Advances in the field of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are promising therapies that inhibit the degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in the hepatocyte and thus increase LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) uptake from the blood. This review summarizes main findings in the field of PCSK9 inhibitors, from basic mechanism to clinical studies, and aims to provide a contemporary and practical overview of the clinical implication and future directions with PCSK9 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS:Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PCSK9 reduce LDL-C levels by 40-70% across a wide range of patients with various LDL-C levels, and with different lipid-lowering regimens. These agents significantly reduce apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a), may have a potential role in plaque stabilization in acute coronary syndromes, and are safe and tolerable, even among statin-intolerant patients. Preliminary data with evolocumab and alirocumab demonstrate the potential reduction of cardiovascular (CV) events. These PCSK9 inhibitors were recently approved for clinical use, and recommended in the 2016 American College of Cardiology expert consensus document for nonstatin therapy for LDL-C lowering. SUMMARY:PCSK9 inhibitors are novel promising therapies to reduce LDL-C. Ongoing phase 3 clinical trials with more than 70 000 high-risk patients will examine their safety and efficacy in reducing cardiovascular disease.


Curr Opin Cardiol


Eisen A,Giugliano RP




Has Abstract


2016-11-01 00:00:00












  • Hybrid palliation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Despite progressive improvement in surgical results, hypoplastic left heart syndrome remains one of the congenital heart abnormalities with the greatest morbidity and mortality. Hybrid approaches to management, combining surgical and interventional catheterization procedures, have been introduced to m...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gutgesell HP,Lim DS

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • The role of low-molecular-weight heparin in the management of acute coronary syndromes.

    abstract::Optimized medical treatment for the non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) should consist of a combined antithrombotic/anti-anginal regimen. Standard antithrombotic treatment is currently unfractionated heparin and aspirin, and in high-risk patients glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. However, low-...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cohen M

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term results of coronary artery bypass grafting.

    abstract::The treatment of ischemic heart disease by coronary artery bypass grafting remains under intense scrutiny. A better understanding of the long-term outcome for particular patient subgroups will allow a more appropriate choice to be made among the options of coronary artery bypass grafting, angioplasty, or continued med...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kanagasabay RR,Parker DJ

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Thrombolytic therapy in acute pulmonary embolism.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The goal of this review is to offer an overview of the use of thrombolytic therapy in acute pulmonary embolism. Clinicians including internists, surgeons, pulmonologists, and other specialists continue to face decisions regarding massive and submassive acute pulmonary embolism in their daily routines....

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tapson VF

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric cardiac catheterization.

    abstract::The publications of 2000 and 2001 stress how interventional pediatric cardiology has moved from angioplasty to device placement. This review summarizes the important articles during the past year that evaluated the safety and efficacy of atrial septal defect devices, patent ductus occluders, and stents to treat coarct...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rocchini AP

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular changes in children.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In this review, we firstly highlight the role of dyslipidemia as a trigger in the initiation and progression of endothelial dysfunction, considered the earliest atherosclerotic lesion and patent in children with risk factors.In this context, we also revise methods that reflect the impact of endothelia...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pires A,Sena C,Seiça R

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction: transplantation or revascularization?

    abstract::Coronary artery bypass surgery performed in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction improves survival compared with antianginal therapy alone. The mechanisms for this survival advantage with revascularization therapy have not been systematically elucidated. Many of these patients have "h...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: DeNofrio D,Loh E

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • cGMP manipulation in cardiometabolic disease: chances and challenges.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are closely linked and commonly occur in the same patients. This review focuses on the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) system and its crosstalk between metabolism and the cardiovascular system. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent studies suggest that cGMP, which serves ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jordan J,Hildebrand S,Pfeifer A

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • New insights in preventive cardiology and cardiac rehabilitation.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize changing paradigms and perceptions in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent studies have shown that arterial inflammation probably plays a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, that acute myocardial infarctions often evol...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Franklin BA,Trivax JE,Vanhecke TE

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Health benefits of physical activity: a systematic review of current systematic reviews.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The health benefits of physical activity and exercise are clear; virtually everyone can benefit from becoming more physically active. Most international guidelines recommend a goal of 150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Many agencies have translated these recommendations ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Warburton DER,Bredin SSD

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Anomalous origins of the coronary arteries: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose of this review is to survey the contemporary literature surrounding congenital anomalies of origin of the coronary arteries and to identify remaining gaps in knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS:In recent years, lineage tracing analyses and mechanistic studies in model organisms have enhanced our u...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mazine A,Fernandes IM,Haller C,Hickey EJ

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • HDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: rethinking our approach.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:A low level of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong and independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, several large studies recently revealed that pharmacologic interventions that increase HDL-C concentration have not improved cardiovas...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Siddiqi HK,Kiss D,Rader D

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Recent developments in the prognostic use of myocardial perfusion imaging.

    abstract::Stress myocardial perfusion imaging has become a mainstay in the noninvasive assessment of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease for several compelling reasons. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging can be performed using a variety of stressors, including exercise, pharmacologic stress (includin...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mansoor MR,Heller GV

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • Long-lasting benefits of exercise for those living with a Fontan circulation.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In recent decades, the physiology and late outcomes of the Fontan circulation have become better characterized and interest has turned to interventions that might improve exercise capacity and clinical sequelae. No therapy has currently been shown to be more effective for improving exercise capacity i...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cordina R,d'Udekem Y

