Grading of corneal and conjunctival staining in the context of other dry eye tests.


PURPOSE:To describe the Oxford Scheme for grading ocular surface staining in dry eye and to discuss optimization of stain detection using various dyes and filters. Also, to propose a sequence of testing for dry eye diagnosis. METHODS:The grading of corneal and conjunctival staining is described, using the Oxford Scheme, including biomicroscopy, optical filters, illumination conditions, and the characteristics of and instillation techniques used for, selected clinical dyes. RESULTS:A series of panels, labeled A-E, in order of increasing severity, reproducing the staining patterns encountered in dry eye, are used as a guide to grade the degree of staining seen in the patient. The amount of staining seen in each panel, represented by punctate dots, increases by 0.5 of the log of the number of dots between panels B to E. The use of the vital dyes fluorescein, lissamine green, and rose Bengal is described; fluorescein and lissamine green, used in conjunction with appropriate absorption filters, are recommended for use in clinical trials. The placement of staining in relation to the sequence of other diagnostic tests is discussed. CONCLUSIONS:The monitoring and assessment of corneal and conjunctival staining can be greatly enhanced by the use of a grading scale, controlled instillation of dyes, and standard evaluation techniques. This is of particular benefit in clinical trials, where ocular surface staining is commonly employed as an outcome measure






Bron AJ,Evans VE,Smith JA




Has Abstract


2003-10-01 00:00:00














  • A new nonhuman primate model of severe dry eye.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to establish a new rhesus monkey model of severe dry eye. METHODS:A total of 8 rhesus monkeys were used for the study. Four monkeys had their main lacrimal gland and nictitating membrane surgically removed (group 1). Another 4 monkeys had a similar surgery with further application of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin Y,Tan X,Zhang Y,Jie Y,Labbe A,Pan Z

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Risk Factors for Sporadic Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis After Microkeratome Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis: A Retrospective Large Database Analysis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine the factors associated with sporadic diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) after microkeratome laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS:This large database retrospective study included consecutive cases of LASIK performed between 2007 and 2016 at Care-Vision Laser Centers, Tel-Aviv, Israe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Segev F,Mimouni M,Sela T,Munzer G,Kaiserman I

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Some factors influencing outcome after keratoprosthesis surgery.

    abstract::Eleven patients with severe corneal disease have been operated with a collar-button-shaped keratoprosthesis and have been followed for 9-36 months. Two of the devices have been removed, but the remainder are securely in place. Six of the patients have benefitted substantially in terms of improved vision. The complicat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dohlman CH,Doane MG

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of diquafosol sodium eye drops on tear film stability in short BUT type of dry eye.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate the effects of diquafosol sodium (DQS) eye drops, a purinergic P2Y2 receptor agonist, on tear film stability in patients with unstable tear film (UTF). METHODS:Two prospective studies were conducted. One was an exploratory nonrandomized trial on 39 eyes with dry eye symptoms and short tear film ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Shimazaki-Den S,Iseda H,Dogru M,Shimazaki J

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Supratarsal triamcinolone injection in the treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate the efficacy of supratarsal triamcinolone injection in the treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). METHODS:Forty eyes of 20 patients were diagnosed with SLK. All eyes with long-standing severe ocular irritation unresponsive to topical steroid and artificial tears were treated with ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shen YC,Wang CY,Tsai HY,Lee YF

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of standardized and quality-controlled cord blood serum eye drop therapy in the healing of severe corneal epithelial damage in dry eye.

    abstract:PURPOSE:We standardized quality-controlled cord blood serum (CBS)-based eye drops and evaluated the efficacy of 1-month CBS treatment in the healing of diseased corneal epithelium in severe dry eye (DE) patients. METHODS:Seventeen graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and 13 Sjogren syndrome patients with severe persistent...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Versura P,Profazio V,Buzzi M,Stancari A,Arpinati M,Malavolta N,Campos EC

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • The BioMask for treatment of corneal surface irregularities with excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To assess the characteristics of BioMask as a potential masking agent for use with the excimer laser. METHOD:We addressed ablation rate, smoothness, ease of use, dioptric shift, treatment of standardized irregular topography, and ability of BioMask to induce dioptric change in vivo. RESULTS:BioMask ablates at...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stevens SX,Bowyer BL,Sanchez-Thorin JC,Rocha G,Young DA,Rowsey JJ

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Incidence and Outcomes of Positive Donor Rim Cultures and Infections in the Cornea Preservation Time Study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To assess donor rim culture results and outcomes of ocular infections in the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS). METHODS:Donor corneal rim cultures were optional. Donor characteristics were assessed for association with positive cultures using the Fisher exact test and Poisson regression analyses. Incidence...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Mian SI,Aldave AJ,Tu EY,Ayres BD,Jeng BH,Macsai MS,Nordlund ML,Penta JG,Pramanik S,Szczotka-Flynn LB,Ayala AR,Liang W,Maguire MG,Lass JH

