Factors associated with CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-negative Senegalese individuals.


:CD4+ lymphocytes are a primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and CD4 counts are one of the factors used to measure disease progression in HIV-positive individuals. CD4 counts vary in uninfected individuals and across populations due to a variety of demographic, environmental, immunological and genetic factors that probably persist throughout the course of HIV infection. This study sought to determine reference levels and identify factors that influence lymphocyte counts in 681 HIV-uninfected adults in Senegal, where residents are exposed to a variety of infectious diseases and other conditions that may affect CD4 counts. Lymphocyte counts were assessed in commercial sex workers, symptomatic men and women presenting to the University of Dakar infectious disease clinic for out-patient care and women seeking family planning services. CD4 and CD3 lymphocyte counts differed between the four study groups (P < 0.01). Men had the lowest mean CD4 count (711.6 cells/microl), while commercial sex workers had the highest levels (966.0 cells/microl). After adjustment for age and other behavioural and clinical factors, the difference in CD4 counts between the three groups of women did not remain. However, both gender and smoking were associated independently with CD4 counts, as men maintained lower mean CD4 counts (beta = -156.4 cells/microl, P < 0.01) and smokers had higher mean CD4 counts (beta = 124.0 cells/microl, P < 0.01) than non-smokers in multivariable analyses. This study is the first to explore factors that may influence CD4 levels in Senegal and to estimate baseline CD4 levels among HIV-negatives, information that may guide clinicians in interpreting CD4 counts.


Clin Exp Immunol


Mair C,Hawes SE,Agne HD,Sow PS,N'doye I,Manhart LE,Fu PL,Gottlieb GS,Kiviat NB




Has Abstract


2008-03-01 00:00:00














  • Molecular diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.

    abstract::Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) suffer from recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, liver, brain and bones. Frequently found pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus species, Klebsiella species, Burkholderia cepacia and Salmonella...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Roos D,de Boer M

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Autoantibodies recognizing citrullinated rat filaggrin in an ELISA using citrullinated and non-citrullinated recombinant proteins as antigens are highly diagnostic for rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract::The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic value for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of anti-filaggrin autoantibodies (autoAb) recognizing citrullinated recombinant rat filaggrin (ACRF) in community cases of very early arthritis. To evaluate the diagnostic value of ACRF, were studied sera from patients with ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Vittecoq O,Incaurgarat B,Jouen-Beades F,Legoedec J,Letourneur O,Rolland D,Gervasi G,Ménard JF,Gayet A,Fardellone P,Daragon A,Jolivet M,le Loët X,Tron F

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • A prospective controlled crossover trial of a new heat-treated intravenous immunoglobulin.

    abstract::Twenty-one patients with primary immunoglobulin deficiency were enrolled in a crossover study to test the efficacy and safety of Alphaglobin in comparison with the licensed preparations Sandoglobulin and Gamimune. There was no statistical difference in these parameters between Alphaglobin and Sandoglobulin/Gamimune. T...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Zuhrie SR,Webster AD,Davies R,Fay AC,Wallington TB

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-2 inhibits polarization to T helper type 1 cells and prevents mouse acute graft-versus-host disease through up-regulating suppressors of cytokine signalling-3 expression of naive CD4+ T cells.

    abstract::T helper type 1 (Th1)-type polarization plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). The differentiation of T cells into this subtype is dictated by the nature of the donor naive CD4(+) T cell-host antigen presenting cell (APC) interaction. Suppressors of cytokine signalling...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhao J,Zhang T,He H,Xie Y

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Special anniversary review: twenty-five years of human immunodeficiency virus research: successes and challenges.

    abstract::During 25 years of research since HIV-1 was first identified in Paris, there have been great advances in our understanding of the virus and of the immune system. Practical advances include the early development of diagnostic tests of infection that made blood donation safe, and since 1996, combination anti-retroviral ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Weiss RA

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of autoantibody production in SCID-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) chimeras.

    abstract::Mice with SCID disease have previously been successfully engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from normal individuals and from patients with various diseases. To determine whether SCID mice engrafted with SLE PBMC produced autoantibodies with specificities similar to those in the SLE...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ashany D,Hines J,Gharavi A,Mouradian J,Elkon KB

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Immunity to schistosomiasis mansoni in guinea-pigs vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae: I. Humoral responses against skin-stage schistosomula.

    abstract::The anti-schistosomular humoral responses of guinea-pigs vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated in vitro. The sera of vaccinated animals contain schistosomulicidal complement-fixing antibodies which peak in titre at week 5 after vaccination and predominantly consis...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gordon JR,McLaren DJ

    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Biclonal expansion of T cells infected with monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a patient with chronic, active EBV infection.

    abstract::Recent studies have suggested that a high percentage of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphocytes in peripheral blood of patients with chronic, active EBV infection (CAEBV) is of T cell origin. Although T cells are expanded oligoclonally in CAEBV, it is not clear whether the restricted diversity of T cells arise f...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toyabe S,Harada W,Uchiyama M

