Placental transfer and fetal metabolism of zidovudine in the baboon.


:Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT) is used in pregnancy to reduce mother to infant transmission of HIV. Understanding the disposition of AZT in the fetus is necessary to optimize therapeutic regimens directed toward the fetus. Recent studies in primates found similar steady-state levels of the glucuronide metabolite of AZT (AZT-glu) in the fetus to those in the mother, raising the question of whether the metabolite was of fetal or maternal origin. The objective of this study was to determine whether glucuronidation occurred in the fetal compartment and to quantify the placental and fetal clearances of AZT using the two-compartment model at steady state. Steady-state concentrations were obtained after paired maternal and fetal infusions of AZT in chronically catheterized pregnant baboons. During maternal infusion, the mean (+/-SE) fetal to maternal ratio of AZT was < 1 (0.84 +/- 0.06, p < 0.02), suggesting clearance of AZT in the fetus. Mean total maternal clearance of AZT was 725 +/- 49 mL/min and placental clearance was 36 +/- 4 mL/min, or approximately 5% of maternal clearance. Fetal clearance of AZT was estimated at approximately 15% of placental clearance. This suggests fetal nonplacental clearance is minimal compared with that in the mother, but does not preclude the fetus from actively contributing to the metabolite in the fetal circulation. During infusion of AZT to the fetus, the concentration of AZT-glu in the fetus was 7.0 +/- 0.8 times that in the mother. This is compelling evidence that glucuronide can be formed in the fetal compartment. Thus, fetal metabolism has an impact on the concentration of both AZT and AZT-glu in the fetal circulation.


Pediatr Res


Pediatric research


Garland M,Szeto HH,Daniel SS,Tropper PJ,Myers MM,Stark RI




Has Abstract


1998-07-01 00:00:00












  • Antioxidant status and nitric oxide in the malnutrition syndrome kwashiorkor.

    abstract::The pathophysiology of kwashiorkor, a severe edematous manifestation of malnutrition, is still poorly understood. The syndrome is, however, known to be associated with alterations in redox metabolism. To further elucidate the role of oxidative stress in kwashiorkor, we carried out a longitudinal study on the major blo...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fechner A,Böhme C,Gromer S,Funk M,Schirmer R,Becker K

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Prostaglandin E2 attenuates hyperoxia-induced injury in cultured rabbit tracheal epithelial cells.

    abstract::We assessed the kinetics of hyperoxia-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by cultured rabbit tracheal epithelial (TE) cells with different inherent capacities to generate PGE2 and the role of endogenous PGE2 production in protecting these cells from hyperoxic injury. Rabbit TE cells grown to confluence with or ...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dennery PA,Walenga RW,Kramer CM,Alpert SE

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of β-catenin signaling protects against CTGF-induced alveolar and vascular pathology in neonatal mouse lung.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common and serious chronic lung disease of premature infants. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in tissue development and remodeling. We have previously shown that targeted overexpression of CTGF in alveolar type II epithelial cells re...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rong M,Chen S,Zambrano R,Duncan MR,Grotendorst G,Wu S

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Glycolytic metabolism of neonatal mononuclear cells.

    abstract::The mononuclear cells of newborn infants compared to those of normal adults contain diminished activity of pyruvate kinase (PK) (14.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 22.3 +/- 1.3 mumol/10(10) cells/min) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) (195 +/- 10 vs. 415 +/- 19). These deficiencies are accentuated in the cells of premature infants (4.9...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Das M,Klein W,Feig SA

    更新日期:1977-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dairy product intake decreases bone resorption following a 12-week diet and exercise intervention in overweight and obese adolescent girls.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We examined whether increased dairy intake was associated with changes in the levels of bone-related biochemical markers in overweight/obese adolescent girls undergoing a 12-week diet and exercise intervention. METHODS:Thirty-five girls were assigned to a low dairy group (LDa; 0-2 servings/day; n = 16) or a...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Josse AR,Ludwa IA,Kouvelioti R,Calleja M,Falk B,Ward WE,Klentrou P

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Late health effects of childhood nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: nonmelanoma skin cancers, benign tumors, and hormonal disorders.

    abstract::Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (NRI) was widely used from 1940 through 1970 to treat otitis serosa in children and barotrauma in airmen and submariners. We assessed whether NRI-exposed individuals were at higher risk for benign tumors, nonmelanoma skin cancer, thyroid disorders, and conditions related to regulatory...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ronckers CM,Land CE,Hayes RB,Verduijn PG,Stovall M,van Leeuwen FE

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Retraction Note: Intra-amniotic LPS amplifies hyperoxia-induced airway hyperreactivity in neonatal rats.

    abstract::This paper has been retracted at the request of the authors. ...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,撤回出版物


    authors: Choi CW,Kim BI,Mason SN,Potts-Kant EN,Brahmajothi MV,Auten RL

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Campylobacter jejuni mediated disruption of polarized epithelial monolayers is cell-type specific, time dependent, and correlates with bacterial invasion.

    abstract::The precise mechanism by which the most common cause of bacterial enterocolitis in humans, Campylobacter jejuni, perturbs the intestinal mucosa remains elusive. To define effects of C. jejuni infection on mucosal permeability, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-I and T84 cell monolayers were infected with C. jejuni for ...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wine E,Chan VL,Sherman PM