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Synergistic effects of hyaluronan and fibronectin on epithelial migration in rabbit cornea in vitro.

    abstract:PURPOSE:We investigated the interactions of hyaluronan with extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen) on corneal epithelial migration by using an organ-culture system of rabbit corneas. METHODS:Rabbit corneal blocks were cultured in the absence or presence of various reagents for a tot...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamura M,Nishida T

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Primary Localized Conjunctival Amyloidosis Presenting Corneal Whorl-like Opacity Patterns.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To report an unusual case of corneal whorl-like opacity patterns in a patient of primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis. METHODS:Case report and review of literature. RESULTS:A 35-year old man with a case of primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis presented with corneal whorl-like opacity patterns and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma VK,Agarwal M,Tyagi A,Sati A

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Outcomes of Penetrating and Lamellar Corneal Patch Grafts.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To report the indications, long-term structural and functional outcomes, and prognostic factors for the success of penetrating and lamellar corneal patch grafts. METHODS:This is a retrospective analysis of 49 patients who underwent the corneal patch graft procedure over 8 years. The baseline, preoperative, and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma S,Rathi A,Murthy SI,Trivedi M,Patel C,Mohamed A,Chaurasia S

    更新日期:2020-09-29 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the Center and Flex-Center Methods of Corneal Endothelial Cell Analysis in the Presence of Guttae.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To compare endothelial cell analysis by the center and flex-center methods in corneas with guttae of differing severity and to determine the minimum countable cell number for using only the flex-center method. METHODS:Forty-seven eyes with corneal guttae and 50 age-matched normal controls were enrolled in the ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang J,Liu X,Tepelus TC,Nazikyan T,Chopra V,Sadda SR,Lee OL

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical Outcomes of Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty in Pseudophakic Eyes Compared With Triple-DMEK at 1-Year Follow-up.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To compare the survival rate 1 year after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in pseudophakic eyes versus combined phacoemulsification and DMEK (triple-DMEK). METHODS:Retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. From all DMEKs performed from January 1, 2017, to June 30, 2018, we select...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fajardo-Sanchez J,de Benito-Llopis L

    更新日期:2020-12-22 00:00:00

  • Correlation Between Corneal Biomechanical Indices and the Severity of Keratoconus.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate the correlations between the biomechanical indices determined in Scheimpflug-based corneal biomechanical assessments and the severity of keratoconus (KC) based on corneal tomographic assessments in patients with different stages of KC. METHODS:Fifty-three patients who presented with clinical KC ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koh S,Inoue R,Ambrósio R Jr,Maeda N,Miki A,Nishida K

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Dry Eye Assessment in Patients With Vitiligo.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film parameters in patients with vitiligo. METHODS:A total of 25 eyes of 25 patients with vitiligo with periocular involvement (group 1), 30 eyes of 30 patients with vitiligo without periocular involvement (group 2), and 20 eyes of 20 controls (group 3) were evaluated using...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Erdur SK,Aydin R,Balevi A,Ozsutcu M,Kocabora MS

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of corneal surface higher-order aberrations after endothelial keratoplasty, femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty, and conventional penetrating keratoplasty.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate and compare corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty (FLAK), and conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). METHODS:A retrospective comparison of consecutive surgical series of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chamberlain W,Omid N,Lin A,Farid M,Gaster RN,Steinert RF

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reflective meniscometry: a new field of dry eye assessment.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To report a newly developed noninvasive method to measure the radius of tear meniscus curvature (reflective meniscometry) and its application to normal eyes, dry eyes, and other ocular surface conditions. METHODS:Two types of meniscometer--photographic and video--were devised. Both use tear meniscus as a conca...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yokoi N,Bron AJ,Tiffany JM,Kinoshita S

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Positive End-Expiratory Pressure as a Risk Factor for Severe Positive Vitreous Pressure During Combined Penetrating Keratoplasty and Cataract Extraction.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To report the potential risk of severe positive vitreous pressure during combined penetrating keratoplasty, cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation (triple procedure), using positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during general endotracheal anesthesia. METHODS:This is a case report of a 32-year...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pillar A,Jeng BH,Munir WM

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Anterior Segment Findings in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Case-Control Study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate the anterior segment parameters in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) compared with healthy control subjects. METHODS:Seventeen patients with OI and 19 age-matched healthy controls were included into this cross-sectional case-control study. Corneal topographic, topometric and Belin-Ambrósio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keleş A,Doğuizi S,Şahin NM,Koç M,Aycan Z

