Using COVID-19 Cycle Threshold and Other Lab Values as Predictors of Hospitalization Need.

Abstract:

:SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) is a novel virus that has caused over 28 million cases worldwide and over 900,000 deaths since early 2020, rightfully being classified as a pandemic. COVID-19 is diagnosed via PCR testing which looks at cycle threshold values of two genes, N2 and E. This study examined cycle threshold values of COVID-positive patients at the VA hospital in Reno as well as other lab values and co-morbidities to determine if any could aid clinicians in predicting the need for hospitalization and higher levels of care. Multiple variables, including N2 cycle threshold (CT) value, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), D-dimer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and ferritin were evaluated for potential associations with N2 CT value as well as required level of care (based on WHO ordinal score). The results suggest that patients with a N2 cycle threshold value less than 34 are 4 times more likely to have WHO ordinal scores of 4-8 (p=0.0021) while controlling for age and comorbidities (DM, cardiac, kidney and lung disease). Patients of age of 55 or greater were 15.18 times more likely to have WHO ordinal scores of 4-8 (p=0.012) controlling for N2 CT value and co-morbidities. Furthermore, patients with ALC less than 1 were 5.88 times more likely to have WHO ordinal score of 4-8 (p= 0.00024). N2 cycle threshold values also appear to be associated with many commonly obtained markers such as absolute lymphocyte count, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and D-dimer. Patients with N2 CT values less than 34 were 3.49 times more likely to have ALC values less than 1, controlling for age and comorbidities (p=0.0072) while patients 55 or older were 6.66 times more likely to have ALC less than 1 (p=0.027). Finally, this study confirms previous conclusions that patients with advanced age had more severe infections and thus will likely require higher levels of care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

journal_name

J Med Virol

authors

Seeni R,Firzli T,Riddle MS,Krasner C,Ashraf S,Siddiqui F

doi

10.1002/jmv.26835

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2021-02-02 00:00:00

eissn

0146-6615

issn

1096-9071

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Antibody assays for varicella-zoster virus: comparison of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA), complement fixation, and indirect immunofluorescence assays.

    abstract::The competitive ELISA test was compared with competitive RIA, complement fixation, and indirect fluorescent antibody test for the detection of antibody to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). ELISA and RIA were the most sensitive tests, being tenfold as sensitive as indirect immunofluorescence and 20 times as sensitive as co...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890130407

    authors: Wreghitt TG,Tedder RS,Nagington J,Ferns RB

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development and evaluation of the TD97 measles virus vaccine.

    abstract::The TD97 strain vaccine virus was prepared from the Tanabe strain measles virus by low-temperature passages in primary cell cultures and ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. The TD97 strain exhibited the following characteristics: highly temperature sensitive, neither multiplying nor forming any plaques at 40 degrees C in Ve...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890320311

    authors: Suzuki K,Morita M,Katoh M,Kidokoro M,Saika S,Yoshizawa S,Hashizume S,Horiuchi K,Okabe N,Shinozaki T

    更新日期:1990-11-01 00:00:00

  • Two years outcome of women infected with high risk HPV having normal colposcopy following low-grade or equivocal cytological abnormalities: are HPV16 and 18 viral load clinically useful predictive markers?

    abstract::Management of patients infected with high-risk HPV (hrHPV) despite normal colposcopy following abnormal cytology remains a clinical challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate if, in that specific population, initial HPV 16 and HPV 18 viral loads are predictive of infection clearance over a 24-month follow-up. A ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.23276

    authors: Carcopino X,Henry M,Mancini J,Giusiano S,Boubli L,Olive D,Tamalet C

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of a varicella-zoster virus-specific IgA response during acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    abstract::The influence of an acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection on the serological parameters of persistent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) was studied. Sera from 161 patients with infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV and 178 age-matched controls were tested for HSV- and VZV-specific IgA. 98...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890440308

    authors: Karner W,Bauer G

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Immunogenicity of wild and attenuated varicella-zoster virus strains in rhesus monkeys.

    abstract::Thirty susceptible rhesus monkeys were inoculated with cell-free varicella-zoster virus strain OKA or strain KMcC. Both wild and attenuated strains were used. No clinical signs characteristic of human varicella were seen in any of the animals. Virus was not isolated from throat swabs, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid. An...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890140403

    authors: Asano Y,Albrecht P,Behr DE,Neff BJ,Vickers JH,Rastogi SC

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Frequency and genotype of human parvovirus B19 among Iranian patients infected with HIV.

