Descartes before the horse: I clone, therefore I am: the hepatitis C virus in current perspective.


:In an unprecedented approach to viral discovery, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was cloned before it was established by conventional methods of viral detection or by genomic characterization. Hepatitis C virus is a small (10-kb), single-stranded RNA virus with a genomic organization that places it in the family Flaviviridae. The virus is global in distribution, with a prevalence between 0.3% and 1.5%. The same agent causes parenterally acquired and sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. Nonparenteral modes of spread are poorly defined, but low-level sexual transmission is probable. There is a strong association between the presence of antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma; a causal role for HCV is suspected but has not been proved. Hepatitis C virus accounts for at least 85% of the cases of transfusion-associated hepatitis; an anti-HCV-reactive donor was retrospectively identified in nearly 90% of cases. Among donors confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) to be anti-HCV positive, 80% to 90% are infectious. Hepatitis C virus RNA can be detected within 1 to 2 weeks of exposure and persists throughout the course of infection. Generally, the presence of anti-HCV cannot be confirmed until 9 to 20 weeks after exposure, creating a window period of seronegativity and potential infectivity. It is anticipated that the anti-HCV assay will reduce the number of cases of transfusion-associated hepatitis by 50% in the United States; a 70% reduction has been documented in Spain.


Ann Intern Med


Alter HJ




Has Abstract


1991-10-15 00:00:00












  • The Effects of Pay-for-Performance Programs on Health, Health Care Use, and Processes of Care: A Systematic Review.

    abstract:Background:The benefits of pay-for-performance (P4P) programs are uncertain. Purpose:To update and expand a prior review examining the effects of P4P programs targeted at the physician, group, managerial, or institutional level on process-of-care and patient outcomes in ambulatory and inpatient settings. Data Sources...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mendelson A,Kondo K,Damberg C,Low A,Motúapuaka M,Freeman M,O'Neil M,Relevo R,Kansagara D

    更新日期:2017-03-07 00:00:00

  • Four-Week Direct-Acting Antiviral Regimens in Noncirrhotic Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection: An Open-Label, Nonrandomized Trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for 6 weeks achieves sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 95% in some patients. If effective, shorter therapeutic courses could improve adherence and treatment costs. OBJECTIVE:To determine factors predictive ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Kohli A,Kattakuzhy S,Sidharthan S,Nelson A,McLaughlin M,Seamon C,Wilson E,Meissner EG,Sims Z,Silk R,Gross C,Akoth E,Tang L,Price A,Jolley TA,Emmanuel B,Proschan M,Teferi G,Chavez J,Abbott S,Osinusi A,Mo H,Poli

    更新日期:2015-12-15 00:00:00

  • Sulfasalazine. Pharmacology, clinical use, toxicity, and related new drug development.

    abstract::Sulfasalazine is metabolized by intestinal bacteria, resulting in the release of sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylate. The drug is useful in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis as well as in preventing relapses of the disease in remission. Although effective in active Crohn's disease as well, sulfasalazine appea...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Peppercorn MA

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Biliary excretion of aluminum in aluminum osteodystrophy with liver disease.

    abstract::Two patients with chronic liver disease developed elevated serum aluminum concentrations and biopsy-proven osteodystrophy. Neither patient had chronic renal failure but both had received aluminum-containing antacids for long periods. We measured biliary and urinary aluminum excretion during antacid loading in patients...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams JW,Vera SR,Peters TG,Luther RW,Bhattacharya S,Spears H,Graham A,Pitcock JA,Crawford AJ,Palmieri GM

    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • Smoking status and risk for recurrent coronary events after myocardial infarction.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Questions remain about the importance of smoking and smoking cessation after incident myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE:To assess the association between smoking status and risk for recurrent coronary events. DESIGN:Retrospective, population-based, inception cohort study. SETTING:Health maintenance organiz...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rea TD,Heckbert SR,Kaplan RC,Smith NL,Lemaitre RN,Psaty BM

    更新日期:2002-09-17 00:00:00

  • Acute severe aortic regurgitation. Pathophysiology, clinical recognition, and management.

    abstract::Acute severe aortic regurgitation is a relatively unfamiliar, though life-threatening, disease. We review its diverse causes, anatomic faults, and hemodynamic sequelae and set the stage for an understanding of the clinical manifestations in light of their physiologic mechanisms. Clinical information includes the natur...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Morganroth J,Perloff JK,Zeldis SM,Dunkman WB

    更新日期:1977-08-01 00:00:00

  • Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities in States With Primary Versus Secondary Seat Belt Laws: A Time-Series Analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain a leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Primary seat belt laws allow vehicle occupants to be ticketed solely for not wearing seat belts, and secondary laws allow ticketing only for failure to wear seat belts in the setting of other violations. OBJEC...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee LK,Monuteaux MC,Burghardt LC,Fleegler EW,Nigrovic LE,Meehan WP,Schutzman SA,Mannix R