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnosis of subclinical keratoconus using posterior elevation measured with 2 different methods.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To compare the efficacy of posterior corneal elevation, measured by 2 methods, in discriminating subclinical keratoconus from normal corneas. METHODS:In 30 consecutive patients with subclinical keratoconus, and 37 candidates for refractive surgery, posterior corneal elevation was measured using Pentacam's rota...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Sanctis U,Aragno V,Dalmasso P,Brusasco L,Grignolo F

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Outcomes of repeat endothelial keratoplasty in patients with failed deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To report the outcomes of repeat endothelial keratoplasty (EK) in patients with previous failed deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK). METHODS:This retrospective interventional case series involved the review of clinical records of patients with failed DLEK surgery who underwent repeat EK surgery. RES...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim P,Brodbaker E,Lichtinger A,Yeung SN,Bahar I,Iovieno A,Amiran MD,Rootman DS

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Recurrence of keratoconic pathology in penetrating keratoplasty buttons originally transplanted for keratoconus.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Study aimed to examine buttons removed from patients originally grafted for KC (group 1) for signs of recurrence at a cellular level and compare them with buttons removed from patients originally grafted for other conditions (group 2). The study further aimed to compare buttons from group 1 exhibiting high asti...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brookes NH,Niederer RL,Hickey D,McGhee CN,Sherwin T

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Temperature variations in eyebank containers: comparative study of corneal transport containers and packing methods.

    abstract::Two containers ("Iowa" and "Virginia") commonly used for transporting donor corneas, and various packing methods were evaluated for constancy of temperature maintenance. The larger Iowa container was found to be superior for extended storage. Packing methods that allowed the vials (containing McCarey-Kaufman medium) t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: York KK,Ward DE,Smith RE

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Corneal transplant rejection rate and severity after endothelial keratoplasty.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To examine the corneal transplant rejection rate and the rate of graft failure subsequent to rejection in the first 2 years after endothelial keratoplasty (EK) and to compare this to background data for similar cases of penetrating keratoplasty (PK). METHODS:Anonymized data from consecutive cases of EK [deep l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Allan BD,Terry MA,Price FW Jr,Price MO,Griffin NB,Claesson M

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Corneal pathology in microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To describe the histopathology of the cornea in microphthalmia with linear streaks (MLS) syndrome. METHODS:Two patients with MLS syndrome underwent penetrating keratoplasty. This study describes the histopathology and investigates immunophenotype of the corneal extracellular matrix by using keratan sulfate and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kapur R,Tu EY,Toyran S,Shah P,Vangveeravong S,Lloyd WC 3rd,Edward DP

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory effects of tranilast on the proliferation and functions of human pterygium-derived fibroblasts.

    abstract:PURPOSE:We studied the possibility that tranilast, an antiallergic and antiproliferative drug, may be beneficial for the treatment of pterygium. METHODS:Pterygium-derived cells were identified by immunohistochemical methods. Growth rate of pterygium-derived cells was determined by using a hemocytometer. Chemotaxis was...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Isaji M,Kikuchi S,Miyata H,Ajisawa Y,Araki-Inazawa K,Tsukamoto Y,Amano Y

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Estimation of Prevalence of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Japan.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To estimate the prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in the Japanese population using new diagnostic criteria, including lid margin abnormalities and signs of occlusion of the meibomian gland orifices as essential signs. METHODS:The participants were consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surge...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amano S,Inoue K

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Measurement of Corneal Biomechanical Properties in Diabetes Mellitus Using the Ocular Response Analyzer and the Corvis ST.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) might induce changes in corneal biomechanics. Therefore, biomechanical properties of the cornea were measured using the ocular response analyzer and the Corvis ST. METHODS:In the study, 35 eyes of 35 diabetic patients were included. After an ophthalmological examination,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ramm L,Herber R,Spoerl E,Pillunat LE,Terai N

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of Topical Application of TSG-6, Cyclosporine, and Prednisolone for Treating Dry Eye.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To compare the therapeutic effects of topical tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6) with those of cyclosporine and prednisolone eye drops in NOD.B10.H2 mice, a model for inflammation-mediated dry eye. METHODS:The 12-week-old NOD.B10.H2 mice were topically administered recombinant TSG-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim YJ,Ryu JS,Park SY,Lee HJ,Ko JH,Kim MK,Wee WR,Oh JY

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Clinicohistopathological findings of gelatinous droplike corneal dystrophy among Asians.

    abstract::We describe the findings in nine Asian-Indian patients with gelatinous droplike corneal dystrophy (GDCD). Most patients showed initial signs of bilateral decreased vision and photophobia at an early age. The siblings were affected in four cases, and parental consanguinity was recorded in seven cases. We classified the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li S,Edward DP,Ratnakar KS,Reddy M,Tso MO

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00