    abstract::The human parvovirus B19 (B19) usually causes a subclinical infection in immunocompetent individuals. Whereas immunocompromised individuals such as patients infected with HIV are at risk of persistent anemia due to B19 infection. Only few studies have been carried out on distribution and molecular epidemiology of B19 ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.24169

    authors: Azadmanesh K,Mohraz M,Kazemimanesh M,Aghakhani A,Foroughi M,Banifazl M,Eslamifar A,Ramezani A

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular characterization of the env gene of two CCR5/CXCR4-independent human immunodeficiency 2 primary isolates.

    abstract::Human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) infection is characterized by a slower disease progression and lower transmission rates. The molecular features that could be assigned as directly involved in this in vivo phenotype remain essentially unknown, and the importance of HIV-2 as a model to understand pathogenicity of ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.21619

    authors: Santos-Costa Q,Parreira R,Moniz-Pereira J,Azevedo-Pereira JM

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Antiviral effects of antisense RNA on hepatitis C virus RNA translation and expression.

    abstract::We developed approaches using antisense RNA to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA translation and HCV core protein expression. An HCV genotype 1b cDNA comprising nt 1-1321 or a fusion construct consisting of HCV (nt 1-584) and luciferase cDNAs were inserted downstream of T7 and CMV promoter sequences and used to gene...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Wakita T,Moradpour D,Tokushihge K,Wands JR

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Emergence and genetic evolution of HIV-1 variants with mutations conferring resistance to multiple reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors.

    abstract::The emergence of genotypic resistance in protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) gene regions was longitudinally evaluated in plasma samples from a group of 12 HIV-1-infected patients treated with different combination of antiretroviral therapies and selected on the basis of their clinical failure. Complex mutational ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(sici)1096-9071(199912)59:4<480::aid-jmv10

    authors: Cabana M,Clotet B,Martínez MA

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • A case of Coxsackie A9 virus infection with orchitis.

    abstract::A thirteen-year-old boy with bilateral orchitis was diagnosed as being infected by Coxsackie A9 virus by isolation of the virus from a throat swab and a fecal specimen. Serologic investigations revealed the development of transitory specific neutralizing IgM antibodies against the isotate and of persistent antibodies ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890030207

    authors: Willems WR,Hornig C,Bauer H,Klingmüller V

    更新日期:1978-01-01 00:00:00

  • Favorable efficacy of glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir as salvage therapy for HCV failures to prior direct-acting antivirals regimens.

    abstract::In real-world settings, not much information is probably available on the treatment efficacy of the combination of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (G/P) as a salvage therapy in failures of prior direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens. Especially, the evolution of NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) and treatment e...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.25278

    authors: Akuta N,Sezaki H,Suzuki F,Fujiyama S,Kawamura Y,Hosaka T,Kobayashi M,Kobayashi M,Saitoh S,Suzuki Y,Arase Y,Ikeda K,Kumada H

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatitis C virus genotypes in different regions of the former Soviet Union (Russia, Belarus, Moldova, and Uzbekistan).

    abstract::The prevalence of HCV genotypes in four republics of the former Soviet Union (Russia, Belarus, Moldova, and Uzbekistan) was investigated. Overall, 197 HCV isolates from 66 blood donors and 131 patients with chronic hepatitis were typed. Viral sequences from sera of infected subjects were amplified by nested RT-PCR usi...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Viazov S,Kuzin S,Paladi N,Tchernovetsky M,Isaeva E,Mazhul L,Vasychova F,Widell A,Roggendorf M

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and clinical significance of hepatitis D virus co-infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Korea.

    abstract::Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection can cause severe acute and chronic liver disease in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite the significant decline in the global HDV infection, it remains a major health concern in some countries. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical features of...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.22095

    authors: Kim HS,Kim SJ,Park HW,Shin WG,Kim KH,Lee JH,Kim HY,Jang MK

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Large scale study of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer and different cytological cervical specimens in Thailand.

