Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: the therapeutic challenge of a global epidemic.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and especially its inflammatory variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have become a major challenge to healthcare systems worldwide because of the increasing prevalence of its major risk factors obesity and type 2 diabetes, which are closely linked to overeating, physical inactivity, and the metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS:Between 10 and 20% of patients with NAFL develop NASH, which can progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The overall mortality in these patients is significantly increased because of both cardiovascular and liver-related complications. Sustained weight loss by diet and exercise, which is the most effective therapeutic measure, is only achieved by a minority of patients, having led to a great yet unmet need for medical therapies of NASH. SUMMARY:Pharmacological therapies should target the underlying pathophysiology that involves insulin resistance, enhanced peripheral lipolysis and release of free fatty acids, oxidative stress, accumulation of toxic lipids, adipose tissue inflammation, sensitization of hepatocytes toward apoptotic cell death, and fibrogenesis. However, pharmacological therapy that is well tolerated, cost-effective, and poses an acceptable risk-to-benefit ratio has still to be identified. This review summarizes the current and promising treatment options and their implications for future research and clinical practice.


Curr Opin Lipidol


Schattenberg JM,Schuppan D




Has Abstract


2011-12-01 00:00:00












  • Microbiota and HDL metabolism.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Accumulating evidence has provided new insights regarding potentially effective therapeutic options targeting modulation of HDL metabolism, resulting in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The gut microbiota has now been convincingly linked to host health, but its impact on host lipid metabolis...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nakaya K,Ikewaki K

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle lipid metabolism in the metabolic syndrome.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The metabolic syndrome has been emphasized as affecting an important subset of individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease leading the National Cholesterol Educational Program Adult Treatment Panel III in highlighting awareness of insulin-resistance syndrome. Insulin resistance is thought to b...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Perseghin G

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Hypoxia in atherosclerosis and inflammation.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Hypoxia triggers various cellular processes, both in physiological and pathological conditions, and has recently also been implicated in atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the presence and the role of hypoxia in atherosclerosis. Additionally, it will elucidate on hypoxic s...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Marsch E,Sluimer JC,Daemen MJ

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Blocking endothelial adhesion molecules: a potential therapeutic strategy to combat atherogenesis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review provides a concise update of the involvement of endothelial adhesion molecules in atherogenesis, an overview of current advances in the development of adhesion molecule blocking agents, as well as an insight into the potential of these molecules in cardiovascular therapy. RECENT FINDINGS:...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lutters BC,Leeuwenburgh MA,Appeldoorn CC,Molenaar TJ,Van Berkel TJ,Biessen EA

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Statin therapy in heart failure.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase inhibitors, or statins, have been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among a wide spectrum of patients with established atherosclerotic vascular disease. Mounting experimental and clinical evidence also suggest a potential benefit...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pham M,Oka RK,Giacomini JC

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • HDL modification: recent developments and their relevance to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In the last 2 years, significant advances in the understanding of HDL particle structure and the associations between particle structure, function, and atherosclerosis have been made. We will review and provide clinical and epidemiological context to these recent advances. RECENT FINDINGS:Several rec...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wilkins JT,Seckler HS

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Defects of lipoprotein metabolism in familial combined hyperlipidaemia.

    abstract::Familial combined hyperlipidaemia is the most common inherited hyperlipidaemia and is found in up to 10% of patients with premature myocardial infarction. The genetic and metabolic bases of the disorder have not yet been defined. This review discusses the important advances in the past year in our understanding of the...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Graaf J,Stalenhoef AF

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human cytokine synthesis.

    abstract::The cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and, potentially, to atherogenesis. The synthesis of these cytokines in humans can be suppressed by oral intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This mechanism may contribute to the beneficial effect of lon...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Endres S,von Schacky C

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Phenotype vs. genotype in severe familial hypercholesterolemia: what matters most for the clinician?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with a high lifetime risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, this risk is variable. This review evaluates recent evidence related to ASCVD risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia considering aspects of phenotype and geno...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Santos RD

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary fructose and dyslipidemia: new mechanisms involving apolipoprotein CIII.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Chronic consumption of fructose and fructose-containing sugars leads to dyslipidemia. Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII is strongly associated with elevated levels of triglycerides and cardiovascular disease risk. We reviewed the effects of fructose consumption on apoCIII levels and the role of apoCIII in fru...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hieronimus B,Stanhope KL

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • The challenges of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin-9 inhibitors for lipid guidelines and models of care.