    更新日期:2015-08-04 00:00:00

  • Perspectives in the treatment of breast cancer: 1976.

    abstract::Breast cancer is the major cancer killer of women in the United States. Recent advances in therapy promise more effective control of this illness. The development of hormone receptor analysis permits us to better understand the mechanisms of action of steroid and peptide hormones and increases the likelihood of using ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1977-06-01 00:00:00

  • Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The magnitude, consistency, and manner of association between sedentary time and outcomes independent of physical activity remain unclear. PURPOSE:To quantify the association between sedentary time and hospitalizations, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer in adults independent ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Biswas A,Oh PI,Faulkner GE,Bajaj RR,Silver MA,Mitchell MS,Alter DA

    更新日期:2015-01-20 00:00:00

  • The effect of dietary protein restriction on the progression of diabetic and nondiabetic renal diseases: a meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dietary protein has long been thought to play a role in the progression of chronic renal disease, but clinical trials to date have not consistently shown that dietary protein restriction is beneficial. PURPOSE:To use meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of dietary protein restriction in previously published...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Pedrini MT,Levey AS,Lau J,Chalmers TC,Wang PH

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Firearm Acquisition Without Background Checks: Results of a National Survey.

    abstract:Background:In 1994, 40% of U.S. gun owners who had recently acquired a firearm did so without a background check. No contemporary estimates exist. Objective:To estimate the proportion of current U.S. gun owners who acquired their most recent firearm without a background check, by time since and manner of acquisition, ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller M,Hepburn L,Azrael D

    更新日期:2017-02-21 00:00:00

  • Prolonging tamoxifen therapy for primary breast cancer. Findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project clinical trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether prolonging the duration of tamoxifen administration beyond the cessation of a combined chemotherapy regimen benefits patients with primary breast cancer with positive findings in axillary nodes who benefit initially from the combined regimen. DESIGN:Nonrandomized, nonconcurrent cohort st...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Fisher B,Brown A,Wolmark N,Redmond C,Wickerham DL,Wittliff J,Dimitrov N,Legault-Poisson S,Schipper H,Prager D

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Is embolic risk conditioned by location of deep venous thrombosis?

    abstract::Sixty-eight patients clinically suspected of having (33), or at high risk for (35), deep venous thrombosis were studied with contrast venography, radiofibrinogen leg scanning, and impedance plethysmography as well as ventilation and perfusion lung scans. Thrombosis limited to the veins in the calf of the leg (unilater...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moser KM,LeMoine JR

    更新日期:1981-04-01 00:00:00

  • Hospital ventilation and risk for tuberculous infection in canadian health care workers. Canadian Collaborative Group in Nosocomial Transmission of TB.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The risk for and determinants of transmission of tuberculosis in hospitals caring for moderate numbers of patients with tuberculosis remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE:To study the association of tuberculin conversion among health care workers with ventilation of patient care areas. DESIGN:Cross-sectional observa...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Menzies D,Fanning A,Yuan L,FitzGerald JM

    更新日期:2000-11-21 00:00:00

  • Sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    abstract::To re-evaluate the relationship between Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis, we compared the numbers and types of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from normal volunteers and patients with Crohn's disease, with other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, and with sarcoidosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, but not ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smiéjan JM,Cosnes J,Chollet-Martin S,Soler P,Basset FM,Le Quintrec Y,Hance AJ

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Possible nosocomial transmission of group Y Neisseria meningitidis among oncology patients.

    abstract::Within 4 days, two oncology patients in the Clinical Research Unit had bacteremia causes by group Y Neisseria meningitidis. Three additional patients, identified by prevalence survey, were found to have nasopharyngeal colonization with that serogroup, compared with only one employee (not associated with patients) and ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohen MS,Steere AC,Baltimore R,von Graevenitz A,Pantelick E,Camp B,Root RK

    更新日期:1979-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a cluster of eleven cases.

    abstract::An unusual cluster of 11 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia occurred in a 3-month period at Memorial Hospital, New York. Ten of the 11 patients had lymphoma or leukemia. In 7 patients, corticosteroid therapy was decreased or stopped shortly before pneumocystis pneumonia was diagnosed. The pediatric patients ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singer C,Armstrong D,Rosen PP,Schottenfeld D

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • Training and competency evaluation for interpretation of 12-lead electrocardiograms: recommendations from the American College of Physicians.

    abstract::This paper is part 1 of a 2-part series on interpretation of 12-lead resting electrocardiograms (ECGs). Part 1 is a position paper that presents recommendations for initial competency, competency assessment, and maintenance of competency on ECG interpretation, as well as recommendations for the role of computer-assist...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 指南,杂志文章,实务指引


    authors: Salerno SM,Alguire PC,Waxman HS,American College of Physicians.

