Total elimination of measles in Finland.


:On average, 15,000 cases of measles occurred annually in Finland before the initiation of a vaccination programme in 1975. Because of insufficient activity, the vaccination coverage failed to reach the required level of over 90%, and cases continued to occur. The policy was revolutionized in 1982 by launching a project in which the Schwarz strain was substituted by an attenuated Enders-Edmonston strain given as a component of a trivalent live-virus measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMRII). This vaccine is given twice, at the ages of 14-18 months and 6 years. The impact of the vaccinations has been monitored in several prospective studies. In addition to a very favourable safety profile, good immunogenicity and excellent clinical effectiveness have also been demonstrated. Since 1996 not a single case of measles has been found in Finland, although cases have been searched actively and serological confirmation has been required. Total interruption of virus circulation has brought a new problem: the possibility of vaccinees to acquire natural boosters is so rare that waning immunity has become a reality. As there is a continuous risk of measles originating from a foreign source, the only tool against an outbreak is to maintain a high vaccination coverage and to continue the two-dose schedule as a minimum policy.


Ann Med


Annals of medicine


Heinonen OP,Paunio M,Peltola H




Has Abstract


1998-04-01 00:00:00












  • Significant increases in urinary dolichol levels in bacterial infections, malignancies and pregnancy but not in other clinical conditions.

    abstract::The effect of different clinical conditions on urinary dolichols was studied in 219 hospital patients and in 24 pregnant women. Significantly increased urinary dolichol levels were found in patients with severe bacterial infections (mean +/- SEM, 37.5 +/- 8.0 micrograms/mmol creatinine, P less than 0.001), in patients...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roine R,Humaloja K,Hämäläinen J,Nykänen I,Ylikahri R,Salaspuro M

    更新日期:1989-02-01 00:00:00

  • HIF and oxygen sensing; as important to life as the air we breathe?

    abstract::Molecular oxygen (O2)is a basic requirement for cellular growth and viability and many aspects of anatomy and physiology are dedicated to achieving reliable distribution. Recent work has identified a specific sensing and response system, centred around a transcription complex called Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1),...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wiesener MS,Maxwell PH

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Admission hyperglycaemia as a predictor of mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 regardless of diabetes status: data from the Spanish SEMI-COVID-19 Registry.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hyperglycaemia has emerged as an important risk factor for death in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between blood glucose (BG) levels and in-hospital mortality in non-critically patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS:This is a retrospective mu...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carrasco-Sánchez FJ,López-Carmona MD,Martínez-Marcos FJ,Pérez-Belmonte LM,Hidalgo-Jiménez A,Buonaiuto V,Suárez Fernández C,Freire Castro SJ,Luordo D,Pesqueira Fontan PM,Blázquez Encinar JC,Magallanes Gamboa JO,de la Peña Fernánde

    更新日期:2021-12-01 00:00:00

  • Autoimmunity in schizophrenia: a review of recent findings.

    abstract::The pathophysiology of psychotic and other symptoms in schizophrenia remains a mystery despite decades of research. Even though it has been suspected for many years that autoimmune mechanisms may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, firm evidence for this hypothesis has been lacking. Our studies, over ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ganguli R,Brar JS,Chengappa KN,Yang ZW,Nimgaonkar VL,Rabin BS

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Vasomotor hot flushes and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive women: A placebo-controlled trial on post-menopausal hormone therapy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Blood pressure (BP) is one of the most powerful determinants of cardiovascular risk in women. This risk may differ between post-menopausal women with and without vasomotor hot flushes, possibly indicating different vascular responses to hormone therapy (HT). Thus, we compared in a clinical trial the effect o...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Tuomikoski P,Haapalahti P,Sarna S,Ylikorkala O,Mikkola TS

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • High risk of abnormal QT prolongation in the early morning in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with severe hypoglycemia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several studies have suggested that the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia during sleep may be more dangerous for cardiac arrhythmia than that in the day-time. METHODS:We performed a retrospective study between January 2006 and March 2012 to assess electrocardiograms during severe hypoglycemia in patients wi...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsujimoto T,Yamamoto-Honda R,Kajio H,Kishimoto M,Noto H,Hachiya R,Kimura A,Kakei M,Noda M

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Late Lyme borreliosis: epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical features.

    abstract::Lyme borreliosis is endemic in the Aland Islands. Exposure of the inhabitants to bites of the tick Ixodes ricinus is heavy. The purpose of this study was to describe symptoms and signs of patients with late Lyme borreliosis in this area, and to correlate the findings with the epidemiological setting. The first 100 con...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wahlberg P,Granlund H,Nyman D,Panelius J,Seppälä I