    abstract::Identification of high-risk HPV genotypes in patients is essential for vaccination and prevention programs while the geographic distribution of cervical cancer varies widely. HPV 16 is the major cause of cervical cancer followed by HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 52, or HPV 58 depending on geographic area. In this study, the dist...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.23769

    authors: Chansaenroj J,Junyangdikul P,Chinchai T,Swangvaree S,Karalak A,Gemma N,Poovorawan Y

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Herd immunity and fatal cases of influenza among the population exposed to poultry and wild birds in Russian Asia in 2013-2014.

    abstract::In total 1,525 blood serum samples were collected in October, 2013 in Russian Asia from people who reside in territories that are at high risk for emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Presence of antibodies to influenza viruses in the sera was tested in hemagglutination inhibition test. None of the ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.24301

    authors: Ilyicheva T,Abdurashitov M,Durymanov A,Susloparov I,Goncharova N,Kolosova N,Mikheev V,Ryzhikov A

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Rhinovirus frequently detected in elderly adults attending an emergency department.

    abstract::The general aim was to investigate the burden of respiratory virus illness in a hospital emergency department, during two different epidemic seasons. Consecutive patients attending an emergency department during two study periods (February/March 2009 and 2010) were enrolled using broad inclusion criteria (fever/preced...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.22205

    authors: Pierangeli A,Scagnolari C,Selvaggi C,Verzaro S,Spina MT,Bresciani E,Antonelli G,Bertazzoni G

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Brief report: parainfluenza virus type 3 infections: findings in Sydney and some observations on variations in seasonality world-wide.

    abstract::Parainfluenza virus type 3 (Para 3) is an important childhood pathogen causing a significant amount of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. Virus data were analysed over a twelve-year period (1978-1989), and a peak incidence of infection was observed in spring as in Houston, USA, unlike in the United Kingdom where ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890350105

    authors: de Silva LM,Cloonan MJ

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatitis E viral infection regulates estrogen signaling pathways: Inhibition of the cAMPK-PKA-CREB and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways.

    abstract::Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has become a global concern with high mortality rates among pregnant women, especially those in their third trimester of pregnancy. Estrogen plays an important role in mediating the body, regulating physiological and pathological processes. Estrogen is activated by binding to estrogen...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.26641

    authors: Gong S,Hao X,Bi Y,Yang C,Wang W,Mickael HK,Zhang Y,Chen S,Qian Z,Huang F,Wei D,Yu W

    更新日期:2020-10-31 00:00:00

  • Contribution of common and recently described respiratory viruses to annual hospitalizations in children in South Africa.

    abstract::The contribution of viruses to lower respiratory tract disease in sub-Saharan Africa where human immunodeficiency virus may exacerbate respiratory infections is not well defined. No data exist on some of these viruses for Southern Africa. Comprehensive molecular screening may define the role of these viruses as single...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.22120

    authors: Venter M,Lassaunière R,Kresfelder TL,Westerberg Y,Visser A

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Serological evaluation of possible exposure to Ljungan virus and related parechovirus in autoimmune (type 1) diabetes in children.

    abstract::Exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) is implicated in the risk of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes but possible contribution by other parechoviruses is not ruled out. The aim was to compare children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2005-2011 (n = 69) with healthy controls (n = 294), all from the Jämtland County in Sweden, usin...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.24127

    authors: Nilsson AL,Vaziri-Sani F,Broberg P,Elfaitouri A,Pipkorn R,Blomberg J,Ivarsson SA,Elding Larsson H,Lernmark Å

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular and epidemiological analysis of pandemic and post-pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus from central India.

    abstract::Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic struck India in 2009 and continues to cause outbreaks in its post-pandemic phase. Diminutive information is available about influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 from central India. This observational study presents epidemiological and molecular findings for the period of 6 years. Throat swab sa...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.24982

    authors: Sahu M,Singh N,Shukla MK,Potdar VA,Sharma RK,Sahare LK,Ukey MJ,Barde PV

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular characterization and functional analysis of occult hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese patients infected with genotype C.

    abstract::Occult HBV infection is defined as the persistence of HBV DNA in individuals negative for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), and many different mechanisms have been reported in different countries. However, in China, one of the endemic areas for HBV infection, no reports have been published on occult HBV infection. The pres...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.21463

    authors: Fang Y,Teng X,Xu WZ,Li D,Zhao HW,Fu LJ,Zhang FM,Gu HX

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of clinical and virological factors associated with response to alpha interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C.

