International surveillance of bloodstream infections due to Candida species: frequency of occurrence and antifungal susceptibilities of isolates collected in 1997 in the United States, Canada, and South America for the SENTRY Program. The SENTRY Participa


:An international program of surveillance of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the United States, Canada, and South America between January and December 1997 detected 306 episodes of candidemia in 34 medical centers (22 in the United States, 6 in Canada, and 6 in South America). Eighty percent of the BSIs were nosocomial and 50% occurred in patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Overall, 53.3% of the BSIs were due to Candida albicans, 15.7% were due to C. parapsilosis, 15.0% were due to C. glabrata, 7.8% were due to C. tropicalis, 2.0% were due to C. krusei, 0.7% were due to C. guilliermondii, and 5.8% were due to Candida spp. However, the distribution of species varied markedly by country. In the United States, 43.8% of BSIs were due to non-C. albicans species. C. glabrata was the most common non-C. albicans species in the United States. The proportion of non-C. albicans BSIs was slightly higher in Canada (47.5%), where C. parapsilosis, not C. glabrata, was the most common non-C. albicans species. C. albicans accounted for 40.5% of all BSIs in South America, followed by C. parapsilosis (38.1%) and C. tropicalis (11.9%). Only one BSI due to C. glabrata was observed in South American hospitals. Among the different species of Candida, resistance to fluconazole (MIC, > or = 64 microg/ml) and itraconazole (MIC, > or = 1.0 microg/ml) was observed with C. glabrata and C. krusei and was observed more rarely among other species. Isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. guilliermondii were all highly susceptible to both fluconazole (99.4 to 100% susceptibility) and itraconazole (95.8 to 100% susceptibility). In contrast, 8.7% of C. glabrata isolates (MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 32 microg/ml) and 100% of C. krusei isolates were resistant to fluconazole, and 36.9% of C. glabrata isolates (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml) and 66.6% of C. krusei isolates were resistant to itraconazole. Within each species there were no geographic differences in susceptibility to fluconazole or itraconazole.


J Clin Microbiol


Pfaller MA,Jones RN,Doern GV,Sader HS,Hollis RJ,Messer SA




Has Abstract


1998-07-01 00:00:00












  • Clinical evaluation of three urine screening tests.

    abstract::Evaluations of screening tests for bacteriuria have traditionally compared the test results with those of quantitative urine cultures. However, many patients with symptomatic urinary tract infections can have less than 10(5) CFU/ml in their urine. Therefore, the results of urine culture and three screening tests (Bac-...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murray PR,Smith TB,McKinney TC Jr

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of Gen-Probe amplified mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test by using respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens in a tertiary care center laboratory.

    abstract::The performance of the Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct (AMTD) test (Gen-Probe Inc., San Diego, Calif.) was assessed in a large tertiary care mycobacteriology laboratory. Both acid-fast smear-positive and smear-negative respiratory and nonrespiratory clinical specimens were analyzed. From February 1998 to 4...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Sullivan CE,Miller DR,Schneider PS,Roberts GD

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Relationships among the results of coagulase, staphylococcal toxin, and thermonuclease tests on staphylococci from cow milk.

    abstract::Production of staphylococcal alpha- or alpha-beta-toxins correlated well with production of coagulase or thermonuclease (or both) in 203 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk and should be reliable indicators of S. aureus in the absence of Staphylococcus intermedius. Failures to produce toxin, tube coagulase, or th...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jasper DE,Infante F,Dellinger JD

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of two rapid commercial tests with complement fixation for serologic diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections.

    abstract::The complement fixation (CF) test is the current reference serologic test for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. However, it is reported to be insensitive and nonspecific, and it is labor intensive. To determine if a faster and more sensitive diagnosis of M. pneumoniae could be obtained, we examined 50 ...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thacker WL,Talkington DF

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of an immunofluorescent-antibody test for rapid identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in blood cultures.

    abstract::An immunofluorescent-antibody test was developed for rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in blood cultures. The test uses a murine monoclonal antibody specific for all strains of P. aeruginosa. In initial tests, bright uniform immunofluorescence signals were seen when each of the 17 international serotypes, as w...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Counts GW,Schwartz RW,Ulness BK,Hamilton DJ,Rosok MJ,Cunningham MD,Tam MR,Darveau RP

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • Rapid Identification of Measles Virus Vaccine Genotype by Real-Time PCR.

    abstract::During measles outbreaks, it is important to be able to rapidly distinguish between measles cases and vaccine reactions to avoid unnecessary outbreak response measures such as case isolation and contact investigations. We have developed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method specific for genotype A meas...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roy F,Mendoza L,Hiebert J,McNall RJ,Bankamp B,Connolly S,Lüdde A,Friedrich N,Mankertz A,Rota PA,Severini A

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic similarity of Candida albicans strains from vaginitis patients and their partners.

