Colocalization of tissue transglutaminase and stress fibers in human vascular smooth muscle cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells.


:The subcellular distribution of tissue transglutaminase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human arterial and venous smooth muscle cells was examined. Double-immunofluorescence staining of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells with anti-transglutaminase antisera and rhodamine-tagged phalloidin revealed codistribution of transglutaminase with the stress fibers, with endothelial cells also containing a cytoplasmic pool. This pattern of distribution was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that transglutaminase co-immunoprecipitated with myosin in high-molecular-weight complexes, but not with actin, suggesting that the association of transglutaminase with the stress fibers was due to its cross-linking to myosin. About 97% of endothelial cell transglutaminase activity was present in the cytosolic fraction and 3% in the particulate fraction. The detergent-insoluble fraction was practically devoid of activity as measured by the putrescine assay, but was active as evidenced by the covalent cross-linking of 125I-fibronectin. Western blotting with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against human erythrocyte transglutaminase detected high levels of enzyme in endothelial cell cytosol and both detergent-soluble and detergent-insoluble membrane fractions. In contrast, smooth muscle cells contained much less cytosolic transglutaminase, as determined either functionally or antigenically. Furthermore, within the particulate fraction of the smooth muscle cells, most of the enzyme was located in the detergent-insoluble fraction, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Retinoic acid increased the levels of enzyme in the cytosol of all cell types and the increases were correlated with increases in mRNA. Thus, tissue transglutaminase is present in various particulate fractions of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells and may be present in this cellular fraction by virtue of autocross-linking of the enzyme itself to stress fiber-associated myosin.


Exp Cell Res


Chowdhury ZA,Barsigian C,Chalupowicz GD,Bach TL,Garcia-Manero G,Martinez J




Has Abstract


1997-02-25 00:00:00














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