    abstract::Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy is currently the treatment of choice for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection, but it fails to achieve a sustained response in approximately 75% of those treated. The factors which determine whether or not an individual will respond to IFN-alpha are uncertain, although a number of p...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890450320

    authors: Garson JA,Brillanti S,Whitby K,Foli M,Deaville R,Masci C,Miglioli M,Barbara L

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Human hepatitis B virus X protein augments the DNA binding of nuclear factor for IL-6 through its basic-leucine zipper domain.

    abstract::The X gene product of human hepatitis B virus, HBx, transactivates the expression of viral and cellular genes through a wide variety of cis elements, including the nuclear factor for IL-6 (NF-IL6) binding sites, although HBx does not appear to bind DNA directly. We previously reported that HBx transactivated the inter...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(sici)1096-9071(199905)58:1<11::aid-jmv2>3

    authors: Ohno H,Kaneko S,Lin Y,Kobayashi K,Murakami S

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of HBV genotypes in Central and Eastern Europe.

    abstract::The importance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes for disease progression and response to interferon-alpha-based treatment is well established. While almost all patients in the Mediterranean area are infected with HBV genotype D, HBV genotype A is dominant in Northern Europe. However, the distribution of HBV genotyp...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究

    doi:10.1002/jmv.21294

    authors: Deterding K,Constantinescu I,Nedelcu FD,Gervain J,Nemecek V,Srtunecky O,Vince A,Grgurevic I,Bielawski KP,Zalewska M,Bock T,Ambrozaitis A,Stanczak J,Takács M,Chulanov V,Slusarczyk J,Drazd'áková M,Wiegand J,Cornberg M,

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Towards developing HIV-2 lentivirus-based retroviral vectors for gene therapy: dual gene expression in the context of HIV-2 LTR and Tat.

    abstract::Because of the distinct ability of retroviruses to integrate into the target cell genome and thus achieve long-term expression, retrovirus vectors hold great promise for stable gene transfer. Such vectors derived from human immunodeficiency retroviruses (HIVs) and other lentiviruses are envisioned to possess several a...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(sici)1096-9071(199802)54:2<118::aid-jmv9>

    authors: Sadaie MR,Zamani M,Whang S,Sistron N,Arya SK

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00

  • Temporal distribution of human rotavirus serotypes 1,2,3, and 4 in Venezuelan children with gastroenteritis during 1979-1989.

    abstract::The temporal distribution and clinical severity of rotavirus VP7 serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 recovered from 427 Venezuelan children with acute gastroenteritis over a period of 11 years were studied. Rotavirus VP7 serotype was established by ELISA serotyping in 298 (69.78%) of the specimens while the serotype of the remai...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890340202

    authors: White L,García D,Boher Y,Blanco M,Pérez M,Romer H,Flores J,Pérez-Schael I

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of genital, oral, and anal HPV infection among STI patients in Italy.

    abstract::Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a carcinogenic agent responsible for tumor development in many sexually involved tissues. We present a survey on the prevalence of HPV infection in a risk population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The studied population was formed by 125 STI clinic attendees, who took part in...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.24746

    authors: Ciccarese G,Herzum A,Rebora A,Drago F

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Low incidence and high titers of antibodies to hepatitis B virus X-protein in sera of Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    abstract::Sera of patients from China with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were tested for the presence of HBc/HBe- and HBx antibodies by immunoblotting using recombinant MS2 or beta gal fusion proteins as substrate. Antibodies against HBx were detected in four out of 68 HBsAg positive and in one out of three HBsAg negative sera...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.1890250310

    authors: Liang XH,Stemler M,Will H,Braun R,Tang ZY,Schröder CH

    更新日期:1988-07-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic variability of hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 and virus-specific CD8+ response in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    abstract::Hepatitis C virus (HCV) variation in specific T-cell epitopes may represent a mechanism of viral persistence in chronic infection. We examined the HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3), including the immunologically relevant epitopes HCV NS3-2 KLVALGINAV (human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-A2-restricted) and HCV NS3-1391 LIFC...

    journal_title:Journal of medical virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/jmv.20036

    authors: López-Labrador FX,He XS,Berenguer M,Cheung RC,González-Candelas F,Wright TL,Greenberg HB

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00