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wierzbicki AS

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • The molecular basis of abetalipoproteinemia.

    abstract::Abetalipoproteinemia is a recessive genetic disease in humans characterized by the virtual absence of apolipoprotein (apo)B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a resident lipid transfer protein within the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes and enterocytes, has ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gregg RE,Wetterau JR

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • The use of fibrates and of statins in preventing atherosclerosis in diabetes.

    abstract::Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the most common complication of diabetes. Recent guidelines in the USA have underlined the importance of treating lipid abnormalities in people with diabetes in order to reduce the risk of this complication. Should lifestyle approaches not be sufficient drugs will need to be a...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Steiner G

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Early initiation of statin treatment in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This article provides recent insights on the early onset of atherosclerosis in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and reports on novel treatment options as well as on the consequences of long-term statin use in childhood. RECENT FINDINGS:Children with familial hypercholesterolemia have greate...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Braamskamp MJ,Hutten BA,Wiegman A

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • RNA interference to target lipid disorders.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review focuses on proof-of-principle experiments providing validation of new targets for the development of RNA interference-based therapeutics for dyslipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS:Over the past few years, RNA interference has become an accepted approach to manipulate gene expression in mammalian s...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rondinone CM

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding coronary heart disease as a consequence of defective regulation of apolipoprotein B metabolism.

    abstract::Further understanding of the causative link between plasma lipids and coronary heart disease will come from a deeper appreciation of the impact of lipoprotein heterogeneity on the processes of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. It is now widely appreciated that remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, IDL and specific...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Packard CJ

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetic dyslipidaemia and coronary heart disease: new perspectives.

    abstract::Atherosclerotic macrovascular disease is the leading cause of both morbidity and mortality in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Endothelial dysfunction is a key, early and potentially reversible event in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Its occurrence in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is well supported...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Evans M,Khan N,Rees A

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Metabolomics is emerging as a powerful tool for studying metabolic processes and in recent years, the applications in the area of nutrition have risen rapidly. The present review gives an overview of the current applications in the field of nutrition and identifies areas in need of advancement. RECEN...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gibbons H,O'Gorman A,Brennan L

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular disease: do fibrates have a role?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Fibrates continue to be a viable treatment option for mixed atherogenic dyslipidemia, and recent reports from clinical studies have shed new light on the therapeutic utility of fibrates for the prevention of microvascular and macrovascular disease, especially in combination with statins. RECENT FINDI...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Saha SA,Arora RR

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cytochrome P450-dependent eicosanoid production and crosstalk.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review highlights recent advances in eicosanoid biology, especially linked to the cytochrome P450 (CYP)/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) axis in vascular biology and disease. RECENT FINDINGS:Since the first reports that CYP-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid can elicit vascular smooth muscle...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fleming I

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Recent insights into factors affecting remnant lipoprotein uptake.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Remnant lipoproteins that persist in the bloodstream after each meal have become increasingly important contributors to atherosclerotic vascular disease, owing to the spread of overnutrition, underexertion, obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we review recent work that clarified lo...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Williams KJ,Chen K

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • The menopause and lipid metabolism: strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention.

    abstract::The menopause and its biology are as yet still incompletely understood. Very little is known about biological and molecular changes in cardiovascular target tissues and organs after menopause. Experimental and clinical evidence indicate that prevention of cardiovascular disease by estrogens is aimed both at the correc...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Soma MR,Baetta R,Crosignani P

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Lipid lowering in diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose of this review is to present recent information on lipid lowering in diabetes mellitus. New information from randomized clinical trials will be discussed together with implications for clinical practice. Residual risk persists despite statin therapy and additional approaches, particularly ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Betteridge DJ

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Response of low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to dietary change: contributions of different mechanisms.

    abstract::In many individuals, LDL-cholesterol levels rise following increased consumption of dietary cholesterol or saturated and trans-monounsaturated fatty acids. In others, a reduction of cholesterogenesis fully compensates for these effects. In responding individuals, much of the increase in LDL-cholesterol observed may re...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fielding CJ

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • How does protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum affect lipid metabolism in the liver?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) maintains cellular metabolic homeostasis by coordinating protein synthesis, secretion activities, lipid biosynthesis and calcium (Ca²⁺) storage. In this review, we will discuss how altered ER homeostasis contributes to dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and contri...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang S,Kaufman RJ

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Letting lipids go: hormone-sensitive lipase.

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Haemmerle G,Zimmermann R,Zechner R

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • n-3 Fatty acid supplementation and proresolving mediators of inflammation.

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barden AE,Mas E,Mori TA

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cariou B,Si-Tayeb K,Le May C

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dubé JB,Boffa MB,Hegele RA,Koschinsky ML

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Michalik L,Desvergne B,Wahli W

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00