Reduced detection and levels of protective antibodies to hepatitis B vaccine in under 2-year-old HIV positive South African children at a paediatric outpatient clinic.


:The study evaluated and compared the prevalence of anti-HBs and exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vaccinated South African babies aged between 5 and 24 months from the Expanded Programme on Immunisation clinic [EPI group] and paediatric outpatient clinic [OPD group], and results were stratified by HIV status. A total of 303 (243 EPI group and 60 OPD group) babies were studied. All sera were tested for anti-HBs, HBsAg and anti-HBc, while IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA were only tested in samples positive for HBsAg and/or anti-HBc. Overall, there was a gross difference in the prevalence of anti-HBs marker between the EPI and OPD groups. The EPI group demonstrated higher levels of seroconversion (89.3% vs. 81.7%; p=0.105) and seroprotection rates (86.0% vs. 75.0%; p=0.038), compared to the OPD babies. When the overall results were stratified by HIV status, seroprotection was 85.7% for the HIV-negatives and 78.1% for the HIV-positives, although this was not statistically significant (p=0.125). The seroprotection rates were almost comparable between the HIV-positives (84.3%; n=51) and the HIV-negatives (86.5%; n=192) (p=0.695) in the EPI group. In contrast, reduced seroprotection rates were observed between the HIV-positives (63.6%; n=22) and HIV-negatives (81.6%; n=38) in the OPD group, although this was not statistically significant (p=0.123). Interestingly, no HBsAg or anti-HBc marker was detected in the OPD group, compared to total exposure rate of 4.9% (HBsAg carriage was 1.2%) in the EPI group.






Simani OE,Leroux-Roels G,François G,Burnett RJ,Meheus A,Mphahlele MJ




Has Abstract


2009-01-01 00:00:00
















  • Pneumococcal vaccination for splenectomized patients with thalassemia major in Indonesia.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Streptococcus pneumoniae is a capsulated bacterium that can cause severe infection in patients with thalassemia major, particularly those who have undergone splenectomy. The absence of the spleen as well as zinc deficiency in splenectomized patients with thalassemia major increases the possibility of devel...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sari TT,Akib AAP,Gatot D,Roswita Harahap A,Bardosono S,Hadinegoro SRS

    更新日期:2017-08-16 00:00:00

  • Using solar-powered refrigeration for vaccine storage where other sources of reliable electricity are inadequate or costly.

    abstract::Large areas of many developing countries have no grid electricity. This is a serious challenge that threatens the continuity of the vaccine cold chain. The main alternatives to electrically powered refrigerators available for many years--kerosene- and gas-driven refrigerators--are plagued by problems with gas supply i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McCarney S,Robertson J,Arnaud J,Lorenson K,Lloyd J

    更新日期:2013-12-09 00:00:00

  • Protective efficacy of a lipid antigen vaccine in a guinea pig model of tuberculosis.

    abstract::The bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the only licensed vaccine against TB, displays partial and variable efficacy, thus making the exploitation of novel vaccination strategies a major priority. Most of the current vaccines in pre-clinical or clinical development are based on the induction of T cells recognizing...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Larrouy-Maumus G,Layre E,Clark S,Prandi J,Rayner E,Lepore M,de Libero G,Williams A,Puzo G,Gilleron M

    更新日期:2017-03-07 00:00:00

  • Presentation of caregiver-specific vaccine-related information on National Cancer Institute designated cancer center websites.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Household-based caregivers serve an important role in protecting the health of cancer patients, who may be vulnerable to infectious diseases due to their cancer treatments. Caregiver preventive care should be prioritized to maintain continuity of care and to reduce potential for transmission of infectious di...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marellapudi A,King AR,Bednarczyk RA

    更新日期:2020-09-11 00:00:00

  • Immunogenicity and protective efficacy offered by a ribosomal-based vaccine from Shigella flexneri 2a.

    abstract::Shigellosis is a major form of bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella infection. Shigella ribosome-based vaccines (SRV), considered among the potent vaccine candidates, are composed of O-antigen and ribosome isolated from S. flexneri 2a. To investigate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of SRV, mice were vacci...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shim DH,Chang SY,Park SM,Jang H,Carbis R,Czerkinsky C,Uematsu S,Akira S,Kweon MN

    更新日期:2007-06-15 00:00:00

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    更新日期:2010-02-10 00:00:00

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    abstract::Attenuated strains of Salmonella have been used as vaccines to deliver heterologous antigens mainly to generate a humoral immune response. However, little is known about their ability to induce a cell-mediated immune response to the T-cell epitopes of another infectious agent or how optimally to deliver these epitopes...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verma NK,Ziegler HK,Stocker BA,Schoolnik GK

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • rOmpF and OMVs as efficient subunit vaccines against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infections in poultry farms.

