RS,Nestler EJ

    更新日期:1990-08-20 00:00:00

  • Frequent minty chewing gum use is associated with increased trigeminal sensitivity: An fMRI study.

    abstract::Repeated sensory exposure through frequent consumption of certain foods leads to changes in the processing of sensory cues. We investigated the influence of frequent minty chewing gum consumption on the neurobehavioral processing of intranasal trigeminal and olfactory stimuli. fMRI responses to a trigeminal minty odor...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Han P,Penzler M,Jonathan W,Hummel T

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sensory requirements for the lordosis reflex in female rats.

    abstract::(1) Visual, auditory and olfactory input were not necessary for the performance of the lordosis reflex by female rats. Since taste is not involved in this behavior, somatosensory input must be sufficient for triggering the lordosis reflex. (2) Surgical cutaneous denervation markedly reduced the frequency and strength ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kow LM

    更新日期:1976-01-09 00:00:00

  • Regeneration of primary afferent neurons containing substance P-like immunoreactivity.

    abstract::We compared changes in levels of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in L4-6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), L4-6 dorsal roots, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve and hind foot skin in rats following resection or crush injury of the sciatic nerve. The initial depletion of SPLI, which occurred in all areas sampled, was simila...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bisby MA,Keen P

    更新日期:1986-02-12 00:00:00

  • Short toxic methamphetamine schedule impairs object recognition task in male rats.

    abstract::Performance on object recognition and object placement memory tasks was evaluated after a short-dosing model of methamphetamine (MA) regime and monoamines and metabolites were measured post-testing. Adult male rats received three injections of 10 mg/kg at 2-h intervals. In striatum DA and 5-HT were depleted by 65% and...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bisagno V,Ferguson D,Luine VN

    更新日期:2002-06-14 00:00:00

  • Effects of intracellular TEA injection on early adaptation of crustacean stretch receptor.

    abstract::The effects of intracellular injection of TEA on the stretch-induced response of the slowly adapting stretch receptor of the crayfish have been examined to determine the contribution of an outward potassium current to the early adaptation of the neuron. Intracellular recording techniques including potential clamp meas...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ottoson D,Swerup C

    更新日期:1985-06-10 00:00:00

  • Cocaine stimulates adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion through a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated mechanism.

    abstract::Cocaine was injected intravenously to non-anesthetized, freely moving adult male rats and caused dose-dependent elevations in plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels. The observation that this stimulatory effect was completely abolished by pretreatment with a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antiserum, coupled wi...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rivier C,Vale W

    更新日期:1987-10-06 00:00:00

  • 2,3-Butanedione monoxime protects mice against the convulsant effect of picrotoxin by facilitating GABA-activated currents.

    abstract::While adult mice receiving picrotoxin (PTX) alone responded with clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, this response was greatly suppressed for mice simultaneously injected with 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM). For example, 60% and 10% of the mice convulsed when injected (i.p.) with 3.0 mg/kg PTX alone or PTX plus 205 mg/k...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brightman T,Ye JH,Ortiz-Jimenez E,Flynn EJ,Wu WH,McArdle JJ

    更新日期:1995-04-24 00:00:00

  • MicroRNA-146a down-regulation correlates with neuroprotection and targets pro-apoptotic genes in cerebral ischemic injury in vitro.

    abstract::MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate target gene expression, and play an important role in cerebral ischemic injury. MiR-146a has been reported to be highly related to cell invasion, metastasis, immunity, inflammation and apoptosis. Previous studies have indicated that miR-146a can ei...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou X,Su S,Li S,Pang X,Chen C,Li J,Liu J

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Role of noradrenergic projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to fear-related stimuli in rats.

    abstract::The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) receives dense noradrenergic projections from the brainstem and has been claimed to play a role in expression of a variety of stress responses. Fear-related stimuli suppress vasopressin and facilitate oxytocin release from the neurohypophysis and induce behavioral suppres...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Onaka T,Yagi K

    更新日期:1998-03-30 00:00:00

  • Relevance of astrocytic activation to reductions of astrocytic GABAA receptors.

    abstract::Although astrocytes express gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype-A (GABAA) receptors in the mature brain, GABAA receptor expression in a cultivation state remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the alteration of astrocytic GABAA receptor expression in in vitro and in vivo studies to elucidate the relevance o...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tateishi N,Shimoda T,Manako J,Katsumata S,Shinagawa R,Ohno H

    更新日期:2006-05-17 00:00:00

  • Expression of somatostatin receptors is impaired in the cerebellum of developing Brattleboro rats.

    abstract::Somatostatin (SRIF) receptors are expressed in the external granule cell layer of the rat cerebellum during early postnatal life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution and biochemical characteristics of SRIF binding sites in the cerebellum of homozygous (vasopressin deficient) Brattleboro ra...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gonzalez BJ,Leroux P,Boer GJ,Vaudry H

    更新日期:1990-11-05 00:00:00

  • Selective cognitive impairments are related to selective hippocampus and prefrontal cortex deficits after prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure.

    abstract::Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) leads to cognitive impairments in adulthood. The cytoarchitectural basis is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the effects of prenatal CPF exposure on T-maze delayed alternation task and the win-shift/lose-shift responses associated with the morphology of the dorsal hipp...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen XP,Chen WZ,Wang FS,Liu JX

    更新日期:2012-09-20 00:00:00

  • Reversal of scopolamine-induced amnesia and alterations in energy metabolism by the nootropic piracetam: implications regarding identification of brain structures involved in consolidation of memory traces.

