Drug therapy for hypertension in hemodialysis patients.

Abstract:

:The majority of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are hypertensive. Drug therapy for hypertension in hemodialysis (HD) patients includes all classes of antihypertensive drugs, with the sole exception of diuretics. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers may decrease morbidity and mortality by reducing the mean arterial pressure (MAP), aortic pulse wave velocity, and aortic systolic pressure augmentation, as well as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and probably reduction of C-reactive protein (CRP) and oxidant stress. Potential risk factors include hyperkalemia, anaphylactoid reaction with AN69 membranes (particularly ACE inhibitors), and aggravation of renal anemia. beta-blockers decrease not only mortality, blood pressure (BP), and ventricular arrhythmias, but also improve left ventricular function in ESRD patients. Nonselective beta-blockers can cause an increase in serum potassium (particularly during fasting or exercise). Lisinopril and atenolol have a predominant renal excretion and therefore a prolonged half life in ESRD patients. Thus thrice-weekly supervised administration of these drugs after HD can enhance BP control. The use of calcium channel blockers is also associated with lower total and cardiovascular-specific mortality in HD patients. Minoxidil is a very potent vasodilator that is generally reserved for dialysis patients with severe hypertension. Hypertensive dialysis patients who are noncompliant with their medications may benefit from transdermal clonidine therapy once a week. The majority of dialysis patients need a combination of several antihypertensive drugs for adequate BP control.

journal_name

Semin Dial

journal_title

Seminars in dialysis

authors

Hörl MP,Hörl WH

doi

10.1111/j.0894-0959.2004.17329.x

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2004-07-01 00:00:00

pages

288-94

issue

4

eissn

0894-0959

issn

1525-139X

pii

SDI17329

journal_volume

17

pub_type

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