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • A monoclonal antibody with specificity for Trypanosoma cruzi, central and peripheral neurones and glia.

    abstract::Of 26 hybridomas secreting anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies, two reacted with murine brain and spinal cord extracts but not other tissues. Both antibodies (5H7 and 3H3) had identical isotypes (IgM) and specificities as judged by western blotting. Antigens of molecular weight 58,000 and 37,000 in mouse brain and spina...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Snary D,Flint JE,Wood JN,Scott MT,Chapman MD,Dodd J,Jessell TM,Miles MA

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00

  • Increased levels of T cell granzyme b in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome are not suppressed adequately by current immunosuppressive regimens.

    abstract::Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is characterized by persistent alloreactive, infective and non-specific epithelial injury, loss of epithelial integrity and dysregulated repair. We have reported increased apoptosis of epithelial cells collected from the large airway in lung transplant recipients. As part of the...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Hodge S,Hodge G,Ahern J,Liew CL,Hopkins P,Chambers DC,Reynolds PN,Holmes M

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies on the signal transduction in human neutrophils.

    abstract::The effect of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA) on neutrophil activation was studied by pre-incubating neutrophils with IgG and F(ab')2 prepared from ANCA patients with Wegener's granulomatosis or microscopic polyarteritis. We measured the generation of inositol triphosphate (IP3) (a product of hydrolysi...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lai KN,Lockwood CM

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus display an increased production of interleukin (IL)-1β via the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing family pyrin 3(NLRP3)-inflammasome activation: a pos

    abstract::A better understanding about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) showed that inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1β play a pivotal role, mirroring data largely reported in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-1β is produced mainly by monoc...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruscitti P,Cipriani P,Di Benedetto P,Liakouli V,Berardicurti O,Carubbi F,Ciccia F,Alvaro S,Triolo G,Giacomelli R

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • CD23/Fc epsilon R11 expression in contact sensitivity reactions: a comparison between aeroallergen patch test reactions in atopic dermatitis and the nickel patch test reaction in non-atopic individuals.

    abstract::The immunopathology of patch test reactions to aeroallergens in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) has been compared to that of contact sensitivity reactions to nickel in non-atopic individuals. Both reactions were found to exhibit equivalent erythema and induration on gross examination at 48 h. Four millimetre punc...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buckley C,Ivison C,Poulter LW,Rustin MH

    更新日期:1993-03-01 00:00:00

  • Antisera to human IgE can also recognize IgA and IgM molecules as produced by selected B lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    abstract::A series of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-human IgE sera reacted with a panel of 11 selected IgA and IgM producing B lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCLs) in cytoplasmic fluorescence, ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays. The reactions were discordant between the BLCLs and the individual antisera. The panel of 11 BLCLs w...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hendriks RW,Thompson A,Kraakman ME,Drayer AL,Schuurman RK

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence that factors other than particular thyrotropin receptor T cell epitopes contribute to the development of hyperthyroidism in murine Graves' disease.

    abstract::Immunization with thyrotropin receptor (TSHR)-adenovirus is an effective approach for inducing thyroid stimulating antibodies and Graves' hyperthyroidism in BALB/c mice. In contrast, mice of the same strain vaccinated with TSHR-DNA have low or absent TSHR antibodies and their T cells recognize restricted epitopes on t...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pichurin PN,Chen CR,Nagayama Y,Pichurina O,Rapoport B,McLachlan SM

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Intrapulmonary concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in a mouse model of chronic respiratory infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    abstract::We investigated the role of inflammatory cytokines in a mouse model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection mimicking diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), and determined the effects of clarithromycin therapy on the production of these cytokines. The concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-gamma (IFN-ga...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yanagihara K,Tomono K,Kuroki M,Kaneko Y,Sawai T,Ohno H,Miyazaki Y,Higashiyama Y,Maesaki S,Kadota J,Kohno S

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial lipopolysaccharide mediates the loss of CD4 from the surface of purified peripheral blood monocytes.

    abstract::In this study we have looked at the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the surface antigen expression of cultured monocytes. Monocytes were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cultured in the presence or absence of LPS. The cultured cells were then stained with anti-MO3, anti-IL-2R and anti-...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neate EV,Greenhalgh AM,McPhee DA,Crowe SM

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Serum amyloid P component and autoimmune parameters in the assessment of arthritis activity in MRL/lpr/lpr mice.

    abstract::The concentration of immunoglobulins, anti-ssDNA, anti-dsDNA, anti-TNP antibodies, IgM rheumatoid factor, C3, immune complexes and serum amyloid P component (SAP), in the serum were measured in 68 male and female MRL/lpr/lpr mice, a strain affected with a systemic autoimmune disease. The degree of lymphoproliferation ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rordorf-Adam C,Serban D,Pataki A,Grüninger M

    更新日期:1985-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of cortisone acetate on pulmonary lesions in a rabbit model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cortisone and hypersensitivity pneumonitis).