    abstract::The moderately repetitive sequence Ca3 was used to fingerprint strains of Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal infections of 10 women and strains isolated from their male partners. The Dendron software package was then used to compare the DNA fingerprints of these strains with those of vaginal commensals from w...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmid J,Rotman M,Reed B,Pierson CL,Soll DR

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Immunoglobulin G antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspeptic symptoms investigated by the western immunoblot technique.

    abstract::Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, curved, rod-shaped bacterium known to cause gastritis and to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcers. Serological testing has recently been proposed as an aid in diagnosis of H. pylori infections. In this study, we used the Western immunoblot technique to eva...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andersen LP,Espersen F

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Worldwide evaluation of DNA sequencing approaches for identification of drug resistance mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase.

    abstract::A panel (ENVA-1) of well-defined blinded samples containing wild-type and mutant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase was analyzed by automated DNA sequencing in 23 laboratories worldwide. Drug resistance mutations at codons 41, 215, and 184 were present in the panel samples at different r...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Schuurman R,Demeter L,Reichelderfer P,Tijnagel J,de Groot T,Boucher C

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Recovery of Histoplasma capsulatum from blood in a commercial radiometric Mycobacterium medium.

    abstract::We report the recovery of Histoplasma capsulatum from blood specimens cultured for Mycobacterium sp. in BACTEC 13A radiometric medium. H. capsulatum was recovered from six of eight blood specimens submitted for mycobacterial cultures from five human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. Initial positive metabol...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merz WG,Kodsy S,Merz CS

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Clostridium perfringens food poisoning: use of serotyping in an outbreak setting.

    abstract::An outbreak of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning occurred among attendees of a firehouse luncheon. The predominant symptoms of diarrhea (100%) and abdominal pain (81%) among case-patients, the mean incubation period (13.4 h), and the mean duration of illness (21.2 h) were all characteristic of C. perfringens ente...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gross TP,Kamara LB,Hatheway CL,Powers P,Libonati JP,Harmon SM,Israel E

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Whirlpool-associated folliculitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: report of an outbreak and review.

    abstract::An outbreak of folliculitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O:7 occurred among the guests of a hotel in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, and the source of the infection was traced to the hotel whirlpool. Of 36 persons who used the whirlpool, 26 (72%) developed folliculitis within 1 to 5 days after exposure;...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ratnam S,Hogan K,March SB,Butler RW

    更新日期:1986-03-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular detection of human calicivirus among Spanish children with acute gastroenteritis.

    abstract::A survey was conducted among Spanish children with gastroenteritis treated in an emergency room. Reverse transcription-PCR with specimens negative for other enteric pathogens was used. The minimum incidence of human calicivirus infection was 7.7%, with Lordsdale as the predominant genotype. The clinical features and s...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roman E,Negredo A,Dalton RM,Wilhelmi I,Sánchez-Fauquier A

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Short-Read Whole-Genome Sequencing for Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Bordetella pertussis.

    abstract::Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes respiratory infections in humans. Ongoing molecular surveillance of B. pertussis acellular vaccine (aP) antigens is critical for understanding the interaction between evolutionary pressures, disease pathogenesis, and vaccine effectiveness. Methods currently...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marchand-Austin A,Tsang RSW,Guthrie JL,Ma JH,Lim GH,Crowcroft NS,Deeks SL,Farrell DJ,Jamieson FB

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Detecting bunyaviruses of the Bunyamwera and California serogroups by a PCR technique.

    abstract::Many bunyaviruses of the Bunyamwera and California serogroups are medically important human pathogens. The development of an effective technique to detect the viruses by using molecular biologic tools, such as PCR, improves not only clinical diagnosis but also virologic surveillance of mosquito vectors in the field. I...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuno G,Mitchell CJ,Chang GJ,Smith GC

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Aptima HPV E6/E7 mRNA test is as sensitive as Hybrid Capture 2 Assay but more specific at detecting cervical precancer and cancer.

    abstract::Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogene expression may be more predictive of cervical cancer risk than testing for HPV DNA. The Aptima HPV test (Gen-Probe) detects E6/E7 mRNA of 14 oncogenic types. Its clinical performance was compared with that of the Hybrid Capture 2 DNA test (HC2; Qiagen) in women re...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ratnam S,Coutlee F,Fontaine D,Bentley J,Escott N,Ghatage P,Gadag V,Holloway G,Bartellas E,Kum N,Giede C,Lear A

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Sequence variation in the outer membrane protein-encoding gene cmeC, conferring multidrug resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from different hosts.

    abstract::A novel PCR primer pair was used to detect the presence of cmeC in 131 Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli strains isolated from various hosts (cattle, turkeys, humans, and pigs). DNA sequence analysis revealed a high degree of genetic variation between the two species, while extremely limited genetic variation among iso...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fakhr MK,Logue CM

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Screening for antimicrobial resistance in fecal samples by the replica plating method.