    abstract::Pretreatment with scopolamine, 3 mg/kg, prevented the acquisition of a passive avoidance task in rats. These amnesic effects of scopolamine could largely be overcome by treatment with 100 mg/kg of the nootropic drug piracetam. In order to identify the brain structures involved, the effects of these drugs on regional e...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Piercey MF,Vogelsang GD,Franklin SR,Tang AH

    更新日期:1987-10-20 00:00:00

  • Hypoxia protects against the neurotoxicity of kainic acid.

    abstract::A normobar hypoxia (9% oxygen) of 8 h reduces the neurotoxicity of a subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg kainic acid given one week later. Both seizures and degenerative changes, including cell death of hippocampal and cortical neurons are markedly decreased by hypoxia. It is also shown that hypoxia also markedly reduc...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pohle W,Rauca C

    更新日期:1994-05-02 00:00:00

  • Convergence of subthalamic and striatal efferents at pallidal level in primates: an anterograde double-labeling study with biocytin and PHA-L.

    abstract::Small injections of two highly sensitive anterograde tracers, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and biocytin, into the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) have revealed a high degree of convergence of striatal and subthalamic fibers upon single pallidal cells. Both affe...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hazrati LN,Parent A

    更新日期:1992-01-13 00:00:00

  • Regional influence of cocaine on evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core: A role for the caudal brainstem.

    abstract::Cocaine increases dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens through competitive binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). However, it also increases the frequency of dopamine release events, a finding that cannot be explained by action at the DAT alone. Rather, this effect may be mediated by cocaine-induced mod...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerth AI,Alhadeff AL,Grill HJ,Roitman MF

    更新日期:2017-01-15 00:00:00

  • Altered functional connectivity in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease: A resting-state fMRI study.

    abstract::Patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) may hold a high risk of cognitive impairment (CI) by affecting the functional connectivity (FC) of resting-state networks (RSNs). Current studies have mainly focused on the patients with CI but have ignored the prodromal stage when people suffered subcortical ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu X,Chen L,Cheng R,Luo T,Lv F,Fang W,Gong J,Jiang P

    更新日期:2019-07-15 00:00:00

  • 31P NMR phospholipid characterization of intracranial tumors.

    abstract::Phospholipid extracts from 48 intracranial tumors were analyzed using 31P NMR. Phospholipids commonly identified in the tumor spectra included phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidic acid (PA), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), uncharacterized phospholipid (U), ethanolamine plasmalogen (EPLAS), phosphatidylethanolamine (P...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merchant TE,van der Ven LT,Minsky BD,Diamantis PM,Delapaz R,Galicich J,Glonek T

    更新日期:1994-06-27 00:00:00

  • Region-specific alterations in glutamate receptor expression and subcellular distribution following extinction of cocaine self-administration.

    abstract::A role for glutamatergic signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NA) in both the expression and extinction of cocaine seeking has been suggested. The effects of extinction following cocaine self-administration on the expression and synaptosomal distribution of GluR1 and NMDAR1 glutamate receptor subunits in the NA shell a...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghasemzadeh MB,Vasudevan P,Mueller CR,Seubert C,Mantsch JR

    更新日期:2009-04-24 00:00:00

  • Discrimination between changes in glucocorticoid receptor expression and activation in rat brain using western blot analysis.

    abstract::These studies investigated autoregulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein expression and activation in rat brain using western blot methodology. By comparing GR immunoblot reactivity present in various tissue subcellular preparations we were able to discriminate between corticosterone-induced changes in GR act...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spencer RL,Kalman BA,Cotter CS,Deak T

    更新日期:2000-06-23 00:00:00

  • Long-lasting effects of naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, on cell proliferation in developing rat forebrain.

    abstract::Several studies have demonstrated in the past that endogenous opioid peptides and opioid receptors may be involved as mediators of brain tissue growth and function in the neonate. Applying histological and autoradiographic methods, we have examined the effect of the mu-receptor-specific antagonist, naltrexone, on the ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmahl W,Funk R,Miaskowski U,Plendl J

    更新日期:1989-05-08 00:00:00

  • Predicting the unknown: Novelty processing depends on expectations.

    abstract::Fulfilled predictions lead to neural suppression akin to repetition suppression, but it is currently unclear if such effects generalize to broader stimulus categories in the absence of exact expectations. In particular, does expecting novelty alter the way novel stimuli are processed? In the present study, the effects...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schomaker J,Meeter M

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Dopamine modulates neuronal activities related to motor performance in the monkey prefrontal cortex.

    abstract::Effects of iontophoretically applied dopamine were investigated in prefrontal neurons of the monkey which showed activity changes during a visual reaction time task. The task consisted of an initial waiting phase (3.0 s), a warning phase (green lamp, 1.5-3.5 s), a lever-release GO phase (red lamp) and a reward phase. ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawaguchi T,Matsumura M,Kubota K

    更新日期:1986-04-23 00:00:00

  • Hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth and cholinergic denervation uniquely alter muscarinic receptor subtypes in the hippocampus.

    abstract::Following cholinergic denervation of the hippocampus by medial septal lesions, and unusual neuronal reorganization occurs, in which peripheral sympathetic fibers, originating from the superior cervical ganglia, grow into the hippocampus. Previously, we have found that both hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth (HSI) and ch...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harrell LE,Kolasa K,Parsons DS,Ayyagari V

    更新日期:1995-04-10 00:00:00

  • Subregion-specific differences in translocation patterns of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in rat hippocampus.

    abstract::Corticosteroids exert important effects on brain function via glucocorticoid (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) by inducing receptor translocation to the nucleus, where the receptor-ligand complexes modulate transcription of target genes. Based on studies describing uneven receptor expression patterns, region...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sarabdjitsingh RA,Meijer OC,Schaaf MJ,de Kloet ER

    更新日期:2009-01-16 00:00:00