Projections from the subfornical organ to the supraoptic nucleus in the rat: ultrastructural identification of an interposed synapse in the median preoptic nucleus using a combination of neuronal tracers.


:The subfornical organ, along with other regions of the lamina terminalis, may contain osmoreceptors and is likely to be a site of action of blood-borne angiotensin II. The neural pathways by which these stimuli lead to vasopressin secretion, have been suggested to extend from the subfornical organ to hypothalamic sites of vasopressin production either directly or via synapses in an intervening nucleus such as the median preoptic nucleus. In the present study, cholera toxin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (CT/HRP) or colloidal gold (CT/Au) has been injected, respectively, into the subfornical organ and supraoptic nucleus of the same animal. The anterograde and retrograde transport of the toxin from these two sites has made possible the identification, at the ultrastructural level, of a synapse in the median preoptic nucleus interposed in the pathway between the subfornical organ and the supraoptic nucleus. Moreover, the presence of retrogradely transported CT/HRP and CT/Au in the same neurone in the median preoptic nucleus indicates that some neurones in this nucleus have axons with collateral branches to both the subfornical organ and supraoptic nucleus. Either or both of these pathways may transmit information related to the tonicity of the blood or circulating levels of angiotensin II to sites in the hypothalamus.


Brain Res


Brain research


Oldfield BJ,Hards DK,McKinley MJ




Has Abstract


1991-08-30 00:00:00














  • Effects of biogenic aldehydes and aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors on rat brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity in vitro.

    abstract::The effect of indole-3-acetaldehyde, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetaldehyde, disulfiram, diethyldithiocarbamate, coprine, and 1-amino-cyclopropanol on tryptophan hydroxylase activity was studied in vitro using high performance liquid chromatography with electro-chemical detection. With the analytical method developed, 5-hydro...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nilsson GE,Tottmar O

    更新日期:1987-04-21 00:00:00

  • Effect of oxotremorine on local cerebral glucose utilization in motor system regions of the rat brain.

    abstract::The [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was used to test the effects of central muscarinic stimulation on local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in rats. Systemic administration of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (OXO, 0.7 mg/kg, ip) increased LCGU in brain regions involved in motor function: the sensorimotor cort...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dow-Edwards D,Dam M,Peterson JM,Rapoport SI,London ED

    更新日期:1981-12-07 00:00:00

  • Benzodiazepine receptor binding by membranes from brain cell cultures following chronic treatment with diazepam.

    abstract::Murine brain cells differentiated for 19 days in culture before treatment for 5 days with 10 microM diazepam. Radioligand binding to the benzodiazepine receptors on membranes obtained from these cultures was determined by the filtration assay method. Decreased binding was observed in the membranes from treated culture...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Prezioso PJ,Neale JH

    更新日期:1983-12-12 00:00:00

  • Role of spinal muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in clonidine-induced nitric oxide release in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    abstract::Intrathecal administration of alpha(2) adrenergic agonists, such as clonidine, is capable of alleviating neuropathic pain. Recent studies suggest that spinal nitric oxide (NO) mediates the analgesic effect of intrathecal clonidine. Furthermore, compared to nicotinic receptors, spinal muscarinic receptors play a greate...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu Z,Chen SR,Eisenach J,Pan HL

    更新日期:2000-04-10 00:00:00

  • Fragmented DNA transport in dendrites of retinal neurons during apoptotic cell death.

    abstract::Movement of fragmented DNA in dendrites of retinal neurons during the apoptotic cell death was investigated. The time-course of the movement of fragmented DNA in dendrites of retinal neurons undergoing apoptotic cell death induced by intravitreal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) injection were examined by in situ terminal ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hara A,Niwa M,Kumada M,Kitaori N,Yamamoto T,Kozawa O,Mori H

    更新日期:2004-05-08 00:00:00

  • Development from primary to augmenting responses in the somatosensory system.

    abstract::The development from primary to augmenting responses of somatosensory (SI) cortical area to low-frequency stimulation of the ventrobasal (VB) thalamus or white matter (WM) beneath SI in VB-lesioned preparations was studied by field potential analysis and extracellular unit recording. Compared to the major postsynaptic...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morin D,Steriade M

