Comorbidities, age and period of diagnosis influence treatment and outcomes in early breast cancer.


:Survival for breast cancer (BC) is lower in eastern than northern/central Europe, and in older than younger women. We analysed how comorbidities at diagnosis affected whether selected standard treatments (STs) were given, across Europe and over time, also assessing consequences for survival/relapse. We analysed 7581 stage I/IIA cases diagnosed in 9 European countries in 2009-2013, and 4 STs: surgery; breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy (BCS + RT); reconstruction after mastectomy; and prompt treatment (≤6 weeks after diagnosis). Covariate-adjusted models estimated odds of receiving STs and risks of death/relapse, according to comorbidities. Pearson's R assessed correlations between odds and risks. The z-test assessed the significance of time-trends. Most women received surgery: 72% BCS; 24% mastectomy. Mastectomied patients were older with more comorbidities than BCS patients (p < 0.001). Women given breast reconstruction (25% of mastectomies) were younger with fewer comorbidities than those without reconstruction (p < 0.001). Women treated promptly (45%) were younger than those treated later (p = 0.001), and more often without comorbidities (p < 0.001). Receiving surgery/BCS + RT correlated strongly (R = -0.9), but prompt treatment weakly (R = -0.01/-0.02), with reduced death/relapse risks. The proportion receiving BCS + RT increased significantly (p < 0.001) with time in most countries. This appears to be the first analysis of the influence of comorbidities on receiving STs, and of consequences for outcomes. Increase in BCS + RT with time is encouraging. Although women without comorbidities usually received STs, elderly patients often received non-standard less prompt treatments, irrespective of comorbidities, with increased risk of mortality/relapse. All women, particularly the elderly, should receive ST wherever possible to maximise the benefits of modern evidence-based treatments.


Int J Cancer


Minicozzi P,Van Eycken L,Molinie F,Innos K,Guevara M,Marcos-Gragera R,Castro C,Rapiti E,Katalinic A,Torrella A,Žagar T,Bielska-Lasota M,Giorgi Rossi P,Larrañaga N,Bastos J,Sánchez MJ,Sant M,European HR Working Group on




Has Abstract


2019-05-01 00:00:00












  • MicroRNA-155 deficiency enhances the recruitment and functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor microenvironment and promotes solid tumor growth.

    abstract::Immune cells in tumor microenvironment play a prominent role in tumor progression and metastasis. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) represents an important player in innate and adaptive immunity by regulating differentiation, maturation and activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and T cells. However, the role of miR...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang J,Yu F,Jia X,Iwanowycz S,Wang Y,Huang S,Ai W,Fan D

    更新日期:2015-03-15 00:00:00

  • Effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha on the surface phenotype and the growth of human malignant glioma cell lines.

    abstract::Human malignant glioma cell lines and clones were incubated with various concentrations of recombinant human TNF-alpha, either alone or in combination with recombinant human IFN-gamma. The surface expression of HLA-ABC (class I) antigens and beta 2-microglobulin, was significantly enhanced by TNF-alpha alone on every ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zuber P,Accolla RS,Carrel S,Diserens AC,de Tribolet N

    更新日期:1988-11-15 00:00:00

  • The bidirectional interaction of the gut microbiome and the innate immune system: Implications for chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.

    abstract::Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity (CIGT) occurs in up to 80% of all patients undergoing cancer treatment, and leads to symptoms such as diarrhoea, abdominal bleeding and pain. There is currently limited understanding of how to predict an individual patient's risk of CIGT. It is believed the gut microbiome...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Secombe KR,Coller JK,Gibson RJ,Wardill HR,Bowen JM

    更新日期:2019-05-15 00:00:00

  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and farming: an expanded case-control study.

    abstract::A previously published case-control study of agricultural risk factors involved male cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registered under code 202 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). This study has been expanded with the inclusion of cases registered under ICD code 200, and additional controls. The expa...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pearce NE,Sheppard RA,Smith AH,Teague CA

    更新日期:1987-02-15 00:00:00

  • Dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer: a prospective study of 25,892 Norwegian women.

    abstract::In this prospective study, the relationship between energy and fat consumption and the risk of breast cancer was examined. Between 1977 and 1983, 31,209 Norwegian women, 20 to 54 years of age attended a health screening. The attendees were given a food-frequency questionnaire to be completed at home, and this was retu...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gaard M,Tretli S,Løken EB

