Hypoglycemia in IDDM.


:Hypoglycemia causes substantial morbidity and some mortality in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). It is often the limiting factor in attempts to achieve euglycemia. The prevention or correction of hypoglycemia normally involves both dissipation of insulin and activation of glucose counterregulatory systems. Among the latter, glucagon plays a primary role initially, whereas epinephrine is not critical, although it becomes critical when glucagon is deficient. Growth hormone and cortisol play demonstrable roles in recovery from prolonged hypoglycemia. Glucose autoregulation may be involved in defense against severe hypoglycemia. With respect to pathophysiology, counterregulatory systems are involved in at least five clinical glucoregulatory syndromes. Defective glucose counterregulation is associated with, and best attributed to, combined deficiencies of the glucagon and epinephrine responses to plasma glucose decrements. Almost assuredly in concert with hypoglycemia unawareness, it results in a markedly increased frequency of severe hypoglycemia, at least during intensive therapy of IDDM. Defined as a night to morning increase in plasma glucose concentration, the dawn phenomenon is thought to result from dissipation of insulin plus the effects of nocturnal growth hormone secretion. Despite a sound rationale, the clinical relevance of the Somogyi phenomenon has been recently questioned. The clinical impression of altered glycemic thresholds for symptoms, i.e., patients with poorly controlled IDDM suffer symptoms of hypoglycemia at relatively high plasma glucose levels, whereas those with very well-controlled IDDM often tolerate subnormal glucose levels, has received experimental support. Clearly, hypoglycemia in IDDM is a problem that needs to be solved. Numerous issues need to be addressed through both basic and clinical research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)






Cryer PE,Binder C,Bolli GB,Cherrington AD,Gale EA,Gerich JE,Sherwin RS




Has Abstract


1989-09-01 00:00:00














  • Characterization of human DNA topoisomerase II as an autoantigen recognized by patients with IDDM.

    abstract::Autoantibodies against several cytoplasmic autoantigens such as glutamic acid decarboxylase, heat shock protein 65, insulin, and carboxypeptidase H have been identified in the sera of patients with IDDM. To investigate whether type II DNA topoisomerase (TopII) is an autoantigen in IDDM patients, we have constructed a ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang YH,Hwang J,Shang HF,Tsai ST

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Noninvasive Monitoring of Glycemia-Induced Regulation of GLP-1R Expression in Murine and Human Islets of Langerhans.

    abstract::Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) imaging with radiolabeled exendin has proven to be a powerful tool to quantify β-cell mass (BCM) in vivo. As GLP-1R expression is thought to be influenced by glycemic control, we examined the effect of blood glucose (BG) levels on GLP-1R-mediated exendin uptake in both murine ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buitinga M,Cohrs CM,Eter WA,Claessens-Joosten L,Frielink C,Bos D,Sandker G,Brom M,Speier S,Gotthardt M

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Beta-cell insensitivity to glucose in the GK rat, a spontaneous nonobese model for type II diabetes.

    abstract::In early 1988, a colony of GK rats was started in Paris with progenitors issued from F35 of the original colony reported by Goto and Kakisaki. When studied longitudinally up to 8 mo, GK rats showed as early as 1 mo (weaning) significantly higher basal plasma glucose (9 mM) and insulin levels (doubled), altered glucose...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Portha B,Serradas P,Bailbé D,Suzuki K,Goto Y,Giroix MH

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced expression of the leptin gene (ob) by catecholamine through a G(S) protein-coupled pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    abstract::Leptin, a recently identified hormone, is believed to reduce appetite and maintain body weight. The mRNA of leptin is expressed only in mature adipose cells. To clarify the regulation of leptin gene expression in adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated for 16 h with various agents known to modulate lipid metabolism...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kosaki A,Yamada K,Kuzuya H

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Age-dependent stimulation of neonatal insulin release and inositol phosphate accumulation by CCK-8 and carbachol.

    abstract::Development of a robust insulin secretory response to glucose occurs during the early neonatal period. To determine if neuroendocrine agents play a role during this time, we studied the effects of selected peptides and neurotransmitters on insulin release and polyphosphoinositide metabolism in islets isolated from 1- ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fletcher DJ,Rowley WH,Pabst SJ,Brinn JE

