Human endothelial function and microvascular ageing.


:Age is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and this is an increasingly important public health concern because of an increase in the absolute number and proportion of the population at an older age in many countries. A key component of cardiovascular ageing is reduced function of the vascular endothelium, and this probably contributes to the impaired microvessel function observed with ageing in multiple vascular beds. In turn, impaired microvessel function is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Here we review evidence that the first signs of altered endothelial and microvessel function can appear in childhood and at all stages of the human lifespan; low-birth-weight babies have reduced endothelial function in skin microvessels at 3 months, and by age 10 years their brachial artery endothelial function is reduced in comparison with normal-birth-weight babies. In overweight/obese adolescent children with clustering of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, endothelial function is reduced compared with normal-weight children, and this appears to persist into early adulthood. Adult ageing is associated with impaired microvessel endothelial function and an increase in capillary blood pressure. Biological and lifestyle factors that influence microvessel function include body fat and visceral adiposity, sex hormone status, diet and physical activity. The mechanisms underlying age-associated changes in microvessel function are uncertain but may involve alterations in nitric oxide, prostanoid, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s) and endothelin-1 pathways.


Exp Physiol


Experimental physiology


Gates PE,Strain WD,Shore AC




Has Abstract


2009-03-01 00:00:00














  • Absorption and intestinal catabolism of fatty acids in the rat: effect of chain length and unsaturation.

    abstract::Simultaneous portal blood absorption and intestinal mucosal catabolism of labelled fatty acids were investigated. Anaesthetized adult Wistar rats were infused intraduodenally either with 90 mumol of capric (C10:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) or arachidonic (C20:4) 1-14C acids or with 30 mumol of each labelled fat...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bernard A,Carlier H

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Rapidly alternating photoperiods disrupt central and peripheral rhythmicity and decrease plasma glucose, but do not affect glucose tolerance or insulin secretion in sheep.

    abstract::Disrupting circadian rhythms in rodents perturbs glucose metabolism and increases adiposity. To determine whether these effects occur in a large diurnal animal, we assessed the impact of circadian rhythm disruption upon metabolic function in sheep. Adult ewes (n = 7) underwent 3 weeks of a control 12 h light-12 h dark...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Varcoe TJ,Gatford KL,Voultsios A,Salkeld MD,Boden MJ,Rattanatray L,Kennaway DJ

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Introducing a rat model of prenatal androgen-induced polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood.

    abstract::Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women, with a prevalence of 8-12% during the reproductive years. In the present study, using prenatal exposure to a single dose of testosterone during the critical period of fetal development, we aimed to introduce an enhanced rat model ...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tehrani FR,Noroozzadeh M,Zahediasl S,Piryaei A,Azizi F

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Sympathetic innervation and beta-adrenoceptor profile of blood vessels in the posterior region of the rabbit knee joint.

    abstract::Experiments were performed to investigate the presence and nature of beta-adrenoceptors in blood vessels supplying the posterior capsule of the rabbit knee joint. Electrical stimulation of the posterior articular nerve (PAN) and close intra-arterial injection of adrenaline produced vasoconstriction which reversed to v...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Najafipour H,Ferrell WR

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic intermittent immobilization of male rats throughout sexual development: a stress protocol.

    abstract::A stress protocol--6 h of daily immobilization--was applied throughout male rat sexual development. Immobilization caused a small reduction in food intake and body weight gain whereas pair-fed animals had a marginal decrease only in body weight gain. Stress, confirmed by increased plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Almeida SA,Anselmo-Franci JA,Rosa e Silva AA,Carvalho TL

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Physiology of invertebrate oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptides.

    abstract::Neuropeptides and regulatory peptide hormones control many developmental, physiological and behavioural processes in animals, including humans. The nonapeptides oxytocin and arginine vasopressin are produced and released by the pituitary gland and have actions on many organs and tissues. Receptive cells possess partic...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gruber CW

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interactions between nitric oxide and superoxide on the neural regulation of proximal fluid reabsorption in hypertensive rats.

    abstract::This study investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anions in modulating the renal nerve-dependent increases in proximal tubular fluid reabsorption (Jva). Renal nerve stimulation at 0.75 and 1.0 Hz (15 V, 0.2 ms) in anaesthetized Wistar rats had no effect on glomerular filtration rate but decreased ur...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu XC,Johns EJ

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Natural killer cell mobilization and egress following acute exercise in men with prostate cancer.

    abstract:NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? What are the characteristics of the NK cell response following acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in prostate cancer survivors and is there a relationship between stress hormones and NK cell mobilization? What is the main finding and its importance? NK cel...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hanson ED,Sakkal S,Que S,Cho E,Spielmann G,Kadife E,Violet JA,Battaglini CL,Stoner L,Bartlett DB,McConell GK,Hayes A