    更新日期:1981-01-26 00:00:00

  • The three-dimensional detection of microvasculatory bed in the brain of white rat Rattus norvegicus by a Ca2+-ATPase method.

    abstract::A procedure is described which allows for the selective and non-injectional staining of the three-dimensional microvasculatory bed (MVB) in thick sections (60-140 microm) of formalin-fixed brain tissue of white rats Rattus norvegicus. This histochemical method detects ATPase activity and takes place between pH 10.5 an...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chilingaryan A,Chilingaryan AM,Martin GG

    更新日期:2006-01-27 00:00:00

  • Mechanism of 4-aminopyridine block of the transient outward K-current in identified Helix neuron.

    abstract::The block of the transient outward K-current, I(K(A)) by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and blood-depressing substances (BDS) was investigated in identified Helix pomatia neurons (LPa3) using the two microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. The present study shows that 4-AP inhibits I(K(A)) in snail neurons in a voltage- and c...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kiss T,László Z,Szabadics J

    更新日期:2002-02-15 00:00:00

  • Comparison of olfactory receptor (EOG) and bulbar (EEG) responses to amino acids in the catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    abstract::The olfactory bulb electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used as a method to imply receptor events12,13. However, experiments to correlate olfactory receptor and bulbar EEG activity in the same species of fish has not been performed. Reported here is the comparison between the simultaneously recorded receptor electroolf...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Byrd RP Jr,Caprio J

    更新日期:1982-10-07 00:00:00

  • Laminar patterns of termination of cortico-cortical afferents in the somatosensory system.

    abstract::Two distinct patterns of terminal labeling were seen after injections of [3H]amino acids into the second somatosensory area (S2) and the retroinsular area (Ri). The first pattern, seen both in S2 after an injection in Ri and in the granular or dysgranular insular fields after an injection in S2, is characterized by he...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friedman DP

    更新日期:1983-08-22 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of brain 5 alpha-reductase in pregnant rats: effects on enzymatic and behavioral activity.

    abstract::Medial basal hypothalamic (MBH) 5 alpha-reductase activity was significantly blocked with a known inhibitor, Proscar (Finasteride), in pregnant rats while their open-field behavior was quantified during the last week of pregnancy. In control animals, open-field behavior significantly decreased (in a stair-step fashion...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lephart ED,Ladle DR,Jacobson NA,Rhees RW

    更新日期:1996-11-11 00:00:00

  • Neuroprotective effect of dapsone in an occlusive model of focal ischemia in rats.

    abstract::Dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is employed in the chemotherapy against leprosy. Dapsone also prevents neuronal damage induced by glutamate agonists. As glutamate excitotoxicity is implicated in the damage after ischemia, we tested the ability of dapsone to prevent ischemic injury in a model of permanent middle ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ríos C,Nader-Kawachi J,Rodriguez-Payán AJ,Nava-Ruiz C

    更新日期:2004-03-05 00:00:00

  • The effects of stimuli on the activity and functional connectivity of local neuronal groups in the cat auditory cortex.

    abstract::Simultaneous extracellular recordings from one electrode of 'local' groups of 3-6 neurons were obtained from the auditory cortex of unanesthetized, paralyzed cats. The activity and functional connectivity of local microenvironments were examined under various auditory stimuli. Single cell response patterns were examin...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frostig RD,Gottlieb Y,Vaadia E,Abeles M

    更新日期:1983-08-08 00:00:00

  • Localization of prostaglandin E2 synthases and E-prostanoid receptors in the spinal cord in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    abstract::Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a lipid mediator which plays a role in the generation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In the peripheral nervous system, PGE2 sensitizes nociceptive afferent neurons through E-prostanoid (EP) receptors. In the central nervous system, PGE2 modulates pain sensitivity and contributes to th...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanda H,Kobayashi K,Yamanaka H,Okubo M,Dai Y,Noguchi K

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • A calcium-stimulated serine protease from monkey brain degrades the beta-amyloid precursor protein.