    abstract::Rabbits were sensitized with Micropolyspora faeni by intratracheal inoculations and later challenged with the same antigen either with or without parenteral administration of cortisone acetate prior to challenge. Animals developed anti-M. faeni serum precipitins, M. faeni-induced alveolar macrophage migration inhibiti...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cashner FM,Schuyler MR,Salvaggio JE

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • Abundance of intraepithelial gamma delta T cells in hypertrophic obstructive but not in chronically infected adenoids.

    abstract::Using quantitative morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue sections we compared hypertrophic obstructive adenoids (HOA, n = 10) from children without middle ear disease with chronically infected adenoids (CIA, n = 10) from children with middle ear disease. gamma delta T cell receptor (TCR)+ cells...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olofsson K,Hellström S,Hammarström ML

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Vitamin C and immunity: an assessment of the evidence.

    abstract::The high concentration of ascorbate in leucocytes and its rapid expenditure during infection and phagocytosis suggests a role for the vitamin in the immune process. Evidence published to date shows an involvement in the migration and phagocytosis by macrophages and leucocytes, as well as the induction and expression o...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Thomas WR,Holt PG

    更新日期:1978-05-01 00:00:00

  • Endogenous interleukin-22 protects against inflammatory bowel disease but not autoimmune cholangitis in dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II mice.

    abstract::During chronic inflammation, interleukin (IL)-22 expression is up-regulated in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, exerting a protective role in infections. However, in autoimmunity, IL-22 appears to have either a protective or a pathogenic role in a variety of murine models of autoimmunity and, by extrapolation, in humans. It ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang GX,Sun Y,Tsuneyama K,Zhang W,Leung PS,He XS,Ansari AA,Bowlus C,Ridgway WM,Gershwin ME

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Interferons and interferon (IFN)-inducible protein 10 during highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-possible immunosuppressive role of IFN-alpha in HIV infection.

    abstract::Interferons play an important, but incompletely understood role in HIV-related disease. We investigated the effect of HAART on plasma levels of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, neopterin and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in 41 HIV-infected patients during 78 weeks of therapy. At baseline HIV-infected patients had raise...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stylianou E,Aukrust P,Bendtzen K,Müller F,Frøland SS

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Studies of the molecular basis of IgA production, subclass regulation and class-switch recombination in IgA nephropathy patients.

    abstract::IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, is characterized by normal to elevated levels of serum IgA. In order to understand the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the production of IgA in IgAN, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these patients were analysed in this study. IL-10, ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baskin B,Pettersson E,Rekola S,Smith CI,Islam KB

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Milder clinical hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome phenotype is associated with partial interleukin-17 deficiency.

    abstract::Mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were reported to cause hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES). The present study investigates T helper type 17 (Th17) responses triggered by the relevant stimuli Staphylococcus aureus and Candidia albicans in five 'classical' HIES patients, and...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van de Veerdonk FL,Marijnissen RJ,Joosten LA,Kullberg BJ,Drenth JP,Netea MG,van der Meer JW

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired Ca2+ mobilization by X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) B cells in response to ligation of the B cell receptor (BCR).

    abstract::XLA bone marrow samples were shown to contain B cells expressing IgM, and pre-B cells that express the mu-surrogate light chain (mu psiLC) complex, albeit at a reduced frequency to that found in normal bone marrow. Antibody ligation of mu heavy chain on these cells and an XLA B cell line did not induce a Ca2+ flux, wh...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Genevier HC,Callard RE

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of nandrolone decanoate on Sjögren's syndrome like disorders in NZB/NZW mice.

    abstract::The effects of 2.5-40 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate (ND) on the development and growth of mononuclear cell infiltrations in the submandibular glands of NZB/W (B/W) mice have been studied using a quantitative histological method. Injections with ND for 9 months, once every 3 weeks, starting at 4 weeks of age, reduced the ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schot LP,Verheul HA,Schuurs AH

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma cytokine response to surgical stress in schizophrenic patients.

    abstract::Schizophrenic patients are reported to have immunological dysfunction, however, the immune response to surgery in schizophrenic patients remains unclear. We measured plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) before, during and after colectomy, hemicolectomy and sigm...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kudoh A,Sakai T,Ishihara H,Matsuki A

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • The binding of immunoglobulin Fc to cationic proteins.

    abstract::The interaction of cationic proteins with IgG, IgA and IgM were investigated by solid phase radioimmunoassay. All these immunoglobulins showed avid binding, IgM giving the strongest reaction, followed by IgA and then IgG. Fc fragments of IgG gave binding, but F(ab')2 fragments from the three main Ig classes did not, s...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pambakian S,Poston RN

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Eosinophil involvement in rheumatoid arthritis as reflected by elevated serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein.

    abstract::Circulating levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), an eosinophil specific granule protein, and numbers of peripheral eosinophils were determined in 42 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. At the time of the investigation the patients were without drug treatment. They had normal blood counts of eosinophils but on ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hällgren R,Feltelius N,Svenson K,Venge P

    更新日期:1985-03-01 00:00:00