    abstract::Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis remains the most prevalent serotype causing human salmonellosis through the consumption of contaminated foods, especially poultry products. The development of a subunit vaccine against S. Enteritidis can not only protect chickens against Salmonella infection in the poultry indus...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Q,Ren J,Xian H,Yin C,Yuan Y,Li Y,Ji R,Chu C,Qiao Z,Jiao X

    更新日期:2020-10-21 00:00:00

  • Electroporation improves the efficacy of DNA vaccines in large animals.

    abstract::It is generally recognized that DNA vaccines are often less effective in large animals than in mice. One possible reason for this reduced effectiveness may be transfection efficiency and the low level of expression elicited by plasmid vectors in large animals. A possible way to improve plasmid gene expression in vivo ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Babiuk S,Baca-Estrada ME,Foldvari M,Storms M,Rabussay D,Widera G,Babiuk LA

    更新日期:2002-09-10 00:00:00

  • Safety and immunogenicity of influenza A(H5N1) vaccine stored up to twelve years in the National Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile (NPIVS).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:As part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Pandemic Influenza Plan preparedness and response strategy, the National Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile (NPIVS) program was established by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) in 2005 with the goal of bu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Oshansky CM,Zhou J,Gao Y,Schweinle JE,Biscardi K,DeBeauchamp J,Pavetto C,Wollish A,BRITE Study Coordination Team.,Webby RJ,Cioce V,Donis RO,Bright RA

    更新日期:2019-01-14 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the cellular immune responses induced by a non-adjuvanted inactivated whole virus A/H5N1/VN/1203 pandemic influenza vaccine in humans.

    abstract::In the present study the homologous and heterologous type and subtype specific cellular immune response induced by a wild type inactivated whole virus H5N1 Influenza (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) vaccine was evaluated. Two immunizations with the Vero cell derived H5N1 influenza vaccine on Day 0 and Day 21 induced significant ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crowe BA,Brühl P,Gerencer M,Schwendinger MG,Pilz A,Kistner O,Koelling-Schlebusch K,Aichinger G,Singer J,Zeitlinger M,Müller M,Ehrlich H,Barrett PN

    更新日期:2010-12-16 00:00:00

  • Association between obesity and vulnerability and serologic response to influenza vaccination in older adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Serologic response to influenza vaccination declines with age. Few other host factors are known to be associated with serologic response. Our objective was to determine whether obesity and vulnerability independently predicted serologic response to influenza vaccination. METHODS:Adults ≥ 50 years were recru...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Talbot HK,Coleman LA,Crimin K,Zhu Y,Rock MT,Meece J,Shay DK,Belongia EA,Griffin MR

    更新日期:2012-06-06 00:00:00

  • Enhanced immune sera and vaccine: safe approach to treat scorpion envenoming.

    abstract::Irradiation of Androctonus australis hector venom using a dose of 2 kGy has successfully abolished toxicity without reducing its antigenic or immunogenic properties. Toxicity of irradiated antigen was abolished until 20 times of LD(50) of native venom. Analysis of physiopathological effects induced by native and irrad...


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    authors: Lila BA,Laraba-Djebari F

    更新日期:2011-11-08 00:00:00

  • Progress in newborn hepatitis B vaccination by birth year cohorts-1998-2007, USA.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a joint statement on thimerosal in vaccines, which advised clinicians to temporarily postpone the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine for infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative women. In 20...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhao Z,Murphy TV,Jacques-Carroll L

    更新日期:2011-12-09 00:00:00

  • DNA vaccination against v-src oncogene-induced tumours in congenic chickens.

    abstract::DNA vaccination is particularly efficient for induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. In our experiments, we used MHC(B) congenic chicken lines CB and CC (regressors and progressors of v-src-induced tumours, respectively) and a mutated, non-oncogenic v-src gene construct as the DNA vaccine. A high degree o...


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    authors: Plachý JV,Hejnar JV,Trtková K,Trejbalová K,Svoboda J,Hála K

    更新日期:2001-08-14 00:00:00

  • Analysis of the Universal Immunization Programme and introduction of a rotavirus vaccine in India with IndiaSim.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:India has the highest under-five death toll globally, approximately 20% of which is attributed to vaccine-preventable diseases. India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is working both to increase immunization coverage and to introduce new vaccines. Here, we analyze the disease and finan...


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    authors: Megiddo I,Colson AR,Nandi A,Chatterjee S,Prinja S,Khera A,Laxminarayan R

    更新日期:2014-08-11 00:00:00

  • The quest for trials on the efficacy of human vaccines. Results of the handsearch of Vaccine.

    abstract::We report the results of the handsearch of all the issues of Vaccine from 1983 to 1994 to identify randomized and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) with the aim of setting up a Cochrane data base of vaccine trials. We read 1119 original papers and located 231 trials of which 117 (50.6%) were RCTs and 114 (49....


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Jefferson T,Jefferson V

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  • A single dose glycoprotein D-based subunit vaccine against pseudorabies virus infection.