    abstract::Amyloid deposition, a histopathological feature of Alzheimer's disease brain, may be the underlying cause of this disease. The isolation of enzymes involved in both the normal and aberrant or alternative processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein may lead to an understanding of how beta-protein, the major compon...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Razzaboni BL,Papastoitsis G,Koo EH,Abraham CR

    更新日期:1992-09-04 00:00:00

  • Alpha 1-adrenergic agonists act on the ventromedial hypothalamus to cause neuronal excitation and lordosis facilitation: electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

    abstract::To see if activation of central alpha 1-adrenergic receptors can cause facilitation of lordosis in rats, the behavioral effects of centrally administered alpha 1-agonists, methoxamine (MA) and phenylephrine (PhE), and related agents were studied. In ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen, infusion of MA, PhE, or a ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kow LM,Weesner GD,Pfaff DW

    更新日期:1992-08-21 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory actions of taurocyamine, hypotaurine, homotaurine, taurine and GABA on spike discharges of Purkinje cells, and localization of sensitive sites, in guinea pig cerebellar slices.

    abstract::The effects of the possible metabolites of taurine--taurocyamine and hypotaurine--and of homotaurine on spike discharge frequency of guinea pig cerebellar Purkinje cells were investigated in comparison with taurine and GABA. Taurocyamine, hypotaurine and homotaurine all dose-dependently suppressed the spike frequency ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okamoto K,Sakai Y

    更新日期:1981-02-16 00:00:00

  • Effects of continuous hypoxia on energy metabolism in cultured cerebro-cortical neurons.

    abstract::Mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced neuronal adaptation have not been fully elucidated. In the present study we investigated glucose metabolism and the activities of glycolytic and TCA cycle enzymes in cerebro-cortical neurons exposed to hypoxia (3 days in 1% of O2) or normoxia (room air). Hypoxia led to increased a...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malthankar-Phatak GH,Patel AB,Xia Y,Hong S,Chowdhury GM,Behar KL,Orina IA,Lai JC

    更新日期:2008-09-10 00:00:00

  • The effects of thalidomide and minocycline on taxol-induced hyperalgesia in rats.

    abstract::Chemotherapy-induced pain is the most common treatment-limiting complication encountered by cancer patients receiving taxane-, vinca alkaloid- or platin-based chemotherapy. Several lines of evidence indicate that activation of pro-inflammatory cascades involving the release of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cata JP,Weng HR,Dougherty PM

    更新日期:2008-09-10 00:00:00

  • TrkB levels in the cochlear nucleus after unilateral cochlear ablation: correlations with post-lesion plasticity.

    abstract::Tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) levels in the adult guinea pig cochlear nucleus (CN) were determined from Western blots for up to 60 days after unilateral cochlear ablation (UCA). Compared to TrkB levels on the intact side, those on the lesioned side were elevated in the anteroventral CN (AVCN) at 7 and 60 days and in the po...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suneja SK,Potashner SJ

    更新日期:2002-12-13 00:00:00

  • On the role of central program and afferent inflow in the control of scratching movements in the cat.

    abstract::Rhythmical scratching movements of the hindlimb were evoked in decerebrate and decapitate cats by stimulation of C1-C2 segments of the spinal cord. Movements of the limb and electrical activity of its muscles were recorded. All muscles were divided into two groups according to their activity. Muscles of the first grou...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deliagnina TG,Feldman AG,Gelfand IM,Orlovsky GN

    更新日期:1975-12-19 00:00:00

  • Delayed potassium current and non-specific outward current in pyramidal neurones acutely dissociated from rat hippocampus.

    abstract::The electrical property of delayed K+ currents (IKD) was studied in pyramidal neurones freshly isolated from the rat hippocampal CA1 region. The IKD was separated pharmacologically from other membrane currents. Activation and inactivation processes of the IKD were highly voltage-dependent in the potential range betwee...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oyama Y,Harata N,Akaike N

    更新日期:1991-12-24 00:00:00

  • Brain cholecystokinin and beta-endorphin systems may antagonistically interact to regulate tissue DNA synthesis in rat pups.

