Risk factors for foot infections in individuals with diabetes.


OBJECTIVE:To prospectively determine risk factors for foot infection in a cohort of people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We evaluated then followed 1,666 consecutive diabetic patients enrolled in a managed care-based outpatient clinic in a 2-year longitudinal outcomes study. At enrollment, patients underwent a standardized general medical examination and detailed foot assessment and were educated about proper foot care. They were then rescreened at scheduled intervals and also seen promptly if they developed any foot problem. RESULTS:During the evaluation period, 151 (9.1%) patients developed 199 foot infections, all but one involving a wound or penetrating injury. Most patients had infections involving only the soft tissue, but 19.9% had bone culture-proven osteomyelitis. For those who developed a foot infection, compared with those who did not, the risk of hospitalization was 55.7 times greater (95% CI 30.3-102.2; P < 0.001) and the risk of amputation was 154.5 times greater (58.5-468.5; P < 0.001). Foot wounds preceded all but one infection. Significant (P < 0.05) independent risk factors for foot infection from a multivariate analysis included wounds that penetrated to bone (odds ratio 6.7), wounds with a duration >30 days (4.7), recurrent wounds (2.4), wounds with a traumatic etiology (2.4), and presence of peripheral vascular disease (1.9). CONCLUSIONS:Foot infections occur relatively frequently in individuals with diabetes, almost always follow trauma, and dramatically increase the risk of hospitalization and amputation. Efforts to prevent infections should be targeted at people with traumatic foot wounds, especially those that are chronic, deep, recurrent, or associated with peripheral vascular disease.


Diabetes Care


Diabetes care


Lavery LA,Armstrong DG,Wunderlich RP,Mohler MJ,Wendel CS,Lipsky BA




Has Abstract


2006-06-01 00:00:00














  • Is pregnancy in diabetic women associated with folate deficiency?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether folate metabolism in pregnant diabetic women is significantly different from that in pregnant nondiabetic women, thus predisposing them to having offspring with major congenital anomalies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A total of 31 pregnant diabetic women and 54 pregnant nondiabetic contr...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaplan JS,Iqbal S,England BG,Zawacki CM,Herman WH

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • One-year outcome of a combination of weight loss therapies for subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination weight loss program using intermittent low-calorie diets, energy-controlled meal replacement products, and sibutramine on weight loss, diabetes control, and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Redmon JB,Raatz SK,Reck KP,Swanson JE,Kwong CA,Fan Q,Thomas W,Bantle JP

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of time of day of blood pressure-lowering treatment on cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We prospectively investigated in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes if bedtime treatment with ≥1 hypertension medications exerts better blood pressure control and cardiovascular risk reduction than conventional therapy, in which all medications are ingested in the morning. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hermida RC,Ayala DE,Mojón A,Fernández JR

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on HbA(1c), body weight, and hypoglycemia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on pioglitazone monotherapy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, added on to pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on pioglitazone. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Treatment-naive patients or those receiving metformin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione entered a...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Rosenstock J,Vico M,Wei L,Salsali A,List JF

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship of retinal vascular caliber with diabetes and retinopathy: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship of retinal vascular caliber with diabetes, glycemia, and diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Population-based study using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), comprising 5,976 individuals (whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese) residing in six...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen TT,Wang JJ,Sharrett AR,Islam FM,Klein R,Klein BE,Cotch MF,Wong TY

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Metformin as an adjunct therapy in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and insulin resistance: a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether, in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, the addition of metformin to insulin and standard diabetes management results in 1) higher insulin sensitivity and 2) lower HbA1c, fasting glucose, insulin dosage (units per kilogram per day) and BMI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This was a randomized,...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hamilton J,Cummings E,Zdravkovic V,Finegood D,Daneman D

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the effects of three insulinotropic drugs on plasma insulin levels after a standard meal.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the effects of repaglinide, glipizide, and glibenclamide on insulin secretion and postprandial glucose after a single standard 500-kcal test meal. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A total of 12 type 2 diabetic patients with early diabetes (mean HbA(1c) of 6.1%) and 12 matched control subjects were enro...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Cozma LS,Luzio SD,Dunseath GJ,Langendorg KW,Pieber T,Owens DR

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolic control in adolescent girls: links to relationality and the female sense of self.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study investigated whether intimacy and autonomy in mother-daughter interactions and relational aspects of the self are associated with metabolic control in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This cross-sectional study included 88 girls with diabetes (mean age 14.9 +/- 2....