    abstract::Replica plating can be used for the detection of antibiotic resistance in normal flora. We have evaluated this application of the replica plating method by comparing it with a five-colony method. The replica plating method uses a single plate for each antibiotic, with a concentration just above that for borderline res...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osterblad M,Leistevuo T,Huovinen P

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Use of the neisserial lipoprotein (Lip) for subtyping Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    abstract::The pathogenic Neisseria species N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae possess an outer membrane lipoprotein, designated Lip, which is present in all strains tested. The predicted protein sequence of Lip consists of a consensus AAEAP amino acid repeat. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trees DL,Schultz AJ,Knapp JS

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the Chinese schema and the International Antigenic Typing System for serotyping Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    abstract::Twelve strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa representing 12 serogroups in the serogrouping schema used in the People's Republic of China were compared with serogroups in the International Antigenic Typing System (IATS). The first eight groups originated in the People's Republic of China, and group II appears to have a ne...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu PV

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular Subtyping of Human Rhinovirus in Children from Three Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    abstract::The pathogenesis of human rhinovirus (HRV) during severe respiratory disease remains undefined; thus, we aimed to explore the relationship between the HRV molecular subtyping results obtained during severe and asymptomatic childhood infections. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children (1 to 59 months of age) h...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baillie VL,Moore DP,Mathunjwa A,Morailane P,Simões EAF,Madhi SA

    更新日期:2019-08-26 00:00:00

  • Distribution of Mycobacterium leprae strains among cases in a rural and urban population of Maharashtra, India.

    abstract::The elimination of leprosy continues to be a challenge, with the disease remaining endemic in several countries. India accounts for the highest number of cases, and the identification of child cases indicates recent transmission. Genetic markers, like variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single-nucleotide polymo...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuruwa S,Vissa V,Mistry N

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Reproducibility problems with the Abbott laboratories LCx assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    abstract::This study demonstrates that significant reproducibility problems can occur during routine use of the Abbott Laboratories LCx assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These problems can go undetected by the quality control procedures outlined in the manufacturer's package insert. We outline here proc...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Gronowski AM,Copper S,Baorto D,Murray PR

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • PCR identification of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    abstract::The attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strain is derived from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis. BCG is difficult to differentiate from other strains of M. bovis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex by conventional methods. Recently, a genomic region designated RD1 was found to be pre...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Talbot EA,Williams DL,Frothingham R

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Serum immunoglobulin A response to Norwalk virus infection.

    abstract::We describe the serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody response to Norwalk virus infection in human volunteers and compare it with previously described IgM and total antibody responses. Whereas specific IgA and IgM peak within 2 weeks after onset of symptoms, titers of total blocking antibody continue to rise, implying...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Erdman DD,Gary GW,Anderson LJ

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Development and evaluation of rapid monoclonal antibody-based coagglutination test for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal in stool samples.

    abstract::A monoclonal antibody-based coagglutination test directly detected Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal in 83 of 120 watery diarrheal stool specimens; on culture, 90 samples were positive. Thus, with 92% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 100% positive and 95% negative predictive values, the coagglutination test is a u...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qadri F,Chowdhury A,Hossain J,Chowdhury K,Azim T,Shimada T,Islam KM,Sack RB,Albert MJ

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for investigation of Clostridium difficile transmission in Hospitals.

    abstract::Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal illness. Recently, an increased incidence of hospital-acquired infections with severe outcomes has been reported in North America and Europe. Current molecular-typing methods for detection of outbreaks and nosocomial transmission are labo...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marsh JW,O'Leary MM,Shutt KA,Pasculle AW,Johnson S,Gerding DN,Muto CA,Harrison LH

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Genotyping of 27 human papillomavirus types by using L1 consensus PCR products by a single-hybridization, reverse line blot detection method.

    abstract::Amplification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by L1 consensus primer systems (e.g., MY09/11 or GP5(+)/6(+)) can detect as few as 10 to 100 molecules of HPV targets from a genital sample. However, genotype determination by dot blot hybridization is laborious and requires at least 27 separate hybridizations for substa...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gravitt PE,Peyton CL,Apple RJ,Wheeler CM

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of cell line 293 for virus isolation in routine viral diagnosis.

    abstract::Cell line 293, a continuous line of transformed human embryonic kidney cells, has been recognized for its sensitivity in the isolation of adenoviruses, particularly the fastidious species 40 and 41, from stool specimens. To explore the possibility of using this cell line for the isolation of other viruses from clinica...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown M,Petric M

    更新日期:1986-04-01 00:00:00

  • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in a population of infants with diarrhea in Chile.

    abstract::The incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was investigated in 95 E. coli strains isolated from 48 infants with diarrhea in Santiago, Chile. By using standard biological assays and DNA-DNA hybridization procedures, ETEC was found in 31.2% of the cases: 14 strains produced heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) onl...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agüero ME,Reyes L,Prado V,Orskov I,Orskov F,Cabello FC

    更新日期:1985-10-01 00:00:00