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Unravelling the health effects of fasting: a long road from obesity treatment to healthy life span increase and improved cognition.

    abstract::In recent years a revival of interest has emerged in the health benefits of intermittent fasting and long-term fasting, as well as of other related nutritional strategies. In addition to meal size and composition a new focus on time and frequency of meals has gained attention. The present review will investigate the e...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilhelmi de Toledo F,Grundler F,Sirtori CR,Ruscica M

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Intracoronary radiotherapy for prevention of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions.

    abstract::More than 50 different pharmacological and mechanical interventions have been tested to date for prevention of vascular restenosis without success. Intracoronary radiotherapy is the first one showing promise of significantly attenuating neointimal proliferation, causing positive vascular remodelling and thus inhibitin...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kaluza GL,Ali NM,Raizner AE

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sudden death as sole symptom of coronary arteritis.

    abstract::A 33-year old man suddenly dropped dead during a military march. He had complained of non-specific thoracoabdominal symptoms, pain and fatigue for a year before his death. Autopsy showed coronary polyarteritis nodosa of the left main coronary artery. This patient seems to be only the second case with isolated polyarte...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paul RA,Helle MJ,Tarssanen LT

    更新日期:1990-06-01 00:00:00

  • New diagnostic and treatment approaches in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    abstract::Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD is a chronic liver condition characterized by hepatic steatosis and associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In many patients fat accumulation leads to steatohepatitis (NASH) with chronic necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, and eventually to t...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ali R,Cusi K

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between the FRAX index and physical and cognitive functioning in older people.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the relationship between the FRAX index and the Barthel index/MiniMental State Examination in older people. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Observational descriptive study. Demographic data, comorbidity, dependency and cognitive state, and risk of osteoporotic fracture were collected. RESULTS:A total of 375 ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González Silva Y,Abad Manteca L,de la Red Gallego H,Álvarez Muñoz M,Rodríguez Carbajo M,Murcia Casado T,Ausín Pérez L,Abadía Otero J,Pérez-Castrillón JL

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Progression of venous pathology after pacemaker and cardioverter-defibrillator implantation: A prospective serial venographic study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Prospective data on development of venous obstruction after electrode implantation are limited. We performed a prospective study on 150 patients undergoing first pacemaker implantation. METHODS:Venographies at base-line and 6 months postimplantation in all patients, 50 patients included into a long...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Korkeila P,Ylitalo A,Koistinen J,Airaksinen KE

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Autoinflammatory diseases and cardiovascular manifestations.

    abstract::Abstract A host of clinical scenarios can be depicted in hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, and the cardiovascular system can also be involved especially in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), caused by mutations in the MEFV gene, and tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), caused by m...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rigante D,Cantarini L,Imazio M,Lucherini OM,Sacco E,Galeazzi M,Brizi MG,Brucato A

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Circadian regulation of cell cycle: Molecular connections between aging and the circadian clock.

    abstract::The circadian clock generates oscillations in physiology and behavior, known as circadian rhythms. Links between the circadian clock genes Periods, Bmal1, and Cryptochromes and aging and cancer are emerging. Circadian clock gene expression is changed in human pathologies, and transgenic mice with mutations in clock ge...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Khapre RV,Samsa WE,Kondratov RV

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Eating disorders: antecedents, evolution and course.

    abstract::Concepts of eating disorders have altered so that anorexia nervosa is now recognized as an important but uncommon syndrome within a spectrum of disordered eating. Behaviours used by dieters constitute the mild end of the eating disorder spectrum. Dieting in young women is for the most part a transient and benign activ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Patton GC

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Adoption studies of schizophrenia.

    abstract::The understanding and treatment of schizophrenia have been greatly hampered by uncertainty about etiological factors and controversy about diagnostic boundaries. Adoption studies have helped clarify both of these problems. First, the adoptees study method, the index offspring of adopting-away schizophrenic biological ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tienari PJ,Wynne LC

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Determinants of serum 25(OH)D concentration in young and middle-aged adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:We studied prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, its determinants, and whether achievement of recommended dietary vitamin D intake (10 μg/d) is associated with absence of hypovitaminosis D in adults. METHODS:The study is part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. We collected serum samples of 25-hyd...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Voipio AJ,Pahkala KA,Viikari JS,Mikkilä V,Magnussen CG,Hutri-Kähönen N,Kähönen M,Lehtimäki T,Männistö S,Loo BM,Jula A,Marniemi J,Juonala M,Raitakari OT