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maharaj S,Daneman D,Olmsted M,Rodin G

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • The Memphis diabetes continuing care program.

    abstract::Since 1963 a network of nurse-operated, physician-backed decentralized clinics has provided continuing care for more than 5000 diabetic patients referred from the medical center clinics. Protocols that provide therapy goals and management details are used by the nurses and nutritionists in this network. To reduce frag...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Runyan JW Jr,Zwaag RV,Joyner MB,Miller ST

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • C-Peptide responses to glucose load in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY).

    abstract::Pancreatic beta cell responses were measured in obese and nonobese maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients by estimating serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide (CP) during oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). The serum CP responses were generally low in MODY patients and more pronounced in obe...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohan V,Snehalatha C,Ramachandran A,Jayashree R,Viswanathan M

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of beta-adrenergic and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma stimulation on target genes related to lipid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The sympathetic nervous system and thiazolidinediones control lipid metabolism and have been implicated in body weight regulation. This study was conducted to determine whether the simultaneous activation of these two signaling systems might synergize to exert beneficial effects on the expression of key genes...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Bogacka I,Gettys TW,de Jonge L,Nguyen T,Smith JM,Xie H,Greenway F,Smith SR

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of the effects of n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil and fish oil in well-controlled type II diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Supplementation of type II diabetic diets with n-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish oil (FO) has been associated with lowered triglyceride and VLDL levels, although reports of impaired glycemic control have limited their use. Effects of n-3FAs from nonmarine sources are less well documented. Therefore, an investig...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: McManus RM,Jumpson J,Finegood DT,Clandinin MT,Ryan EA

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetes in Kentucky.

    abstract::A state diabetes commission and university diabetes program in Kentucky jointly studied the social and economic impact of diabetes mellitus and its complications on the Commonwealth. This investigation revealed that diabetes was a more serious public health problem than previously supposed. Active, diagnosed diabetes ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leichter SB,Hernandez C,Fisher A,Collins P,Courtney A

    更新日期:1982-03-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetes, glycemic control, and new-onset heart failure in patients with stable coronary artery disease: data from the heart and soul study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Diabetes is a predictor of both coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure. It is unknown to what extent the association between diabetes and heart failure is influenced by other risk factors for heart failure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We evaluated the association of diabetes and A1C with incident he...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Melle JP,Bot M,de Jonge P,de Boer RA,van Veldhuisen DJ,Whooley MA

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Is "sugar" the same as diabetes? A community-based study among rural African-Americans.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine if differing beliefs about high blood glucose exist and are associated with blood glucose control among rural African-Americans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A community-based sample of rural African-Americans completed a survey, and a subsample underwent a subsequent screening that included gluc...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schorling JB,Saunders JT

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Use of an automated bolus calculator in MDI-treated type 1 diabetes: the BolusCal Study, a randomized controlled pilot study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of flexible intensive insulin therapy (FIIT) and an automated bolus calculator (ABC) in a Danish type 1 diabetes population treated with multiple daily injections. Furthermore, to test the feasibility of teaching FIIT in a 3-h structured course. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The Bolus...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Schmidt S,Meldgaard M,Serifovski N,Storm C,Christensen TM,Gade-Rasmussen B,Nørgaard K

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcification in Hispanics with type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare lifestyle factors, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) levels in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We recently demonstrated in a small group of nonreferred, healthy, nond...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reaven PD,Sacks J,Investigators for the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study of Glycemic Control and Complications in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Blood Disorder-Related Variants Influencing Hemoglobin A1c With Implications for Glycemic Status in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to identify hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-associated genetic variants and examine their implications for glycemic status evaluated by HbA1c in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diverse genetic ancestries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HbA1c in 9,636 U.S. Hispa...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moon JY,Louie TL,Jain D,Sofer T,Schurmann C,Below JE,Lai CQ,Aviles-Santa ML,Talavera GA,Smith CE,Petty LE,Bottinger EP,Chen YI,Taylor KD,Daviglus ML,Cai J,Wang T,Tucker KL,Ordovás JM,Hanis CL,Loos RJF,Schneiderm

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • A health economic model to assess the long-term effects and cost-effectiveness of orlistat in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Obesity is a common condition in type 2 diabetic patients. Treating obesity may enhance hypoglycemic treatment and contribute to the reduction of long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications. Orlistat reduces cardiovascular risk factors in obese type 2 diabetic patients. The objectives of this stu...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lamotte M,Annemans L,Lefever A,Nechelput M,Masure J

