Application of control measures for infections caused by multi-resistant gram-negative bacteria in intensive care unit patients.


:Multi-resistant gram-negative rods are important pathogens in intensive care units (ICU), cause high rates of mortality, and need infection control measures to avoid spread to another patients. This study was undertaken prospectively with all of the patients hospitalized at ICU, Anesthesiology of the Hospital São Paulo, using the ICU component of the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NNIS) methodology, between March 1, 1997 and June 30, 1998. Hospital infections occurring during the first three months after the establishment of prevention and control measures (3/1/97 to 5/31/97) were compared to those of the last three months (3/1/98 to 5/31/98). In this period, 933 NNIS patients were studied, with 139 during the first period and 211 in the second period. The overall rates of infection by multi-resistant microorganisms in the first and second periods were, respectively, urinary tract infection: 3.28/1000 patients/day; 2.5/1000 patients/day; pneumonia: 2.10/1000 patients/day; 5.0/1000 patients/day; bloodstream infection: 1.09/1000 patients/day; 2.5/1000 patients/day. A comparison between overall infection rates of both periods (Wilcoxon test) showed no statistical significance (p = 0.067). The use of intervention measures effectively decreased the hospital bloodstream infection rate (p < 0.001), which shows that control measures in ICU can contribute to preventing hospital infections.


Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz


Martins ST,Moreira M,Furtado GH,Marino CG,Machado FR,Wey SB,Medeiros EA




Has Abstract


2004-05-01 00:00:00














  • DNA evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Chilean wild vector Mepraia spinolai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    abstract::Molecular evidence showed 46.2% of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Mepraia spinolai insects from North-Central Chile, which is significantly higher than previous reports of up to 26% by microscopic observation. Our results show similar infection levels among nymphal stages, ranging from 38.3 to 54.1%, indicating that y...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Botto-Mahan C,Ortiz S,Rozas M,Cattan PE,Solari A

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Laboratory and field evaluation of biodegradable polyesters for sustained release of isometamidium and ethidium.

    abstract::An overview is presented of the results obtained with biodegradable sustained release devices (SRDs) containing a mixture of polymers and either isometamidium (ISMM) or ethidium. Under controlled laboratory conditions (monthly challenge with tsetse flies infected with Trypanosoma congolense) the protection period in S...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Geerts S,Brandt J,De Deken R

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    abstract::Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silva LF,Magalhães PM,Costa MR,Alecrim Md,Chaves FC,Hidalgo Ade F,Pohlit AM,Vieira PP

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Compatibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila with Schistosoma mansoni: a study of homologous plasma transference.

    abstract::This study aims to investigate the importance of the serum factors present in the plasma of resistant Biomphalaria tenagophila snails, when transferred to susceptible conspecific. Susceptible B. tenagophila (CF) received plasma from resistant B. tenagophila (Taim), and both were later infected with Schistosoma mansoni...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coelho JR,Bezerra FS

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Protective CD8+ T cell responses against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria parasites: an overview.

    abstract::CD8+ T cells have been implicated as critical effector cells in protection against the pre-erythrocytic stage of malaria in mice and humans following irradiated sporozoite immunization. Immunization experiments in animal models by several investigators have suggested different strategies for vaccination against malari...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Oliveira-Ferreira J,Daniel-Ribeiro C

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of the best ovitrap installation sites for gravid Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti in residences in Mirassol, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    abstract::This study aimed at identifying the best ovitrap installation sites for gravid Aedes aegypti in Mirassol, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Ovitraps were installed in ten houses per block over ten blocks. Four ovitraps were placed per residence, one in the bedroom, one in the living room, and two outdoors with one in a shel...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dibo MR,Chiaravalloti-Neto F,Battigaglia M,Mondini A,Favaro EA,Barbosa AA,Glasser CM

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • New host and locality records for Tetrameres (Gynaecophila) spirospiculum Pinto & Vicente, 1995 (Nematoda: Tetrameridae), with new morphological data.

    abstract::We report the finding of Tetrameres spirospiculum Pinto & Vicente, 1995 from Theristicus melanopis melanopis (Threskiornithidae) from Patagonia, Argentina. These constitute new host and locality records. We propose the assignation of this species to the subgenus T. (Gynaecophila) Gubanov, 1950, based on the presence o...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Digiani MC,Cremonte F

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • The depuration dynamics of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) artificially contaminated with hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus.

    abstract::Within the country of Brazil, Santa Catarina is a major shellfish producer. Detection of viral contamination is an important step to ensure production quality and consumer safety during this process. In this study, we used a depuration system and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection to eliminate viral pathogens from artifici...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Corrêa Ade A,Rigotto C,Moresco V,Kleemann CR,Teixeira AL,Poli CR,Simões CM,Barardi CR

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Acanthocefalan eggs in animal coprolites from archaeological sites from Brazil.