    更新日期:1989-11-01 00:00:00

  • Adiponectin multimeric complexes and the metabolic syndrome trait cluster.

    abstract::Adiponectin circulates in human plasma mainly as a 180-kDa low molecular weight (LMW) hexamer and a high molecular weight (HMW) multimer of approximately 360 kDa. We comprehensively examined the relationships between circulating levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and the relative distribution (i.e., r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lara-Castro C,Luo N,Wallace P,Klein RL,Garvey WT

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • A sib-pair analysis study of 15 candidate genes in French families with morbid obesity: indication for linkage with islet 1 locus on chromosome 5q.

    abstract::As part of an ongoing search for susceptibility genes in obese families, we performed linkage analyses in 101 French families between qualitative and quantitative traits related to morbid obesity and polymorphisms located in or near 15 candidate genes whose products are involved in body weight regulation. These includ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clément K,Dina C,Basdevant A,Chastang N,Pelloux V,Lahlou N,Berlan M,Langin D,Guy-Grand B,Froguel P

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Value of antibodies to islet protein tyrosine phosphatase-like molecule in predicting type 1 diabetes.

    abstract::Islet antigens associated with type 1 diabetes include a recently identified protein tyrosine phosphatase-like molecule IA-2, which contains the intracellular fragment IA-2ic. To determine whether combinations of antibodies including those to IA-2 characterize and predict type 1 diabetes, we studied antibodies to IA-2...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hawa M,Rowe R,Lan MS,Notkins AL,Pozzilli P,Christie MR,Leslie RD

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Biosynthesis of proinsulin and other islet cell proteins in pancreatic beta cells of the rat: a radioautographic evaluation of glucose effects in vitro.

    abstract::Rat pancreatic islets were incubated in vitro with L-[4,5-3H]leucine or with L-[2,3-3H]tryptophan in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, containing 0, 5, or 20 mM glucose. Incorporation of labeled amino acids in islet cells was evaluated quantitatively by a validated radioautographic procedure. Incorporation of labeled l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Logothetopoulos J,Jain K

    更新日期:1980-10-01 00:00:00

  • Heterogeneity of the Human Pancreatic Islet.

    abstract::Pancreatic β-cells play a pivotal role in maintaining normoglycemia. Recent studies have revealed that the β-cell is not a homogeneous cell population but, rather, is heterogeneous in a number of properties such as electrical activity, gene expression, and cell surface markers. Identification of specific β-cell subpop...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dybala MP,Hara M

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • A reduced-fat diet and aerobic exercise in Japanese Americans with impaired glucose tolerance decreases intra-abdominal fat and improves insulin sensitivity but not beta-cell function.

    abstract::Lifestyle modification reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and may have its effect through improving insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, or both. To determine whether diet and exercise improve insulin sensitivity and/or beta-cell function and to evaluate these effects over time, we quantified insulin s...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Carr DB,Utzschneider KM,Boyko EJ,Asberry PJ,Hull RL,Kodama K,Callahan HS,Matthys CC,Leonetti DL,Schwartz RS,Kahn SE,Fujimoto WY

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Tacrolimus-Induced BMP/SMAD Signaling Associates With Metabolic Stress-Activated FOXO1 to Trigger β-Cell Failure.

    abstract::Active maintenance of β-cell identity through fine-tuned regulation of key transcription factors ensures β-cell function. Tacrolimus, a widely used immunosuppressant, accelerates onset of diabetes after organ transplantation, but underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that tacrolimus induces loss of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Triñanes J,Ten Dijke P,Groen N,Hanegraaf M,Porrini E,Rodriguez-Rodriguez AE,Drachenberg C,Rabelink TJ,de Koning E,Carlotti F,de Vries APJ

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • A genome-wide scan for type 2 diabetes in African-American families reveals evidence for a locus on chromosome 6q.