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term Effects of Disasters on Seniors With Diabetes: Evidence From Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the long-run mortality effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on seniors with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare enrollment and claims data covering four states and ∼10 years. Affected individuals were identified by whether they lived in...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Quast T,Andel R,Sadhu AR

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of chronic intermittent intravenous insulin therapy on antihypertensive medication requirements in IDDM subjects with hypertension and nephropathy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The prevalence of systemic hypertension is increased in patients with diabetes. In this prospective, randomized, crossover clinical trial, we assessed antihypertensive effects of chronic intermittent intravenous insulin therapy (CIIIT) on insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects with hypertension a...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Aoki TT,Grecu EO,Prendergast JJ,Arcangeli MA,Meisenheimer R

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Depression and diabetes treatment nonadherence: a meta-analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Depression is common in patients with diabetes and is associated with worse treatment outcomes. Its relationship to treatment adherence, however, has not been systematically reviewed. We used meta-analysis to examine the relationship between depression and treatment nonadherence in patients with type 1 and ty...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Gonzalez JS,Peyrot M,McCarl LA,Collins EM,Serpa L,Mimiaga MJ,Safren SA

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sugar content of selected pharmaceuticals.

    abstract::Medications may contain significant amounts of various sugars. Data provided by 67 manufacturers have been tabulated to provide specific qualitative and quantitative information on sugar content of selected drug products. Since diabetic individuals may tolerate various sugar forms differently, it is useful to know spe...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Souney PF,Cyr DA,Chang JT,Kaul AF

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperinsulinemia or increased sympathetic drive as links for obesity and hypertension.

    abstract::The association of obesity with hypertension has been amply demonstrated in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and dietary-intervention studies, but the mechanisms remain enigmatic. Both conditions are independently characterized by similar metabolic alterations, i.e., glucose intolerance, dyslipoproteinemia, elevated ser...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Modan M,Halkin H

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • The action profile of lispro is not blunted by mixing in the syringe with NPH insulin.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the effect of mixing the insulin analog lispro (Humalog) with NPH (Humulin I) before injection on lispro's fast, short action profile. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A total of 12 healthy volunteers received subcutaneous abdominal injections of 0.1 U/kg regular insulin and 0.2 U/kg NPH insulin as foll...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Joseph SE,Korzon-Burakowska A,Woodworth JR,Evans M,Hopkins D,Janes JM,Amiel SA

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced heart rate variability among youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH CVD study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study compared heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in youth with and without type 1 diabetes and explored potential contributors of altered HRV. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:HRV parameters were measured among 354 youth with type 1 diabetes (mean age 18.8 years, diabetes duration 9.8 years, and mean A...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Jaiswal M,Urbina EM,Wadwa RP,Talton JW,D'Agostino RB Jr,Hamman RF,Fingerlin TE,Daniels S,Marcovina SM,Dolan LM,Dabelea D

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Na/Li countertransport abnormalities in type 1 diabetes with and without nephropathy are familial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether there is a familial abnormality in erythrocyte Na/Li countertransport (CT) kinetics in the approximate one-third of type 1 diabetic patients that succumb to a familial predisposition to nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Erythrocyte Na/Li CT kinetics were measured in nondiabetic fi...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mead PA,Wilkinson R,Thomas TH

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • The prevalence and predictors of an abnormal ankle-brachial index in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine ankle-brachial index (ABI) abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:An ABI was obtained in 2,240 patients in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial. ABIs were classified as: normal, 0.91...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singh PP,Abbott JD,Lombardero MS,Sutton-Tyrrell K,Woodhead G,Venkitachalam L,Tsapatsaris NP,Piemonte TC,Lago RM,Rutter MK,Nesto RW,Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes Study Group.

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Ser1369Ala variant in sulfonylurea receptor gene ABCC8 is associated with antidiabetic efficacy of gliclazide in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants could influence the antidiabetic efficacy of gliclazide in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A total of 1,268 type 2 diabetic patients whose diabetes was diagnosed within the past 5 years and who had no recent hypoglyce...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Feng Y,Mao G,Ren X,Xing H,Tang G,Li Q,Li X,Sun L,Yang J,Ma W,Wang X,Xu X

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of two indices of glycemic control in diabetic subjects: glycosylated serum protein and hemoglobin.

    abstract::Glycosylated serum protein (GSP) and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) were measured in 263 insulin-dependent and 41 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Both indices provided useful information in type II diabetes, but were extremely poor in judging control in type I diabetes. In both groups, there was poor correlati...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mehl TD,Wenzel SE,Russell B,Gardner D,Merimee TJ

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00