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Are statins diabetogenic?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Statins are widely utilized for low-density lipoprotein lowering and for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although these drugs have a good safety record, increased risk of developing diabetes during extended use has recently garnered attention. Here we review clinical trial eviden...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sampson UK,Linton MF,Fazio S

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Heart transplantation indicated only in the most severely ill patient: perspectives from the German heart transplant experience.

    abstract::The COCPIT study, performed in a complete national cohort of adult patients consecutively listed for cardiac transplantation in Germany in 1997, found a beneficial effect only in the group that was at high risk of dying from heart failure without transplantation. If these results can be reproduced in other countries, ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Deng MC,Smits JM,De Meester J,Hummel M,Schoendube F,Scheld HH

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies to minimize bleeding complications of percutaneous coronary intervention.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Bleeding has recently been identified as a major adverse outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes. In this review, the importance of the association of bleeding with mortality and strategies to reduce bleeding with percutaneous coronary intervention are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS:Nine trials...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: White HD

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence supporting secondary prevention strategies.

    abstract::Currently 14 million individuals in the United States have coronary disease. Within the next 2 decades, this number is expected to increase to 21 million persons. To minimize the excessive risk of recurrent cardiac events in these people, evidence-based, cost-effective prevention strategies must be developed. This rev...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Blazing MA,O'Connor CM

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary embolism: impact of right ventricular dysfunction.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The appropriate treatment of patients with acute pulmonary embolism who present with right ventricular dysfunction but normal arterial blood pressure, and particularly the potential benefits of thrombolytic treatment in this setting, continue to be highly controversial. In the past year, several well ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Konstantinides S

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Stress echocardiography versus myocardial SPECT for risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Diagnostic testing using noninvasive imaging has become an integral part of risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. It is important to understand the integral strengths and weaknesses between the different modalities of stress testing and to apply accurately the type of test the ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maganti K,Rigolin VH

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Outcomes in single versus bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in coronary artery bypass surgery.

    abstract::The authors analyzed the early outcomes in two groups of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with single versus bilateral internal thoracic arteries (ITA) in their institution. One thousand sixty-nine patients underwent CABG with single or bilateral ITAs from 1990 to 2000. Of these patients, 911...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Walkes JC,Earle N,Reardon MJ,Glaeser DH,Wall MJ Jr,Huh J,Jones JW,Soltero ER

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • An overview of combined heart and kidney transplantation.

    abstract::This review describes to date the experience with combined heart-kidney transplant (HNTx) from a single donor. HNTxs are very uncommon relative to single-organ transplants of the heart and kidney, as well as combined kidney-pancreas and combined kidney-liver transplants. Two groups of patients seem to be candidates fo...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Castillo-Lugo JA,Brinker KR

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • The role of statins in endothelial dysfunction in hypertension.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Hypertension and dyslipidemia frequently coexist, and endothelial dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of both atherosclerosis and hypertension. Evidence is convincing for an overlapping role of oxidative stress, renin-angiotensin system activation, and dyslipidemia in the genesis of end...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sarkar K,Sinha AK,Mehta JL

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Contemporary management of pericardial diseases.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Pericardial diseases are relatively common in clinical practice, either as isolated disease or as manifestation of a systemic disorder. The aim of the present study is to review more recent updates on their contemporary management. RECENT FINDINGS:The cause of pericardial diseases is varied according...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Imazio M

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    abstract::Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) remains a complex and difficult clinical problem. Such acute ischemia is usually either embolic or thrombotic in nature, but other etiologies exist. The diagnosis of AMI is difficult to establish and often delayed, resulting in irreversible bowel injury that requires intestinal resectio...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vicente DC,Kazmers A

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Statin loading for acute coronary syndromes.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review discusses the role of statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes. These drugs modulate endothelial function and stabilize atherosclerotic plaque by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation and may provide a relevant clinical benefit in unstable patients. RECENT FINDINGS:...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nusca A,Melfi R,Patti G,Di Sciascio G

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Therapy for primary cardiac tumors: is there a role for heart transplantation?

    abstract::Primary cardiac tumors are rare clinical entities. Benign tumors are often amenable to surgical excision, whereas malignant tumors are seldom resectable. The literature has reported that 28 patients have undergone orthotopic heart transplantation for inoperable primary cardiac tumors. The results of these transplants ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gowdamarajan A,Michler RE

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • How to avoid inappropriate therapy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:With wider indications for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, more patients at lower risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmia receive this treatment. To maintain the ratio of benefit versus side-effects at an acceptable level, the risk of inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator t...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Israel CW

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Unravelling the benefit against the risk of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To evaluate whether long-term antiplatelet therapy may be effective and well tolerated. RECENT FINDINGS:Five important studies assessed the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel therapy in different settings. However, the problems concerning the duration of therapy are based substantially on the Clopido...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bolognese L,Angiolillo DJ

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Systematic review and meta-analysis in cardiac surgery: a primer.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose of this article is to review the strengths and weaknesses of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to inform our current understanding of cardiac surgery. RECENT FINDINGS:A systematic review and meta-analysis of a focused topic can provide a quantitative estimate for the effect of a treatm...

    journal_title:Current opinion in cardiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Yanagawa B,Tam DY,Mazine A,Tricco AC

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00