    abstract::African Americans are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and many diabetes complications. We have carried out a genome-wide scan for African American type 2 diabetes using 638 affected sibling pairs (ASPs) from 247 families ascertained through impaired renal function to identify type 2 diabetes loci in this high-ris...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sale MM,Freedman BI,Langefeld CD,Williams AH,Hicks PJ,Colicigno CJ,Beck SR,Brown WM,Rich SS,Bowden DW

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • In vivo imaging of insulin receptors in monkeys using 18F-labeled insulin and positron emission tomography.

    abstract::We previously described a prosthetic group methodology for incorporating 18F into peptides and showed that 18F-labeled insulin (18F-insulin) binds to insulin receptors on human cells (IM-9 lymphoblastoid cells) with affinity equal to that of native insulin (1). We now report studies using 18F-insulin with positron emi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eastman RC,Carson RE,Jacobson KA,Shai Y,Channing MA,Dunn BB,Bacher JD,Baas E,Jones E,Kirk KL

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin receptor-related receptor is expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2.

    abstract::The receptor-type protein tyrosine kinases in murine pancreatic islets were screened to identify possible growth/differentiation factors in pancreatic beta-cells. The analysis revealed that insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) is highly expressed in the islets as well as in several highly differentiated beta-cell l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirayama I,Tamemoto H,Yokota H,Kubo SK,Wang J,Kuwano H,Nagamachi Y,Takeuchi T,Izumi T

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Antiobesity effect of eicosapentaenoic acid in high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced obesity: importance of hepatic lipogenesis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Given the pleiotropic effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), it is interesting to know whether EPA is capable of improving obesity. Here we examined the anti-obesity effect of EPA in mice with two distinct models of obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sato A,Kawano H,Notsu T,Ohta M,Nakakuki M,Mizuguchi K,Itoh M,Suganami T,Ogawa Y

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Histologic differentiation of human fetal pancreatic explants transplanted into nude mice.

    abstract::The transplantation of human fetal pancreas has been suggested as a means of treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes in man. We have obtained human fetal pancreata during the second trimester of pregnancy and transplanted 1-mm3 explants subcutaneously (s.c.) into both diabetic and nondiabetic nude mice, some of the ti...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tuch BE,Ng AB,Jones A,Turtle JR

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple metabolic functions of glucose in rat pancreatic islets.

    abstract::Metabolic interactions between glucose and amino acids were studied with isolated rat islets using glucose utilization and lactate formation as indicators. Certain amino acids (8-10 mM) are capable of greatly stimulating lactate formation from 5mM glucose. On a molar basis L-isoleucine is the most potent stimulator in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pace CS,Ellerman J,Hover BA,Stillings SN,Matschinsky FM

    更新日期:1975-05-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic Determinants of Glycemic Traits and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    abstract::Many common genetic polymorphisms are associated with glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but knowledge about genetic determinants of glycemic traits in pregnancy is limited. We tested genetic variants known to be associated with glycemic traits and T2D in the general population for associations with glycemic t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Powe CE,Nodzenski M,Talbot O,Allard C,Briggs C,Leya MV,Perron P,Bouchard L,Florez JC,Scholtens DM,Lowe WL Jr,Hivert MF

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Function and Mechanism of Long Noncoding RNAs in Adipocyte Biology.

    abstract::The last two decades have witnessed an explosion of interest in adipocyte biology, coinciding with the upsurge of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Now we have new perspectives on the distinct developmental origins of white, brown, and beige adipocytes and their role in metabolic physiology and disease. Beyond fuel meta...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sun L,Lin JD

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • O-linked oligosaccharides on insulin receptor.

    abstract::The insulin receptor, an integral membrane glycoprotein, is synthesized as a single-chain precursor that is cleaved to produce two mature subunits, both of which contain N-linked oligosaccharide chains and covalently linked fatty acids. We report that the beta-subunit also contains O-linked oligosaccharides. The prore...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collier E,Gorden P

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin release. Demonstration of a priming effect of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) on islets of Langerhans.

    abstract::Exposure of isolated rat pancreatic islets to 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) resulted in a 5.7-fold increase in the rate of insulin release. After a 30-min rest period under basal conditions, reexposure of the islets to 1 mM IBMX resulted in an enhanced rate of release when compared with either a timed contr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wiedenkeller DE,Sharp GW