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    authors: Zhang T,Liu Y,Chen Y,Wang A,Feng H,Wei Q,Zhou E,Zhang G

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  • Development of a high-dose vaccine formulation for prevention of megalocytivirus infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    abstract::A formalin-inactivated red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) vaccine was prepared using the culture supernatant of a persistently infected Pagrus major fin cell line (PI-PMF) with IVS-1 strain (RSIV subtype II Meglaocytivirus). Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) were injected with a high-dose, ultracentrifuged megalocytivir...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kwon WJ,Choi JC,Hong S,Kim YC,Jeong MG,Min JG,Jeong JB,Kim KI,Jeong HD

    更新日期:2020-12-03 00:00:00

  • Protective efficacy of vaccination by recombinant vaccinia virus against Neospora caninum infection.

    abstract::The recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the surface protein of Neospora caninum tachyzoite, NcSAG1 or NcSRS2, were constructed. The vaccination with these recombinant viruses could protect effectively the parasite invasion in a mouse model system. The vaccine efficacy of NcSRS2 was higher than that of NcSAG1. The ...


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    authors: Nishikawa Y,Inoue N,Xuan X,Nagasawa H,Igarashi I,Fujisaki K,Otsuka H,Mikami T

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  • Protection against establishment of latent infections in mice immunized with a non-pathogenic herpes simplex virus mutant and reinfected with the pathogenic parental strain.

    abstract::Immunization of hairless mice with a TK-, ACVr, non-pathogenic herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 mutant protected the mice against reinfection with lethal doses of the parental pathogenic HSV strain. The protection conferred by the mutant against the establishment of latency after reinfection with the parental strain ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klein RJ,Kaley LA,Friedman-Kien AE

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  • In situ vaccination by radiotherapy to improve responses to anti-CTLA-4 treatment.

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    authors: Vanpouille-Box C,Pilones KA,Wennerberg E,Formenti SC,Demaria S

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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Dean HJ,Chen D

    更新日期:2004-12-16 00:00:00

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    abstract::Infections with the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii pose a serious public health problem and are of great economic importance worldwide. The parasite rhoptry protein 5 (ROP5) has been implicated as a major virulence factor that reduces the accumulation of immunity-related GTPases (IRG) in parasitoph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zheng B,Lu S,Tong Q,Kong Q,Lou D

    更新日期:2013-09-23 00:00:00

  • Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in the Netherlands, 2003-2007: children of Chinese mothers are at increased risk of breakthrough infection.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In the Netherlands, different hepatitis B vaccination schedules have been used for children born to HBV-infected mothers. All schedules included a birth dose of hepatitis B immunoglobuline (HBIg). We assessed determinants of perinatal HBV transmission and determinants of anti-HBs titers in infants born to HB...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hahné S,van den Hoek A,Baayen D,van der Sande M,de Melker H,Boot H

    更新日期:2012-02-21 00:00:00

  • Innate immunity in HIV infection and implications for vaccine design: a summary of the workshop held at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda on February 25-26, 2010.

    abstract::The search for an effective HIV vaccine continues to be a challenge. Several candidates have been tested in preclinical protocols, and a few have been tested in clinical trials without resounding success. It is unclear why vaccine approaches to control HIV infection have been unsuccessful, but opportunities to dissect...




    authors: Bansal GP,Leitner WW

    更新日期:2010-12-06 00:00:00

  • Influences on immunization rates: Vaccination coverage of mumps, measles, rubella and varicella before and after the STIKO intervention 2011 - A retrospective study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In September 2011, the German Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) changed their recommendation regarding the mumps-measles-rubella-varicella vaccination (MMRV). We compared the immunization rates against MMRV in Germany before and after the STIKO intervention. METHODS:We recorded the immunization sta...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanftenberg L,Schrörs HJ,Schelling J

    更新日期:2016-07-25 00:00:00

  • Intussusception and Kawasaki disease after rotavirus vaccination in Taiwanese infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Since 2006, two rotavirus vaccines have been licensed in Taiwan, either as a 2- (RV1) or 3-dose (RV5) schedule administered at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. This study assessed the risk of intussusception and Kawasaki disease (KD) associated with rotavirus vaccines among infants. METHODS:Cases of intussusception...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang WT,Juan YC,Liu CH,Yang YY,Chan KA

    更新日期:2020-09-11 00:00:00

  • Pertussis after end of a mass vaccination project--end of the "vaccination honey-moon".

    abstract::After 16 years of no vaccination against pertussis in Sweden, mass vaccination of infants and catch-up vaccination of children up to 10 years with a monocomponent pertussis toxoid vaccine was performed in the Greater Gothenburg area of Sweden between 1995 and 1999. At the end of the project in February 1999, 56% of al...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trollfors B,Dotevall L,Sundh V,Welinder-Olsson C

    更新日期:2011-03-16 00:00:00

  • Seasonal influenza vaccine efficacy and its determinants in children and non-elderly adults: a systematic review with meta-analyses of controlled trials.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: DiazGranados CA,Denis M,Plotkin S

    更新日期:2012-12-17 00:00:00