    更新日期:1995-09-27 00:00:00

  • Development and validation of a cycle-specific risk score for febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy cycles 2-6 in patients with solid cancers: The CSR FENCE score.

    abstract::The absolute risk reduction by prophylaxis in chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) is largest in patients at highest underlying risk. Therefore, reliable predictive models are needed. Here, we develop and validate such a model for risk of FN during chemotherapy cycles 2-6. A prediction score for risk of FN du...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aagaard T,Reekie J,Roen A,Daugaard G,Specht L,Sengeløv H,Mocroft A,Lundgren J,Helleberg M

    更新日期:2020-01-15 00:00:00

  • Human melanoma cells express FGFR/Src/Rho signaling that entails an adhesion-independent caveolin-1 membrane association.

    abstract::Caveolae have been indicated as a center of cytoskeleton regulation for Src kinase/Rho GTPase signaling. In addition, Src recruitment on intact cortical actin cytoskeleton appears to be required for bFGF/FGFR signal activation. Recently, we established a relationship between caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression and cell migr...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fecchi K,Travaglione S,Spadaro F,Quattrini A,Parolini I,Piccaro G,Raggi C,Fabbri A,Felicetti F,Carè A,Fiorentini C,Sargiacomo M

    更新日期:2012-03-15 00:00:00

  • The MTHFR C677T and DeltaDNMT3B C-149T polymorphisms confer different risks for right- and left-sided colorectal cancer.

    abstract::Etiological risk factors for proximal (right-sided) colon cancers may be different to those of distal colon and rectal (left-sided) cancers if these tumors develop along distinct pathways. The CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP+) occurs in approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRC) and predominantly in the proxi...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iacopetta B,Heyworth J,Girschik J,Grieu F,Clayforth C,Fritschi L

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.

    abstract::Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Petäjä T,Pedersen C,Poder A,Strauss G,Catteau G,Thomas F,Lehtinen M,Descamps D

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cotargeting BET proteins overcomes resistance arising from PI3K/mTOR blockade-induced protumorigenic senescence in colorectal cancer.

    abstract::Therapeutics targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) pathway initially produce potent antitumor effects, but resistance frequently occurs. Using a phosphoproteome analysis, we found that colorectal cancer (CRC) cells exhibit resistance against PI3K/mTOR inhibition through ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee HS,Lee S,Cho KH

    更新日期:2020-11-15 00:00:00

  • In vitro and in vivo detection of somatostatin receptors in human malignant lymphomas.

    abstract::A wide variety of primary and metastatic human neoplasms express somatostatin receptors (SS-Rs). We evaluated the SS-R status of malignant lymphomas that had been surgically removed from 31 patients by use of in vitro SS-R autoradiography with the SS analog 125I-[Tyr3]-octreotide as radioligand. Of 11 low-grade-malign...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reubi JC,Waser B,van Hagen M,Lamberts SW,Krenning EP,Gebbers JO,Laissue JA

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Patterns of growth and differentiation in the colon carcinoma cell line LIM 1863.

    abstract::The LIM 1863 colon carcinoma cell line grows in the form of morphologically and functionally organized organoids. Cells are arranged around a central lumen with a brush border and nuclei are polarized to the periphery. The organoids contain 3 morphological cell types (columnar, goblet and caveolated cells). By agar cl...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayward IP,Whitehead RH

    更新日期:1992-03-12 00:00:00

  • Alterations in c-myc expression in relation to maturational status of human colon carcinoma cells.

    abstract::Previous work from this laboratory established a large bank of human colon carcinoma cell lines in culture and classified them with respect to growth regulatory phenotypes based on several biological and biochemical characteristics. In the present report, Northern analysis indicates that addition of the maturational a...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mulder KM,Brattain MG

    更新日期:1988-07-15 00:00:00

  • Rapid quantification of HTLV-I provirus load: detection of monoclonal proliferation of HTLV-I-infected cells among blood donors.

    abstract::In this report, we quantified HTLV-I provirus load using the AmpliSensor system, which utilizes fluorescence to measure PCR products. With this method, provirus loads could be measured within 6 hr, and the results obtained correlated well with those obtained by other methods. Samples from 256 blood donors, who were po...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Etoh K,Yamaguchi K,Tokudome S,Watanabe T,Okayama A,Stuver S,Mueller N,Takatsuki K,Matsuoka M