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Serotonin in early onset, male alcoholics with violent behaviour.

    abstract::Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormal brain serotonin metabolism may occur in early onset, type 2 alcoholism in men. Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid concentration has been found to be associated with a history of paternal alcoholism, and abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests (tendency to ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Virkkunen M,Linnoila M

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Carotid intima-media thickness and markers of inflammation, endothelial damage and hemostasis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Different soluble molecules involved in inflammation, endothelial damage, or hemostasis are recognized as potential cardiovascular risk markers. Studies to assess the role of these markers in the atherosclerotic process by evaluating their relationship to carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) tend to provid...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baldassarre D,De Jong A,Amato M,Werba JP,Castelnuovo S,Frigerio B,Veglia F,Tremoli E,Sirtori CR

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hypercoagulability, D-dimer and atrial fibrillation: an overview of biological and clinical evidence.

    abstract::Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common among the severe cardiac arrhythmias and carries a significant risk of mortality and morbidity in the general population. The most important complication is represented by development of one or more thrombi in the left atrium of the dyskinetic heart, and their successive cer...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Danese E,Montagnana M,Cervellin G,Lippi G

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hospital discharge register data in the assessment of trends in acute myocardial infarction. FINMONICA AMI Register Study Team.

    abstract::We evaluated the reliability hospital discharge register data in the assessment of acute myocardial infarction trends. In the FINMONICA study areas, trends in age standarized attack rates for the years 1983-90 were calculated independently from two sources: the nationwide Finnish hospital discharge register and the FI...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mähönen M,Miettinen H,Pyörälä K,Molarius A,Salomaa V,Kuulasmaa K

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary fats, antioxidants and blood pressure.

    abstract::Although obesity and alcohol intake as well as dietary sodium, potassium and magnesium are the major non-genetic determinants of blood pressure levels, interest has recently been stimulated in the function of fatty acids and antioxidants in the aetiology of hypertension. In the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Fact...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Salonen JT

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Both depression and the metabolic syndrome are frequently found among patients with type 1 diabetes, but their potential association has not yet been investigated. In this paper the relationship between depression and the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 1 diabetes was evaluated. METHODS:A total ...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahola AJ,Thorn LM,Saraheimo M,Forsblom C,Groop PH,Finndiane Study Group.

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Distribution of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist genotypes in sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI); unexplained SUDI have a higher frequency of allele 2.

    abstract:AIMS:This investigation was designed to explore the role of IL-1RN genotype in unexplained infant deaths (including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)), non-infectious infant deaths, and infectious infant deaths, and to investigate whether IL-1RN genotype is related to the finding of organisms in normally sterile site...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Highet AR,Berry AM,Goldwater PN

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Benchmarking Controlled Trial--a novel concept covering all observational effectiveness studies.

    abstract::The Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a novel concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess effectiveness. BCTs provide evidence of the comparative effectiveness between health service providers, and of effectiveness due to particular features of the health and social care systems. BCTs compleme...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malmivaara A

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropeptides and their receptors in the immune system.

    abstract::Neuropeptides and their receptors are produced and expressed by neuroendocrine tissues and function as neurotransmitters and/or mediators of well-defined hormonal activities in specific tissues and cells. However, neuropeptides and their receptors are also found in the immune system, and various neuropeptides are invo...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van Hagen PM,Hofland LJ,ten Bokum AM,Lichtenauer-Kaligis EG,Kwekkeboom DJ,Ferone D,Lamberts SW

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical and physical properties of regenerative medicine materials controlling stem cell fate.

    abstract::Regenerative medicine is a multidisciplinary field utilizing the potential of stem cells and the regenerative capability of the body to restore, maintain, or enhance tissue and organ functions. Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can self-renew but also differentiate into several somatic cells when subjected the a...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kaivosoja E,Barreto G,Levón K,Virtanen S,Ainola M,Konttinen YT

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study: general outline and recent developments.

    abstract::The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a collaborative effort of all university departments of paediatrics and several other institutions in Finland to study the risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) and their determinants in children and adolescents in different parts of the country. The main cross-se...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Akerblom HK,Viikari J,Raitakari OT,Uhari M

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Apoptosis in the beta cells: cause or consequence of insulin secretion defect in diabetes?

    abstract::Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are two interrelated defects in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Defects in peripheral insulin action precede the development of glucose intolerance, as the pancreas compensates for insulin resistance by increasing insulin production and secretion. This ma...

    journal_title:Annals of medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sesti G

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00