    更新日期:2003-05-06 00:00:00

  • Institutional Variation in Quality of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Cohort Study.

    abstract:Background:Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are associated with procedure-related complications, yet little is known about variation in complication rates among institutions that may suggest disparities in care quality. Objective:To assess institutional variation in risk-standardized complication ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ranasinghe I,Labrosciano C,Horton D,Ganesan A,Curtis JP,Krumholz HM,McGavigan A,Hossain S,Air T,Hariharaputhiran S

    更新日期:2019-09-03 00:00:00

  • Toward evidence-based medical statistics. 2: The Bayes factor.

    abstract::Bayesian inference is usually presented as a method for determining how scientific belief should be modified by data. Although Bayesian methodology has been one of the most active areas of statistical development in the past 20 years, medical researchers have been reluctant to embrace what they perceive as a subjectiv...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goodman SN

    更新日期:1999-06-15 00:00:00

  • Minocycline-induced cell-mediated hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To identify the cause of a hypersensitivity pneumonitis and to determine its pathogenesis. DESIGN:Case study. SETTING:Intensive care unit of a referral hospital. PATIENT:A 51-year-old man with chronic bronchitis who developed a hypersensitivity pneumonitis within 1 month after exposure to minocycline, amox...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guillon JM,Joly P,Autran B,Denis M,Akoun G,Debré P,Mayaud C

    更新日期:1992-09-15 00:00:00

  • Access to care is the centerpiece in the elimination of socioeconomic disparities in health.

    abstract::Many health care professionals have sustained an almost single-minded conviction that disparities in access to health care across socioeconomic groups are the key reason for the major discrepancies in health status between wealthy persons and poor persons. Others, however, have argued that a host of factors work to cr...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Andrulis DP

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Lymphadenopathy-associated virus: from molecular biology to pathogenicity.

    abstract::Recent data indicate that the lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) is morphologically similar to animal lentiviruses, such as equine infectious anemia and visna viruses. This finding, together with the cross-reactivity of the core proteins of LAV with those of the equine infectious anemia virus and a similarity in g...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montagnier L

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • National study of internal medicine manpower: III. Subspecialty fellowship training 1976-1977.

    abstract::Questionnaire II of the National Study of Internal Medicine Manpower was directed to all of the 1502 subspecialty training programs in the United States and Puerto Rico. The overall response rate was 86%. For the years 1972-1973 through 1976-1977 the number of fellows in subspecialty training grew at an average rate o...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tarlov AR,Weil PA,Schleiter MK

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

  • The bioavailability of folic acid added to wine.

    abstract::Folate deficiency is a frequent cause of anemia in alcoholics, but little attention has been paid to its prevention. Folic acid was readily soluble in wines of high ethanol content at concentrations of 10 microgram/ml. Lactobacillus casei folate activity of folic acid added to wines was well maintained during a month'...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kaunitz JD,Lindenbaum J

    更新日期:1977-11-01 00:00:00

  • Use of an artificial neural network for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To validate prospectively the use of an artificial neural network to identify myocardial infarction in patients presenting to an emergency department with anterior chest pain. DESIGN:Prospective, blinded testing. SETTING:Tertiary university teaching center. PATIENTS:A total of 331 consecutive adult patient...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baxt WG

    更新日期:1991-12-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of physician behavior on the collection of data.

    abstract::Determining the patient's major reasons for seeking care is of critical importance in a successful medical encounter. To study the physician's role in soliciting and developing the patient's concerns at the outset of a clinical encounter, 74 office visits were recorded. In only 17 (23%) of the visits was the patient p...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beckman HB,Frankel RM

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • Continuous dexamethasone infusion for seven hours in patients with the Cushing syndrome. A superior differential diagnostic test.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To determine the usefulness of the continuous intravenous dexamethasone suppression test in the differential diagnosis of patients with the Cushing syndrome. DESIGN:Comparison of the results of this test with those of other tests in the study population and with data from the literature. SETTING:Refer...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Biemond P,de Jong FH,Lamberts SW

    更新日期:1990-05-15 00:00:00

  • SGLT2 inhibitors increase risk for diabetic ketoacidosis in type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:SOURCE CITATION:Liu J, Li L, Li S, et al. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020;22:1619-27. 32364674. ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Griffin TP,Dinneen SF

    更新日期:2020-10-20 00:00:00

  • Clinically silent atrial septal defects with evidence for cerebral embolization.

    abstract::The cause of stroke in young patients frequently cannot be established. Eleven consecutive patients, age 50 and younger, had clinical evidence of cerebral embolization. Results of physical, radiographic, electrocardiographic, and two-dimensional echocardiographic examinations were normal in all patients. During normal...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harvey JR,Teague SM,Anderson JL,Voyles WF,Thadani U

    更新日期:1986-11-01 00:00:00