    更新日期:1999-06-11 00:00:00

  • Differential survival of γδT cells, αβT cells and NK cells upon engagement of NKG2D by NKG2DL-expressing leukemic cells.

    abstract::Herein, we show that γδT, CD8(+) αβT lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells display a different sensitivity to survival signals delivered via NKG2D surface receptor. All the three effector cell populations activate Akt1/PKBalpha through the engagement of this molecule. Upon binding to leukemic cells expressing NKG2...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poggi A,Zancolli M,Boero S,Catellani S,Musso A,Zocchi MR

    更新日期:2011-07-15 00:00:00

  • Prospective study of body size throughout the life-course and the incidence of endometrial cancer among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    abstract::Although adult obesity is known to increase endometrial cancer risk, evidence for childhood obesity is limited. We prospectively examined the association between body fatness throughout life and endometrial cancer risk. 47,289 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 105,386 of the Nurses' Health Study II (N...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dougan MM,Hankinson SE,Vivo ID,Tworoger SS,Glynn RJ,Michels KB

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Imatinib mesylate effectively combines with chaperone-rich cell lysate-loaded dendritic cells to treat bcr-abl+ murine leukemia.

    abstract::Imatinib mesylate has become an effective agent for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the development of drug resistance has led to examination of combination therapies. In this study, we investigated the effects of combining imatinib with immunotherapy against a murine bcr-abl(+) leukemia, 12B...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zeng Y,Graner MW,Feng H,Li G,Katsanis E

    更新日期:2004-06-10 00:00:00

  • Putrescine and spermidine uptake is regulated by proliferation and dexamethasone treatment in AR4-2J cells.

    abstract::Polyamines are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Their specific uptake contributes to the regulation of intracellular polyamine levels. In this study, we describe the modulation of this transport mechanism in a rat tumoral pancreatic acinar cell line (AR4-2J) and analyze the transport system characteristi...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nicolet T,Scemama JL,Pradayrol L,Berthélémy P,Seva C,Vaysse N

    更新日期:1991-10-21 00:00:00

  • Dickkopf1: a tumor suppressor or metastasis promoter?

    abstract::Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a secreted inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a negative regulator of bone formation. DKK1 acts as a switch that transitions prostate cancer bone metastases from osteolytic to osteoblastic and also is an active indicator of poor outcome for multiple myeloma. However, in other tumor types, DKK...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Menezes ME,Devine DJ,Shevde LA,Samant RS

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prediagnostic telomere length and risk of B-cell lymphoma-Results from the EPIC cohort study.

    abstract::Recent epidemiological investigations have reported on the association between telomere length (TL) and a number of malignancies, including B-cell lymphoma (BCL). The reported results for BCLs are however inconsistent. We carried out a nested case-control study to determine whether TL is associated with future risk of...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hosnijeh FS,Matullo G,Russo A,Guarrera S,Modica F,Nieters A,Overvad K,Guldberg P,Tjønneland A,Canzian F,Boeing H,Aleksandrova K,Trichopoulou A,Lagiou P,Trichopoulos D,Tagliabue G,Tumino R,Panico S,Palli D,Olsen KS,

    更新日期:2014-12-15 00:00:00

  • Distribution of Epstein-Barr viral load in serum of individuals from nasopharyngeal carcinoma high-risk families in Taiwan.

    abstract::The utility of EBV load as a tumor marker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients suggests that it might also serve as a screening test for individuals who are at high risk for developing NPC. We previously demonstrated that unaffected individuals from high-risk families had elevated anti-EBV antibody levels compar...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Yang X,Goldstein AM,Chen CJ,Rabkin CS,Chen JY,Cheng YJ,Hsu WL,Sun B,Diehl SR,Liu MY,Walters M,Shao W,Ortiz-Conde BA,Whitby D,Elmore SH,Gulley ML,Hildesheim A

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Binding of a SART3 tumor-rejection antigen to a pre-mRNA splicing factor RNPS1: a possible regulation of splicing by a complex formation.

    abstract::We recently reported the identification of a human SART3 gene that encodes a tumor-rejection antigen recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The squamous-cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells-3 (SART3) is an RNA-binding protein expressed in the nucleus of the majority of proliferating cells, including nor...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harada K,Yamada A,Yang D,Itoh K,Shichijo S