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Rat small intestine expresses the reelin-Disabled-1 signalling pathway.

    abstract::Expression of reelin, reelin receptors [apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VldlR)] and the Disabled-1 (Dab1) protein was investigated in rat intestinal mucosa. Intestinal reelin and Dab1 mRNA levels were maximal in the early stages of life, reaching adult levels in 1-month-...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: García-Miranda P,Peral MJ,Ilundain AA

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of voltage-dependent calcium current in Helix aspersa buccal neurones by serotonin and protein kinase C activators.

    abstract::In Helix aspersa, activation of the cerebral giant serotonin neurones (GSNs) evokes a biphasic, excitatory synaptic response in the M neurones of the buccal ganglia. Local application of serotonin to the current-clamped M neurones also evokes fast and slow depolarizing responses. The slow response is thought to be dep...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hill-Venning C,Cottrell GA

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Stearic acid-induced cardiac lipotoxicity is independent of cellular lipid and is mitigated by the fatty acids oleic and capric acid but not by the PPAR agonist troglitazone.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to examine the potential of stearic acid to induce cardiomyocyte cell death and the hypothesis that the amount of cellular lipid is a determinant of cell death. In cardiomyocytes from embryonic chick heart, stearic acid (SA) produced a significant (P < 0.001) concentration-dependent inc...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rabkin SW,Lodhia P

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Permeability characteristics of monovalent cations in atrial myocytes of the rat heart.

    abstract::We investigated the permeability of Cs+ and Na+ through various ion channels in rat atrial myocytes using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. With isotonic CsCl (140 mM) on both sides of the membrane and nominally [Ca2+]o-free conditions, depolarising clamp pulses induced an increase of outward currents which show...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Youm JB,Ho WK,Earm YE

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of adrenaline and alpha-agonists on net rate of liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits.

    abstract::Indirect evidence supporting a solute-coupled liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits has recently been provided; moreover, the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline has been found to increase this absorption. In this study the effect of adrenaline and alpha-adrenoceptor agonists on net rate of liquid ab...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zocchi L,Raffaini A,Agostoni E

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • H+-zwitterionic amino acid symport at the brush-border membrane of human intestinal epithelial (CACO-2) cells.

    abstract::Transport of a number of dipolar amino acids (and the orally active antibiotic D-cycloserine) across the apical membrane of human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cell monolayers is mediated by a Na+-independent, pH-dependent transport mechanism. Relatively little is known about the mode of action of this transport syst...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thwaites DT,Stevens BC

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Matching of blood flow to metabolic rate during recovery from moderate exercise in humans.

    abstract::It is unclear whether measurement of limb or conduit artery blood flow during recovery from exercise provides an accurate representation of flow to the muscle capillaries where gas exchange occurs. To investigate this, we: (a) examined the kinetic responses of femoral artery blood flow (QFA), estimated muscle capillar...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harper AJ,Ferreira LF,Lutjemeier BJ,Townsend DK,Barstow TJ

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of testosterone on cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis and contractile function in female rats.

    abstract::The role of testosterone (T) in the regulation of cardiovascular function in females is not well understood. Our goal was to examine the effect of T on cardiomyocyte biology by measuring sarcomere shortening/relaxation and intracellular calcium cycling in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into th...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beesley RD,Palmer BM,Casson PR,Toth MJ

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular calcium in the middle cerebral artery isolated from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    abstract::The spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular calcium within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) isolated from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) were investigated using real-time confocal laser microscopy. At 3 months of age (prestroke), rhythmical changes in the [Ca(2+)](i) during the tonic phase were...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hashimoto T,Kiya M,Ohata H,Miyazaki T,Shibata K,Nobe K,Honda K

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of a hyposmotic shock on amino acid efflux from lactating rat mammary tissue: stimulation of taurine and glycine efflux via a pathway distinct from anion exchange and volume-activated anion channels.

    abstract::We have examined the effect of a hyposmotic shock, and thus cell swelling, upon the efflux of amino acids, SO4(2-) and I- from lactating mammary tissue. A hyposmotic challenge increased the efflux of taurine and glycine via a 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'- disulphonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive pathway. It appears tha...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shennan DB,McNeillie SA,Curran DE

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Daily patterns of secretion of neurohypophysial hormones in man: effect of age.

    abstract::The neurohypophysial hormone vasopressin contributes to control of urine output and, while urine flow shows a clear daily rhythm, there has been debate as to whether this is true of neurohypophysial hormones. A study was performed on fifteen adult males, with a mean age of 25 years, over a 24 h period, nine blood samp...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Forsling ML,Montgomery H,Halpin D,Windle RJ,Treacher DF

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differential changes in vascular mRNA levels between rat iliac and renal arteries produced by cessation of voluntary running.