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of dexamethasone treatment on serum GH, IGF-I, and the binding proteins IGFBP-1 and -3 in ventilated very preterm infants.

    abstract::Very preterm infants developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia frequently show a compromised growth in the neonatal period especially when steroids are given to facilitate weaning from the ventilator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of dexamethasone (DEXA) on the GH-IGF axis in ventilated very ...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Huysman MW,Hokken-Koelega AC,Hop WC,Sauer PJ

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Localization of arginine biosynthetic enzymes in renal proximal tubules and abundance of mRNA during development.

    abstract::Argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase catalyze the conversion of citrulline to arginine in kidney. Immunohistochemical staining of mouse kidney sections with antibodies to these two enzymes, compared with the staining patterns of known markers for proximal tubules, demonstrated that these enzymes ar...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morris SM Jr,Sweeney WE Jr,Kepka DM,O'Brien WE,Avner ED

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Epileptogenesis is increased in rats with neonatal isolation and early-life seizure and ameliorated by MK-801: a long-term MRI and histological study.

    abstract::Early-life stress has been shown to destabilize the homeostatic synaptic plasticity and compromise the developing brain to the later encountered insults. This study would determine the long-term epileptogenic effect of neonatal isolation (NI) on early-life seizure. There were five groups: normal rearing (NR) rats; NI ...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lai MC,Lui CC,Yang SN,Wang JY,Huang LT

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Tracheal banding in weanling rats diminishes lung growth and alters lung architecture.

    abstract::We banded the trachea of 4-wk-old male rats and studied lung growth, lung morphometry, and static pulmonary mechanics 4 wk later. We compared the experimental animals to sham-operated male littermates of the same age, 8-wk-old normal male littermates, and weight-matched rats of a younger age. Tracheal banded animals w...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kida K,Thurlbeck WM

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Surgery requiring general anesthesia in preterm infants is associated with altered brain volumes at term equivalent age and neurodevelopmental impairment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of the study was to describe and contrast the brain development and outcome among very preterm infants that were and were not exposed to surgery requiring general anesthesia prior to term equivalent age (TEA). METHODS:Preterm infants born ≤30 weeks' gestation who did (n = 25) and did not (n = 59) ha...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walsh BH,Paul RA,Inder TE,Shimony JS,Smyser CD,Rogers CE

    更新日期:2020-06-23 00:00:00

  • The effect of alpha-adrenergic blockade on the pulmonary vascular response to dopamine in neonatal lambs.

    abstract::The effect of alpha-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine on the pulmonary vascular response to dopamine was studied in chronically prepared newborn lambs. Dopamine was administered at doses of 2.7 micrograms . kg-1 . min-1, 27 micrograms . kg-1 . min-1 and 270 micrograms . kg-1 . min-1 with and without alpha-adrenergic...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams BJ,Drummond WH

    更新日期:1983-06-01 00:00:00

  • Role of caregiver-reported outcomes in identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure during the first year of life.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Earlier identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify neurobehavioral (NB) outcomes associated with PAE in infants. METHODS:This manuscript evaluates NB outcomes at 6.33±1.12 months of age in 93 infants (39 PAE and 54 No-PAE)...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bakhireva LN,Lowe J,Garrison LM,Cano S,Leyva Y,Qeadan F,Stephen JM

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical heterogeneity associated with the mitochondrial DNA T8993C point mutation.

    abstract::The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutation T8993G has been associated with maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (MILS) when very abundant (> 95%). MILS patients are usually severely affected and die in early infancy. In 1993, a novel T8993C point mutation was described in a juvenile form of Leigh syndrome (LS) charac...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santorelli FM,Mak SC,Vazquez-Memije ME,Shanske S,Kranz-Eble P,Jain KD,Bluestone DL,De Vivo DC,DiMauro S

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Regional activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase in rat brain.

    abstract::The sp act of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase has been measured in individual regions of adult rat brain to see if site-specific differences in enzyme activity can aid in the understanding of brain abnormalities observed in well-treated galactosemic patients. The sp act in the cerebellum, brain stem, and midbr...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rogers S,Heidenreich R,Mallee J,Segal S

    更新日期:1992-05-01 00:00:00

  • Autism spectrum disorders in extremely preterm infants and placental pathology findings: a matched case-control study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is 5-fold higher in preterm (PT) infants born ≤28 weeks gestational age (GA) as compared to the general population. The relationship between placental pathologic lesions and ASD in PT infants has not been studied. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was t...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mir IN,White SP,Steven Brown L,Heyne R,Rosenfeld CR,Chalak LF

    更新日期:2020-09-19 00:00:00

  • Improvement in asthma control and inflammation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Observational studies suggest that asthma control improves after adenotonsillectomy, but longitudinal studies that correlate the effect of the procedure on the levels of biomarkers associated with airway inflammation are limited. METHODS:We conducted a longitudinal, observational study on pediatric patients...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levin JC,Gagnon L,He X,Baum ED,Karas DE,Chupp GL