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines: cell morphology and growth phenotype do not reflect presence of the virus.

    abstract::The recently discovered human polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently found in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tissue and is believed to be causally linked to MCC pathogenesis. While cell lines established from MCC represent a valuable tool to study the contribution of MCPyV to MCC pathogenesis, hitherto only 1 MCPyV-positive ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fischer N,Brandner J,Fuchs F,Moll I,Grundhoff A

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Screening of human bladder tumors and urine sediments for the presence of H-ras mutations.

    abstract::A series of 111 human bladder tumors were screened using oligonucleotide mutant specific probes, restriction enzyme analysis and single-stranded confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) for the presence of H-ras activation events. Thirty-three tumors were found to harbor H-ras mutations where a glycine to valine (G-->T) chang...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levesque P,Ramchurren N,Saini K,Joyce A,Libertino J,Summerhayes IC

    更新日期:1993-11-11 00:00:00

  • Expression of stress protein gp96, a tumor rejection antigen, in human colorectal cancer.

    abstract::Preparations of stress protein gp96 from tumor cells are active as tumor vaccines by eliciting immune responses against mixtures of individual tumor peptide antigens which are complexed to gp96. Due to the individual antigenicity of tumors, a vaccine consisting of tumor-derived gp96 has to be prepared individually for...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heike M,Frenzel C,Meier D,Galle PR

    更新日期:2000-05-15 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of germline mutations of MLH1 and MSH2 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families from Spain.

    abstract::HNPCC is an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome that confers an increased risk for colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer at a young age. It also entails an increased risk of a variety of other tumors, such as ovarian, gastric, uroepithelial and biliary tract cancers. The underlying pathoge...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caldes T,Godino J,de la Hoya M,Garcia Carbonero I,Perez Segura P,Eng C,Benito M,Diaz-Rubio E

    更新日期:2002-04-10 00:00:00

  • Suppression of intracellular Cu-Zn SOD results in enhanced motility and metastasis of Meth A sarcoma cells.

    abstract::We have previously described an inverse relationship between Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and invasiveness of a clone of human tongue cancer cells. In these cells, suppression of Cu-Zn SOD activity by transfection with anti-sense cDNA enhanced motility in vitro. The present studies were undertaken to dete...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanaka M,Kogawa K,Nishihori Y,Kuribayashi K,Nakamura K,Muramatsu H,Koike K,Sakamaki S,Niitsu Y

    更新日期:1997-10-09 00:00:00

  • Several genes encoding ribosomal proteins are over-expressed in prostate-cancer cell lines: confirmation of L7a and L37 over-expression in prostate-cancer tissue samples.

    abstract::A cDNA library specific for mRNA over-expressed in prostate cancer was generated by subtractive hybridization of transcripts originating from prostatic hyperplasia and cancer tissues. cDNA encoding ribosomal proteins L4, L5, L7a, L23a, L30, L37, S14 and S18 was found to be present among 100 analyzed clones. Levels of ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vaarala MH,Porvari KS,Kyllönen AP,Mustonen MV,Lukkarinen O,Vihko PT

    更新日期:1998-09-25 00:00:00

  • Tumor-associated antigens of chemically-induced murine tumors; the emergence of MuLV and fetal antigens after serial passage in culture.

    abstract::Using radioiodinated Staphylococcus aureus protein A [125I]SPA to measure syngeneic, allogeneic and heterogeneic IgG bound to murine tumor cells, we performed a serological analysis of surface antigens of 8 solid tumors and 2 leukemias of BALB/c mice (3 chemically-induced colon carcinomas, 3 chemically-induced sarcoma...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cleveland PH,Belnap LP,Knotts FB,Nayak SK,Baird SM,Pilch YH

    更新日期:1979-03-15 00:00:00

  • Ca2+ and calmodulin are involved in the processes conferring stability to DNA in proliferating neoplastic cells.

    abstract::We have examined, in proliferating neoplastic cells, the effect on DNA of EGTA (a chelator of Ca2+) and W7 (an inhibitor of calmodulin). The treatment results in release of single-stranded DNA fragments (2-10 kb) from pre-labelled HMW DNA. When DNA from synchronized neoplastic cells in S phase is examined, almost all ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lönn U,Lönn S

    更新日期:1986-06-15 00:00:00