    abstract::An important point in paleoparasitology is the correct diagnosis of the origin of coprolites found in archaeological sites. The identification of human and animal coprolites, through the study of the shape, size, characteristics after rehydration, alimentary contents, and the presence of parasites, has proved to be ac...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferreira LF,Araújo A,Confalonieri U,Chame M

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Using immunoglobulin Y as an alternative antibody for the detection of hepatitis A virus in frozen liver sections.

    abstract::An increasing amount of research has been conducted on immunoglobulin Y (IgY) because the use of IgY offers several advantages with respect to diagnostic testing, including its easy accessibility, low cost and translatability to large-scale production, in addition to the fact that it can be ethically produced. In a pr...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bentes GA,Lanzarini NM,Lima LR,Manso PP,da Silva Ados S,Mouta Junior Sda S,Guimarães JR,de Moraes MT,Pelajo-Machado M,Pinto MA

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Sequence analysis of coding DNA fragments of pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Odisha, India.

    abstract::The global emergence and spread of malaria parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs is the major problem in malaria control. The genetic basis of the parasite's resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) is well-documented, allowing for the analysis of field isolates of malaria parasites to address evolutio...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sutar SK,Gupta B,Ranjit M,Kar SK,Das A

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cytokine profile associated with human chronic schistosomiasis mansoni.

    abstract::This study objective was to evaluate the cytokines associated with early events of hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis mansoni. Hepatic fibrosis was classified by ultrasonography in 94 patients. Immunological evaluation was performed by measurement of secreted cytokines (interleukin IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-gamm...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Magalhães A,Miranda DG,Miranda RG,Araújo MI,Jesus AA,Silva A,Santana LB,Pearce E,Carvalho EM,Jesus AR

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • BCG Moreau Rio de Janeiro: an oral vaccine against tuberculosis--review.

    abstract::The vaccine Bacillus of Calmette Guérin (BCG) was originally developed in France as an oral vaccine against tuberculosis. The oral use of this vaccine was replaced by the parenteral route in almost all countries after the Lubeck disaster. In contrast, Brazil retained the oral delivery of the vaccine until the mid-seve...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Benévolo-de-Andrade TC,Monteiro-Maia R,Cosgrove C,Castello-Branco LR

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Studies on the virulence and attenuation of Trypanosoma cruzi using immunodeficient animals.

    abstract::Tissue invasion and pathology by Trypanosoma cruzi result from an interaction between parasite virulence and host immunity. Successive in vivo generations of the parasite select populations with increasing ability to invade the host. Conversely, prolonged in vitro selection of the parasite produces attenuated sublines...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Basombrío MA,Segura MA,Gómez L,Padilla M

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Variation in susceptibility to benznidazole in isolates derived from Trypanosoma cruzi parental strains.

    abstract::In this work, the susceptibility to benznidazole of two parental Trypanosoma cruzi strains, Colombian and Berenice-78, was compared to isolates obtained from dogs infected with these strains for several years. In order to evaluate the susceptibility to benznidazole two groups of mice were infected with one of five dis...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veloso VM,Carneiro CM,Toledo MJ,Lana M,Chiari E,Tafuri WL,Bahia MT

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pathogenesis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    abstract::In this paper a discussion is made on the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice, presented from the perspectives of "processes", "mediators", "strategies for study" and "disease". These concepts overlap considerably. Regarding "processes", granulomas, fibrosis and vasculitis are discussed. The role of mediat...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cheever AW

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • A new approach for potential drug target discovery through in silico metabolic pathway analysis using Trypanosoma cruzi genome information.

    abstract::The current drug options for the treatment of chronic Chagas disease have not been sufficient and high hopes have been placed on the use of genomic data from the human parasite Trypanosoma cruzi to identify new drug targets and develop appropriate treatments for both acute and chronic Chagas disease. However, the lack...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alves-Ferreira M,Guimarães AC,Capriles PV,Dardenne LE,Degrave WM

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Phlebotomine sand flies in Porteirinha, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    abstract::A study of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna was carried out in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the municipality of Porteirinha, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Captures were performed with CDC light traps in 7 districts, 5 days per month, during 2 consecutive years (January 2000 to D...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barata RA,Silva JC,Costa RT,Fortes-Dias CL,Silva JC,Paula EV,Prata A,Monteiro EM,Dias ES

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic an antigenic analysis of adenovirus type 3 strains showing intermediate behavior in standard seroneutralization test.

    abstract::During an epidemiological survey of acute respiratory infection in Rio de Janeiro, among 208 adenovirus isolates, we found two strains that we were not able, by a standard neutralization procedure, to distinguish between type 3 or 7. However, DNA restriction pattern for the two strains with different enzymes were anal...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moraes MT,da Silva M,Leite JP,Nascimento JP

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatitis C virus quantification in serum and saliva of HCV-infected patients.

    abstract::The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen and gastric juices. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV viral loads in the serum and saliva of infected patients. Twenty-nine patients with detectable HCV RNA in their serum and saliva were included in this stu...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Menezes GB,Pereira FA,Duarte CA,Carmo TM,Silva Filho HP,Zarife MA,Krieger MA,Reis EA,Reis MG