    abstract::Early vascular changes at the molecular level caused by adoption of a sedentary lifestyle are incompletely characterized. Herein, we employed the rodent wheel-lock model to identify mRNAs in the arterial wall that are responsive to the acute transition from higher to lower levels of daily physical activity. Specifical...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Padilla J,Jenkins NT,Roberts MD,Arce-Esquivel AA,Martin JS,Laughlin MH,Booth FW

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Defibrillation of the heart: insights into mechanisms from modelling studies.

    abstract::Despite its critical role in restoring cardiac rhythm and thus in saving human life, cardiac defibrillation remains poorly understood. Further mechanistic inquiry is hampered by the inability of presently available experimental techniques to resolve, with sufficient accuracy, electrical behaviour confined to the depth...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Trayanova N

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ventricular contraction and relaxation rates during muscle metaboreflex activation in heart failure: are they coupled?

    abstract:NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? Does the muscle metaboreflex affect the ratio of left ventricular contraction/relaxation rates and does heart failure impact this relationship. What is the main finding and its importance? The effect of muscle metaboreflex activation on the ventricular relaxation...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mannozzi J,Massoud L,Kaur J,Coutsos M,O'Leary DS

    更新日期:2020-11-23 00:00:00

  • Accumulation of the endogenous L-arginine analogue NG-monomethyl-L-arginine in human end-stage renal failure patients on regular haemodialysis.

    abstract::We measured plasma levels of L-arginine, its analogue NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and related amino acids in normal subjects and uraemic patients (n = 31), before and after haemodialysis. Plasma levels of L-arginine were reduced to less than half of normal values in uraemic subjects compared with controls, and ...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mendes Ribeiro AC,Roberts NB,Lane C,Yaqoob M,Ellory JC

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle contraction duration and fibre recruitment influence blood flow and oxygen consumption independent of contractile work during steady-state exercise in humans.

    abstract::We tested the hypothesis that, among conditions of matched contractile work, shorter contraction durations and greater muscle fibre recruitment result in augmented skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption ( ) during steady-state exercise in humans. To do so, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultras...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richards JC,Crecelius AR,Kirby BS,Larson DG,Dinenno FA

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • A pilot study to investigate the associations of urinary concentrations of NO, ATP and derivatives with overactive bladder symptom severity.

    abstract:NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? Are the urinary concentrations of NO and ATP, and their metabolites, associated with the severity of symptoms of overactive bladder? What is the main finding and its importance? The urinary ratios of [ATP/NO], [ADP/NO] and a combination of these, [ATP/Cr*ADP/Cr]/...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Firouzmand S,Young JS

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Oestradiol affects skeletal muscle mass, strength and satellite cells following repeated injuries.

    abstract:NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? Oestradiol (E2 ) plays an important role in regulating skeletal muscle strength in females. To what extent does E2 deficiency affect recovery of strength and satellite cell number when muscle is challenged by multiple injuries? What is the main finding and its im...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Larson AA,Baumann CW,Kyba M,Lowe DA

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Role of histamine receptors in rabbit pancreatic exocrine secretion stimulated by cholecystokinin and secretin.

    abstract::An investigation was made of the effects of H1 and H2 receptor agonists and antagonists on rabbit pancreatic exocrine secretion stimulated by secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The H1 agonist 2-thiazolylethylamine elicited dose-dependent increases in the rate of secretion. Increases in pancreatic juice flow and enzym...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pariente JA,Madrid JA,Salido GM

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • The slow components of phosphocreatine and pulmonary oxygen uptake can be dissociated during heavy exercise according to training status.

    abstract::To better understand the mechanisms underlying the pulmonary O(2) uptake (V(O(2P))) slow component during high-intensity exercise, we used (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas exchange, surface electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy measurements to examine the potential relationship between the slow com...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Layec G,Bringard A,Yashiro K,Le Fur Y,Vilmen C,Micallef JP,Perrey S,Cozzone PJ,Bendahan D

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the subfornical organ in angiotensin II-salt hypertension in the rat.

    abstract::Hypertension caused by chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) in experimental animals is dependent, in part, on increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. This chronic sympathoexcitatory response is amplified by a high-salt diet, suggesting an interaction of circulating Ang II and dietary salt on sympa...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osborn JW,Hendel MD,Collister JP,Ariza-Guzman PA,Fink GD

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Oestrogen receptor ERα and ERβ agonists ameliorate oxidative brain injury and improve memory dysfunction in rats with an epileptic seizure.

    abstract:NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? Could different hormonally active substances, including oestrogen receptor (ER) agonists, protect against oxidative brain damage and memory impairment induced by a single epileptic seizure in rats? If so, which signalling mechanisms are involved in their anti-inf...

    journal_title:Experimental physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koyuncuoğlu T,Arabacı Tamer S,Erzik C,Karagöz A,Akakın D,Yüksel M,Yeğen BÇ

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00