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Quality of reaching and postural control in young preterm infants is related to neuromotor outcome at 6 years.

    abstract::A substantial proportion of the "apparently normal" preterm infants exhibit minor and moderate dysfunctions in neuromotor outcome as they grow older. Birth characteristics, minor abnormalities on the neonatal ultrasound scan of the brain, and motor milestones have only limited value in the early detection of these chi...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fallang B,Øien I,Hellem E,Saugstad OD,Hadders-Algra M

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of hyperoxic exposure on antioxidant enzyme activities of alveolar type II cells in neonatal and adult rats.

    abstract::Neonatal animals of several species are more tolerant of hyperoxic exposure than are adults, but the mechanisms of increased neonatal tolerance are unknown, as are the cell types, if any, that contribute to oxygen resistance. We studied the effect of in vivo exposure to 85% oxygen for 72 h on the activities of the ant...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keeney SE,Cress SE,Brown SE,Bidani A

    更新日期:1992-05-01 00:00:00

  • Iron supplementation dose for perinatal iron deficiency differentially alters the neurochemistry of the frontal cortex and hippocampus in adult rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Long-term prefrontal cortex (PFC)- and hippocampus-based cognitive deficits are the sequelae of perinatal iron deficiency, despite iron supplementation starting in the newborn period. Whether high-dose iron supplementation prevents these deficits is yet to be determined. METHODS:Perinatal iron deficiency wa...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rao R,Tkac I,Unger EL,Ennis K,Hurst A,Schallert T,Connor J,Felt B,Georgieff MK

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Bile acid efflux from suckling rat hepatocytes.

    abstract::To further assess bile acid transport by the developing rat liver, we compared the rate of efflux of taurocholate from hepatocytes isolated from suckling and mature rat livers. Cell content of taurocholate (nmol/mg cell protein), after preloading with [14C]-radiolabeled plus cold bile acid (5-100 microM) was similar i...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belknap WM,Zimmer-Nechemias L,Suchy FJ,Balistreri WF

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • Glucosylsphingosine accumulation in mice and patients with type 2 Gaucher disease begins early in gestation.

    abstract::Gaucher disease, the most common of the sphingolipidoses, results from the inherited deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (EC Although type 2 (acute neuronopathic) Gaucher disease is associated with rapidly progressive and fatal neurologic deterioration, the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to the...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orvisky E,Sidransky E,McKinney CE,Lamarca ME,Samimi R,Krasnewich D,Martin BM,Ginns EI

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Appearance of sleep cycling after birth in term neonates: an electro-physiologic study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Appearance of sleep cycling has been associated with good outcome in term and preterm infants, but the normal time of its appearance has not been determined. The objectives of this study were, to correlate the time of sleep cycling appearance and the length of quiet sleep in neonates with different degrees o...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abramsky R,Stavsky M,Novack V,Shany E

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Delayed cortical gray matter development in neonates with severe congenital heart disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to assess cortical gray matter growth and maturation in neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS:Thirty-one (near) term neonates with severe CHD (8 univentricular heart malformation (UVH), 21 d-transposition of great arteries (d-TGA) and 2 aortic coarctation) underwent cerebral...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Claessens NH,Moeskops P,Buchmann A,Latal B,Knirsch W,Scheer I,Išgum I,de Vries LS,Benders MJ,von Rhein M

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Modelling outcomes after paediatric brain injury with admission laboratory values: a machine-learning approach.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality in children, but the accurate prediction of outcomes at the point of admission remains very challenging. Admission laboratory results are a promising potential source of prognostic data, but have not been widely explored in paediatric cohort...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kayhanian S,Young AMH,Mangla C,Jalloh I,Fernandes HM,Garnett MR,Hutchinson PJ,Agrawal S

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Acute kidney injury in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Kawasaki disease was well known for coronary artery abnormalities with few reports of incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). Our aim was to identify the rate of AKI in patients with Kawasaki disease and its associated factors. METHODS:All patients with Kawasaki disease admitted to a medical center from Feb...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chuang GT,Tsai IJ,Lin MT,Chang LY

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of use of 11,12-2H-labeled chenodeoxycholic acid in isotope dilution measurements of bile acid kinetics in man.

    abstract::Chenodeoxycholic acid labeled with 2H in the 11 and positions was prepared by catalytic reduction of delta 11-12 unsaturated derivatives of cholic acid. To validate the use of this stable isotope for the determination of bile acid kinetics by isotope dilution, it was administered to seven normal male volunteers simult...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Balistreri WF,Cowen AE,Hofmann AF,Szczepanik PA,Klein PD

    更新日期:1975-10-01 00:00:00

  • Human lactation. II: Endogenous fatty acid synthesis by the mammary gland.

    abstract::We studied the effects of a diet that was low in fat, high in carbohydrate (CHO) on milk lipid composition and de novo endogenous fatty acid synthesis by the mammary gland in five lactating women. The women consumed either a low fat (LF) (5% fat, 80% CHO) diet or a high fat (HF) (40% fat, 45% CHO) diet. Fat synthesis ...

    journal_title:Pediatric research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hachey DL,Silber GH,Wong WW,Garza C

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00