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Fibrosis: a distinguishing feature in the pathology of neural leprosy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fibrosis in the peripheral nerve is the end stage of leprous neuropathy and the cause of the resulting permanent neural function impairments. Preventive measures to avoid this irreversible pathological state are a relief strategy for leprosy sufferers. OBJECTIVES:The present study describes the frequency of...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Antunes SLG,Jardim MR,Vital RT,Pascarelli BMO,Nery JADC,Amadeu TP,Sales AM,da Costa EAF,Sarno EN

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Characteristics of the biological cycle of Lutzomyia evandroi Costa Lima & Antunes, 1936 (Diptera: Psychodidae) under experimental conditions.

    abstract::Lutzomyia evandroi Costa Lima and Antunes, 1936 is found in Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil, in areas of visceral and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and follows the same geographic distribution of L. longipalpis. The biological cycle, oviposition, morphological and behavioral characteristics of the species were ...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Melo Ximenes Mde F,Maciel JC,Jerônimo SM

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • NS1 codon usage adaptation to humans in pandemic Zika virus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Zika virus (ZIKV) was recognised as a zoonotic pathogen in Africa and southeastern Asia. Human infections were infrequently reported until 2007, when the first known epidemic occurred in Micronesia. After 2013, the Asian lineage of ZIKV spread along the Pacific Islands and Americas, causing severe outbreaks ...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Freire CCM,Palmisano G,Braconi CT,Cugola FR,Russo FB,Beltrão-Braga PC,Iamarino A,Lima Neto DF,Sall AA,Rosa-Fernandes L,Larsen MR,Zanotto PMA

    更新日期:2018-05-10 00:00:00

  • A novel reiterated family of transcribed oligo(A)-terminated, interspersed DNA elements in the genome of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    abstract::We report the molecular characterization of a novel reiterated family of transcribed oligo(A)-terminated, interspersed DNA elements in the genome of Trypanosoma cruzi. Steady-state level of transcripts of this sequence family appeared to be developmentally regulated, since only in the replicative forms the parasite sh...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verbisck NV,dos Santos MR,Engman DM,Angel Chiurillo M,Ramirez JL,Araya JE,Mortara RA,da Silveira JF

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) salivary gland cells.

    abstract::In the present paper, we developed a primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland and main salivary canal cells. Cells remained viable in culture for 30 days. Three types of cells were indentified in the salivary gland cultures, with binuclear cells being the most abundant. The supernatants of salivary cultures...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rocha FF,Araujo RN,Silva LM,Gontijo NF,Pereira MH

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • DNA prime-protein boost based vaccination with a conserved region of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like A and B proteins enhances protection against leptospirosis.

    abstract::Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the Leptospira genus. Vaccination with bacterins has severe limitations. Here, we evaluated the N-terminal region of the leptospiral immunoglobulin-like B protein (LigBrep) as a vaccine candidate against leptospirosis using immunisation strategies...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Forster KM,Hartwig DD,Oliveira TL,Bacelo KL,Schuch R,Amaral MG,Dellagostin OA

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • [Dispersion of Biomphalaria straminea in the State of Sergipe: a comparative study within an interval of 19 years].

    abstract::The aim of the current paper was to study in the state of Sergipe the population distribution and interactions between two species of Biomphalaria, the snail vectors of Schistosoma mansoni in the northeastern Brazil. Data collected in 1969 showed that B. straminea, with only one exception, was limited to the semi-dry ...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Figueiredo CC

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of secondary infection on epithelialisation and total healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) generally presents with a single or several localised cutaneous ulcers without involvement of mucous membranes. Ulcerated lesions are susceptible to secondary contamination that may slow the healing process. OBJECTIVE:This study verified the influence of non-parasitic wound infe...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Antonio LF,Lyra MR,Saheki MN,Schubach AO,Miranda LFC,Madeira MF,Lourenço MCDS,Fagundes A,Ribeiro ÉADS,Barreto L,Pimentel MIF

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Recognition of the epidemiological significance of Neisseria meningitidis capsular serogroup W135 in the Rio de Janeiro region, Brazil.

    abstract::Neisseria meningitidis retains its ability to cause endemic and hiperendemic disease in human population living in any environment, as well as localized outbreaks and massive epidemics in civilians and military personnel. In Rio de Janeiro it has been reported in the 1990s as prolonged outbreak of serogroup B and at l...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barroso DE,Rebelo MC

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • A palaeoparasitological analysis of rodent coprolites from the Cueva Huenul 1 archaeological site in Patagonia (Argentina).

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to examine the parasite fauna present in rodent coprolites collected from Cueva Huenul 1 (CH1), northern Neuquén (Patagonia, Argentina), an archaeological site that provides stratified sequences of archaeological and palaeontological remains dating from the Late Pleistocene/Early Holoc...

    journal_title:Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beltrame MO,Sardella NH,Fugassa MH,Barberena R

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00