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Enhanced NF-κB activity impairs vascular function through PARP-1-, SP-1-, and COX-2-dependent mechanisms in type 2 diabetes.

    abstract::Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling contributes to vascular dysfunction in T2D. We treated type 2 diabetic (db(-)/db(-)) and control (db(-)/db(+)) mice with two NF-κB inhibitors (6 mg/kg dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin twice a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kassan M,Choi SK,Galán M,Bishop A,Umezawa K,Trebak M,Belmadani S,Matrougui K

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4gamma: cDNA sequence, gene organization, and mutation screening in early-onset autosomal-dominant type 2 diabetes.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to investigate whether mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4gamma, a transcription factor homologous to HNF-4alpha, contribute to the etiology of early-onset type 2 diabetes. Linkage between diabetes and two polymorphic markers at the HNF-4gamma locus (D8S286 and D8S548) was evaluate...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plengvidhya N,Antonellis A,Wogan LT,Poleev A,Borgschulze M,Warram JH,Ryffel GU,Krolewski AS,Doria A

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fine-mapping gene-by-diet interactions on chromosome 13 in a LG/J x SM/J murine model of obesity.

    abstract::Obesity is one of the most serious threats to human health today. Although there is general agreement that environmental factors such as diet have largely caused the current obesity pandemic, the environmental changes have not affected all individuals equally. To model gene-by-environment interactions in a mouse model...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ehrich TH,Hrbek T,Kenney-Hunt JP,Pletscher LS,Wang B,Semenkovich CF,Cheverud JM

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Development of a predictive model for symptomatic neuropathy in diabetes.

    abstract::In evaluating therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing diabetic neuropathy, choosing a suitable measure of neural function is difficult, partly because the relation between most available objective measures and the development of symptomatic neuropathy (SN) is unclear. Using data from 67 diabetic patients, we dev...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weinberg CR,Pfeifer MA

    更新日期:1986-08-01 00:00:00

  • Contribution of partial pancreatectomy, systemic hormone delivery, and duct obliteration to glucose regulation in canine pancreas. Importance in pancreas transplantation.

    abstract::Our aim was to isolate and determine the contribution of partial pancreatectomy, systemic delivery of pancreatic hormones, and duct obliteration to glucose regulation after segmental pancreas transplantation in dogs. Fasting, postprandial, and intravenous glucose-stimulated glucose, insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polyp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Burg MP,Gooszen HG,Guicherit OR,Jansen JB,Frölich M,van Haastert FA,Lamers CB

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nutrient stress activates inflammation and reduces glucose metabolism by suppressing AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Heart failure is a major cause of mortality in diabetes and may be causally associated with altered metabolism. Recent reports indicate a role of inflammation in peripheral insulin resistance, but the impact of inflammation on cardiac metabolism is unknown. We investigated the effects of diet-induced obesity ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ko HJ,Zhang Z,Jung DY,Jun JY,Ma Z,Jones KE,Chan SY,Kim JK

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Control of blood glucose in experimental diabetes by means of a totally implantable insulin infusion device.

    abstract::Near-normal glucose tolerance tests in diabetic dogs were obtained during basal rate insulin infusions in restrained animals by use of extracorporeal infusion pumps and in conscious, unrestrained animals by means of implanted infusion pumps. Even better regulation of blood glucose in diabetic animals was obtained by t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blackshear PJ,Rohde TD,Grotting JC,Dorman FD,Perkins PR,Varco RL,Buchwald H

    更新日期:1979-07-01 00:00:00

  • Role of apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cell death in diabetes.

    abstract::Apoptosis is a physiological form of cell death that occurs during normal development, and critical mediators of this process include caspases, reactive oxygen species, and Ca2+. Excessive apoptosis of the pancreatic beta-cell has been associated with diabetes. Consequently, apoptosis research has focused on how infil...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chandra J,Zhivotovsky B,Zaitsev S,Juntti-Berggren L,Berggren PO,Orrenius S

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00