    abstract::Previously, we have shown that intracisternal (i.c.) administration of beta-endorphin suppresses brain and liver DNA synthesis in rat pups. This finding is consistent with the view that endogenous CNS beta-endorphin plays an important role in controlling postnatal growth. Recent evidence suggests that brain CCK8, the ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bartolome JV,Lorber BA,Bartolome MB

    更新日期:1994-10-24 00:00:00

  • Enhanced analgesic potency and reduced tolerance of morphine in 129/SvEv mice: evidence for a deficiency in GM1 ganglioside-regulated excitatory opioid receptor functions.

    abstract::10-fold higher doses in SW mice. Furthermore, cotreatment of 129/SvEv mice with morphine plus a low dose of naltrexone (ca. 0.1 microgram/kg) that markedly enhances and prolongs morphine's antinociceptive effects in SW mice did not enhance, and often attenuated6 h. The marked GM1-induced attenuation of morphine's anti...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crain SM,Shen K

    更新日期:2000-02-21 00:00:00

  • The static sensitivity of tendon organs during recovery from nerve injury.

    abstract::An investigation has been carried out into the physiological properties of tendon organs and their interactions with motor units following two types of nerve injury: nerve crush and nerve transection followed by suture repair. Recovery from nerve crush was very successful: 6 weeks after the injury 60% of the tendon or...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scott JJ,Davies P,Petit J

    更新日期:1995-10-30 00:00:00

  • Specific glycine uptake by identified neurons of Aplysia californica. II. Biochemistry.

    abstract::Glycine is taken up twice as rapidly by neurons R3-R14 as by other identified neurons in the Aplysia parietovisceral ganglion. Earlier studies had shown that R3-R14 have much higher glycine concentrations than other Aplysia neurons. Most of the glycine taken up by R3-R14 was biochemically untransformed for at least 1 ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McAdoo DJ,Iliffe TM,Price CH,Novak RA

    更新日期:1978-10-06 00:00:00

  • Optic nerve transection affects development and use-dependent plasticity in neocortex of the rat: Quantitative acetylcholinesterase imaging.

    abstract::We investigated the effects of neonatal optic nerve transection on cortical acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hooded rats during postnatal development and following behavioral manipulation after weaning. AChE reaction product was quantified on digitized images of histochemically stained sections in layer IV of p...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Melzer P,Mineo L,Ebner FF

    更新日期:2007-03-30 00:00:00

  • S-allyl cysteine attenuates oxidative stress associated cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in mouse model of streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    abstract::S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a sulfur containing amino acid derived from garlic, has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-cancer, antihepatotoxic and neurotrophic activity. This study was designed to examine the pre-treatment effects of SAC on cognitive deficits and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of intracerebroven...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Javed H,Khan MM,Khan A,Vaibhav K,Ahmad A,Khuwaja G,Ahmed ME,Raza SS,Ashafaq M,Tabassum R,Siddiqui MS,El-Agnaf OM,Safhi MM,Islam F

    更新日期:2011-05-10 00:00:00

  • Repair of the blood-brain barrier following implantation of polymer capsules.

    abstract::Past studies of polymer-encapsulated cell lines implanted in the brain indicated their usefulness for transmitter replacement therapy in animal models. Such grafts may have potentially important clinical applications, but their placement into neural parenchyma may cause a traumatic injury resulting in a leaky blood-br...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jaeger CB,Winn SR,Tresco PA,Aebischer P

    更新日期:1991-06-14 00:00:00

  • Neuronotrophic factors and their antibodies: in vitro microassays for titration and screening.

    abstract::Using nerve growth factor (NGF), anti-NGF sera and dissociated neonatal mouse dorsal root ganglionic neurons we present a microculture assay methodology for (1) the titration of neurotrophic factor (NTF) activity in monolayer culture, (2) the titration of NTF antibodies which 'block' NTF biological activity, (3) the t...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manthorpe M,Skaper SD,Varon S

    更新日期:1981-12-28 00:00:00